Hip roofs have a very attractive appearance; a rather complex rafter system is used during their construction, but this does not stop fans of such an architectural appearance. The living space under the roof is located under the long slopes of the hip roof and has a relatively small volume, which they try to increase in various ways. We will tell you about different types of roofs of this type, roofing materials and additional elements, as well as consider classic design solutions and types of rafter systems.
Any roof has its advantages and disadvantages, this statement fully applies to the hip or half-hip type of roofing structure. Even in a simplified version, the rafter system of the hip roof is difficult to calculate and install, and in the presence of an attic room and a multi-gable structure, only qualified performers can design and erect it. In addition, the height of the residential under-roof space according to SNiP should be at least 2.2 m, which requires an increase in the total height of the roof, and therefore, the lengthening of its load-bearing elements. At the same time, any complication of the structure should ensure both the observance of aesthetic proportions and the provision of the maximum possible living space.
Even with a high roof with a living under-roof space, hip slopes protect the structure well from gusty winds
The classic roof consists of two triangular hips and two trapezoidal slopes and has the following positive qualities:
The complexity and high cost of the rafter system is one of the main disadvantages of a hip roof
This design also has certain disadvantages, which include:
Despite the indicated disadvantages, the hip type roofs have many fans, so we will tell you in detail about the structure of the rafter system and options for its construction.
The classic hip roof is a symmetrical structure with a ridge girder, on which the side rafters are supported, forming trapezoidal slopes. Triangular rafters are formed by diagonal rafters that are attached to the corners of the building and to the ridge girder. To strengthen the rafter legs, auxiliary elements are used.
The classic version of the hip roof has two identical triangular and trapezoidal slopes
The location of the main and auxiliary elements of the rafter group determines the shape of the supporting frame and the appearance of the roof. The connecting link between the wall of the house and the rafters is the Mauerlat, fixed with steel pins to the upper ends of the walls of the house and representing a wooden bar with a section of 150X150 mm or more. The lower part of the side and diagonal rafters, as well as the rafters, is attached to this bar. Diagonal rafters are reinforced with struts in the area of greatest load, and in the lower part they are fastened with trusses.
Hip roof rafters are subject to high loads, therefore auxiliary elements are used to strengthen them, such as rafters, trusses and struts
In the upper part, the side rafters are connected to each other and to the ridge girder. The support for the ridge bar is the racks that are attached to the bed (the beam connecting the midpoints of the short sides of the Mauerlat). When organizing the habitable space, the rafter structure is complicated and strengthened by additional elements (posts and crossbars), which increase the rigidity and serve as a frame for the walls and ceiling of the attic room.
The construction of the roof completes the installation of the roofing cake. A waterproofing film is laid on the rafters, then the counter-lattice and crate are mounted. A cornice overhang is formed and the roofing is being installed, and insulation and vapor barrier works are carried out along the boundaries of the attic.
The proportions of the height of the roof to the dimensions of the house are regulated by SNiP 31-02 and STO NOSTROY 2.13.81-2012, but the designer can make amendments related to the atmospheric load in a specific construction area, as well as a number of changes that are determined by the dimensions of the building and the presence of living space under the hip roof. It should be noted that the wishes of the customer make a significant adjustment to the configuration of the hip roof, therefore the choice of the height of the ridge should combine the maximum height of the living space with the possibility of using slopes with the required angle of inclination without compromising the strength of the building structure..
The choice of the angle of inclination of the slopes is a reasonable compromise between the height of the attic room and the resistance of the roof structure to wind and snow loads.
The desire to maximize the volume of the attic space is constrained by certain factors that must be taken into account when designing a roof:
Violation of the proportions and distribution of the load on the roof can lead to the destruction of the building
The basic principle of the golden ratio is to divide the structure into parts in a ratio of 61.8% to 38.2%
The choice of design depends on the preferences of the owner and is not regulated by the rules, but it should be understood that the calculation of the strength of the resulting truss system project must be made taking into account local climatic conditions and the weight of the roof.
The main task of the rafter system is to correctly distribute the variable and constant load on the building frame. The expanding effect on the walls of the house should be minimized; for this, a Mauerlat, puffs, racks and struts are used. The vertical load is carried by the support posts and the ridge girder resting on them. Sometimes there may be situations where you need to do without these basic connecting elements.
The top crown of a house built of timber or logs can replace the Mauerlat. In this case, it is securely fastened with hairpins to the two previous crowns of the walls of the building. This design works if the width of the house does not exceed six meters, the hip roof is uninhabited, and the ridge height is no more than 3 m.
In houses built of timber or logs, the last wall crown plays the role of Mauerlat.
A construction in which the rafters rest on puffs, and they, in turn, lie on the walls of the building, makes it possible to do without a Mauerlat. In this case, the puffs through a moisture-proof gasket are laid on the walls of the house with additional stiffening ribs in the form of crossbars, struts and headstocks.
On a hip roof, in order to save living space, support racks are sometimes dispensed with. In this case, the connection of the rafters to each other is used with a support on a ridge run from above and on a tightening at the bottom. With this design, it is necessary to use crossbars and side posts, which, together with the slopes, will define the contour of the living space.
A system without support legs does not have sufficient strength, so the step of the rafters has to be made small
It should be noted that support racks can be dispensed with when the building is no more than 6 meters wide, since the strength of such a truss is not too high and a decrease in the pitch of the rafters is required, which leads to an increase in the weight of the roof.
Hip-type roofs have become very popular in modern suburban construction, even though it is rather difficult to place a large living space in the under-roof space. This is prevented by the slopes that limit the volume of the attic and narrow the usable living space. In order to eliminate these shortcomings, designers use various architectural solutions - tongs, ledges, bay windows and half-hip structures, which allow expanding the under-roof space and achieve more efficient lighting of the attic space.
The part of the building protruding beyond the plane of the facade is called a bay window or projection. Such an architectural element is designed to improve lighting and increase the volume of living space.
The bay window serves to increase the internal space of the building and is often part of the overall architectural solution of the building frame.
Bay windows can be rectangular or multifaceted with a roof that cuts into the hip rafter system and becomes an integral part of it. A bay window is used as part of a living room or hallway, and in some cases as a structural element for staircases.
The canopy at the entrance to the building is in the form of a gable gable, which is connected to the hip roof. The angle of inclination of the slopes of the visor, as a rule, differs from the slope of the hips themselves. This design is usually used in a non-residential attic.
A gable is cut into the hip roof in the form of a visor over the entrance or canopy
"Cuckoo" is designed to illuminate the under-roof living space, and also serves to decorate the roof, located above the entrance or symmetrically on the sides of the building. This element is structurally a plier with a lowered ridge part.
The presence of a "cuckoo" allows you to use ordinary vertical windows for additional lighting of the attic space
In buildings with a width of more than 10 m, the offset internal load-bearing wall modifies the structure of the rafter group. The redistribution of the load on an asymmetrically located support determines the use of struts located at different angles to the rafters. The support run is also shifted from the ridge area to one of the rafter beams, while the second rafter is fixed with an additional scramble. Sometimes, with a displaced retaining wall, a different slope of trapezoidal slopes and a non-isosceles hip shape are used.
The load-bearing wall shifted from the center line of the building modifies the structure of the rafter system so that the support girder moves under one of the rafter joists
Danish is a semi-hinged roof with four trapezoidal slopes and triangular vertical walls into which windows are installed. To increase the illumination of the attic room, special pitched window blocks are inserted into the trapezoidal part of the roof.
In the vertical part of the semi-hinged Danish roof, windows are placed to illuminate the under-roof space
To increase the living space and give the building an individual look, projections and bay windows can be used, while the resulting long eaves overhang between them will serve as a canopy for entering the house.
A hip roof with a gable ledge and a half-window provides a unique and unrepeatable appearance of the house, and also protects its walls due to increased eaves
The roof over the ledge is a gable structure that complicates the trapezoidal slope. Large eaves and gable overhangs protect the walls of the building from precipitation.
The mixture of hip, multi-gable and multi-level roof styles gives the building beauty and personality, but the use of asymmetric elements complicates and makes the rafter system heavier. This circumstance must be taken into account when designing, since the load on the walls and foundation may be too large. You should also pay attention to the ventilation of the roof space and the quality of insulation of the attic room.
A complex hip roof includes multi-gabled multilevel elements and has a bulky rafter system design, the design and manufacture of which can only be done by professionals
In a number of areas with increased wind load, hip roofs with different slope angles are used. An asymmetrically located canopy gives the building a harmonious appearance and reliably protects it from overturning, frontal and tearing loads from the prevailing winds. This design is used in an uninhabited attic space.
The complex configuration of a building with an outbuilding, a ledge and an offset hip roof implies the presence of diagonal rafters of different sizes, since the ramps differ in length and shape. In addition, the roof of different parts of the building, subordinate to a single hip ensemble, has different slope angles, which affects the structure of the rafter group. Such a roof device is used for non-residential under-roof space.
The complex configuration of the building implies different sizes of diagonal rafters and different angles of inclination of the roof slopes
Hip roofs with large overhangs are designed to protect the walls and foundation of the building from heavy rainfall or oblique rain with the wind. The length of the eaves overhang in this case reaches 1 m, and sometimes even more with an increase in the number of storeys of the house. It must be borne in mind that a large overhang requires additional efforts to strengthen the eaves in order to avoid deformation of the lower part of the rafters.
Large overhangs are used to protect the walls and foundations of the building from slanting rain in high winds
Dutch semi-hip roofs are widely recognized for the largest usable living space on the attic floor. Triangular hips protect the vertical trapezoidal gables from precipitation. The visible weight of the truss structure is compensated by the vertical gables and does not exert excessive expanding pressure on the walls of the building.
The Dutch or Scandinavian roof consists of trapezoidal slopes and triangular half-hips and allows you to get the largest attic space
Manufacturers offer a wide range of roofing materials in various sizes and properties. A distinctive feature of modern coatings is durability: the service life of a high-quality roof is from 20 to 50 years, subject to the installation rules. By composition and physical properties, roofing materials are divided into the following types:
The consumption of any roofing material depends on the dimensions of the roof and is calculated individually, taking into account the useful area of the coating and the features of its cutting. One of the ways to calculate the material is to apply its elements to the drawing of the roof sweep in real scale and calculate the size and area of all the required parts.
Calculation of roofing material for a hip roof can be made according to its finished drawing, taking into account the configuration and geometric dimensions of each slope
In modern roofs, natural glazed tiles are used, fired at high temperatures, as well as sand-cement and polymer-sand tiles with a protective coating. In addition, there are soft bituminous coatings stylized as tiles and with high mechanical resistance.
Natural tile is a covering of small piece elements, stacked on top of each other with a certain overlap, which avoids large waste of roofing material, even on very complex roofs
The sizes of the elements are different, but for 1 m2 usually from 9 to 14 pieces of ordinary tiles are consumed, taking into account overlaps with a weight of one element from 3.85 kg. The weight of soft tiles does not exceed 4 kg / m2 with shingle dimensions 0.4X1.06 m.
The popularity of metal roofing is due to the simplicity and speed of installation, low cost, as well as strength and long service life. The disadvantages of this type of coating include low sound insulation and the formation of condensation on the inner surface during the cold season. To protect the rafter system and drain excess water, special waterproofing membranes are used, which are placed on the rafters and attached to the eaves droppers to drain moisture into the roof drainage system.
The use of painted corrugated board and metal tiles on hip roofs provides a presentable appearance and durability, but requires correct accounting of material waste generated when covering the upper parts of triangular slopes
When calculating the material, it is necessary to take into account the overlaps and determine the consumption by the usable area of the roofing. For example, the dimensions of a sheet of metal tile are 1180 mm in width and from 480 to 3630 mm in length. Including overlaps, the useful width is 1100 mm, with a vertical overlap of 130 mm. Metal sheet roofing will generate a fairly high percentage of waste on triangular slopes.
Condensation practically does not form on roofing materials based on bituminous tiles, but for their installation, a continuous lathing is required. Such a coating lasts from 20 to 40 years, does not need repair and has excellent sound-absorbing properties. Flexible shingles are lightweight, easy to install and highly resistant to mechanical stress.
Flexible roofing materials are not afraid of temperature changes and have a long service life, while waste when used on roofs of any shape will be minimal
The final stage of the hip roof installation is the installation of additional elements designed to protect the joints of the planes, cornice and gable overhangs, as well as the outlets of chimneys, ventilation pipes and aerators from precipitation and wind. There are additional elements that perform the functions of snow retention, and are also used as ladders and stairs for servicing the roofing space.
Ridge, pediment and cornice joints of the hip roof are closed with appropriate additional elements
Ridge strips are sometimes equipped with aerator pipes that provide ventilation of the under-roof space, and abutment strips are used to waterproof the exhaust pipes. Caps for ridge strips protect the roofing cake from excessive moisture penetration, and all overhangs are equipped with end strips, drip plates and wind strips. A flat sheet is used in places of complicated abutment as an additional element.
For each type of roofing, manufacturers offer certain additional elements, the conditions for their use must be checked with the product supplier.
A building with a complex rafter structure cannot be imagined without professional design using software, which nevertheless needs to be checked in place and adjusted to the joining planes. This is due to the imperfect geometry of a particular building, therefore, the sawing and templating section must be located next to the place where the truss structures are installed.
The project of the hip roof includes the structure of the rafter system, as well as the method, procedure for installation and joining of all elements
Professional design does not replace the adjustment of the design data to specific conditions, since complex hip roofs often require additional fasteners that are not provided for in the design calculations. We bring to your attention a number of ready-made hip roof projects that will serve as the basis for creating your own look for your home.
The variety of options for using hip roofs opens up wide opportunities for creating your own living space within the framework of an already built house, while it is important to make a reasonable choice in favor of the most successful solution from an aesthetic and constructive point of view.
The presence of a building with a hip roof on the site presupposes the construction of objects of the same type with a roof of a similar style. Detached outbuildings, baths and gazebos must obey the general appearance of buildings in the selected zone.
The rafter system for the gazebo is built according to the same principles as the roof frame of the main building
Hip roofs are becoming more and more popular, in connection with which we examined their advantages and disadvantages, a classic example of a rafter system and a variety of structures that can be used for different building configurations. Additional elements, the device of eaves and gable overhangs are an important element of the arrangement of hip roofs. Designing a gazebo with a hip roof emphasizes the overall architectural ensemble and is the final touch to creating a holistic picture of the development of a suburban area.
She is one of the types hipped roof... The top view of the house with her looks like a closed envelope. Experts called two slopes of an insignificant area having a triangle format “hip”. The shape of the other pair of rays is a trapezoid. Their size is larger.
The hip roof is formed by the following nodes (diagram):
Skate serves as the top of the roof. This is the line formed by the rafter tandems at the site of their fastening. The specificity of the ridge is that it loses in length to the overlapping structure.
Hips. These are triangular slopes. They are positioned above the end walls and are used in place of the gable. They are made up of diagonal and intermediate rafters (DS and PS).
Stingrays. Their shape is a trapezoid. Their beginning is obtained from the ridge, and the end is in the overhang.
Ribs. These are the corners obtained in the areas where the hips and slopes are bonded. The number of hips is equal to the number of DS. Their total number is 4.
Drainage network. Its components are funnels, pipes and gutters. It allows you to drain unnecessary liquid from the surface of such a roof into the sewer.
Currently, there are many forms and types of roofing structures, which very often not only determine the design of the building, but also provide additional functionality.
Thanks to the presence of a roof, the inhabitants of the house will not only be protected from precipitation, but will also receive a significant increase in usable living space.
Roofs are classified according to various parameters, the first of which is the angle of inclination of the slopes. Let's take a look at the main types of house roofs that are used in construction.
This type of roof is the simplest, moreover, it does not require large cash investments. Its name speaks of the shape of such a roof - it is a flat, almost non-sloping roof, which rests on walls of the same height.
A flat roof should have a slope angle of about 2.5-3% to the horizon. The big disadvantage of such a roof is that, due to a slight slope, precipitation begins to accumulate on its surface, which can lead to the formation of roof leaks, therefore it is necessary to manually remove snow from this type of roof.
In the construction of private houses, such a roof structure is practically not used, but in the construction of outbuildings, garages and multi-storey buildings it is used very often.
Having the same architectural basis, the area of the pitched roof will always be larger than that of a flat roof, so a flat roof will help to significantly save on materials. It is more convenient to lay a flat roof, since it is much easier to install a roofing cake that is directly under your feet than to be at a high altitude in an unsafe position. At the same time, neither the maintenance of the flat roof, nor the cleaning of the funnels, nor any other preventive inspections will cause particular difficulty, but control on the flooring, ventilation ducts, antennas and other technical devices will be a common procedure, and not a mountaineering activity.
In addition, the construction of a flat roof will help to obtain additional space without increasing the contour of the structure, since this type of roof can, if desired, be easily turned into a walking area, garden or terrace. For example, in large European cities, the idea of operating a flat roof is in great demand, since there an environmental problem is becoming more and more urgent. For this reason, the placement of fragments of lawns, front gardens and roof parks is becoming increasingly popular.
In order for a flat roof to be reliable protection for the inhabitants of the house, it is necessary to correctly install it, using modern durable materials.
A flat roof has a supporting base, which can be a reinforced concrete slab or a metal profiled sheet. Then a vapor barrier, heat-insulating material and a waterproofing layer are laid on this base in layers.
In order for the entire structure not to suffer in the future, it must be remembered that each layer is very important. In order to competently carry out work on the installation of a flat roof, it is necessary to use an integrated approach, which consists in determining and then implementing the most optimal solution, as well as the type of coating, taking into account all the operational and technological properties: decorative qualities, ease of repair and maintenance, labor intensity arrangement, fire resistance and water resistance.
This type of roof is most often used in the construction of private houses and summer cottages.
The pitched roof is called so because its surface consists of slopes, that is, inclined roof surfaces whose slope exceeds 10%. Structurally, such roofs can be both attic (combined) and attic (separate). In the attic roof, between the attic floor and the roof, there is a non-residential space called the attic. In the roofless roof, load-bearing elements serve as overlappings for the upper floor of the building.
This type of roof includes the structural part or the supporting frame of the roof, which takes on the load from the roof itself and precipitation, and the roof itself, which is protection from any external influences. Due to the presence of a slope, which is most often expressed as a percentage or degree, any precipitation is removed from the roof.
To determine the required roof slope, various factors must be considered:
Although for a long time a flat roof in a private house was practically not used, recently the attitude towards it has changed dramatically. First of all, this is due to the growing popularity of modern architectural trends - minimalism, modern and especially high-tech, for which a flat roof is a very characteristic element. Another reason is the emergence of new high-quality roofing materials that can provide reliable heat and waterproofing of the roof. A flat roof looks quite impressive and attractive, but it also has other advantages:
A flat roof with a lawn on it
A rest area can be placed on a flat roof
Smooth surface simplifies maintenance of both the roof itself and everything that is installed on it
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We design and build houses so that they serve for a long time, without additional time and effort spent on their maintenance. All load-bearing structures of the house - the foundation, load-bearing walls, ceilings and roofs - are reliably calculated and will last for at least 50 years.
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Any building structures of our houses are not harmful to health.
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Our homes are quiet, as we pay special attention to the issue of sound insulation both at the design and construction stages. We understand that this is one of the most important factors in a comfortable stay at home. Roofs, exterior walls, windows and doors, interior walls, ceilings and partitions are designed to minimize noise from outside and inside the house.
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We reliably design all engineering networks, and also think in detail about the convenience of their further operation and repair.
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These are detailed schemes for the production of work, gradually revealing the production technology and permissible deviations from the standards.
The standard of acceptance, warehousing and storage of materials.
A document regulating the acceptance, warehousing and storage of materials, which makes it possible to exclude the use of low-quality material during the construction of a house
It is named after the French architect Francois Mansart. An attic is called a roof, the space under which is used for living quarters. Most often it is equipped under the gable top of the house. The space of the attic can be increased by using broken structures.
In modern housing construction, the arrangement of an attic space for a residential area is widely and eagerly used by architects and designers. A mansard roof is a beautiful and functional idea for a one-story private house. And at the end of the review - a few photos, which capture the beautiful roofs of one-story houses.
People are wary of such structures, believing that they contribute to the accumulation of snow and water, and this is a direct threat to the house. In fact, the concept of a flat roof is more conditional, since it is built with a slight but sufficient slope.
House with a split-level garden
A pitched roof perfectly copes with its direct responsibilities: protection of premises from atmospheric precipitation and thermal insulation of housing. In addition, it has the following advantages:
Optimization of construction. Compared to the pitched design, the flat version is smaller in area and easier to erect. This means that the consumption of materials and installation time is also significantly reduced. During operation, maintenance and repairs will cost less.
Project with a balcony and loft-style terraces
House in the style of minimalism Source pinimg.com
Recreation area with a beautiful view
Every roof structure has drawbacks and a need for maintenance, and single-pitched models also have them. When choosing a house in a modern style with a flat roof, you should consider the following disadvantages:
Project with terraces above the garage and on the 2nd floor Source yandex.net
Drain funnel for drainage of sediments Source ogodom.ru