Tips for growing and caring for Brussels sprouts

Brussels sprouts are a world-wide variety of white cabbage. It was bred by selection by Belgian gardeners a long time ago, at the end of the 17th century. It was in honor of its creators that the culture got its name. Its parent naturally grows in the Mediterranean, that is, in a subtropical climate. From him, Brussels sprouts inherited thermophilicity, so they are not very popular in Eastern Europe and Russia. Nevertheless, it is quite possible to get a crop even in temperate climates if you first familiarize yourself with the recommendations for caring for the crop.

Overview of Brussels Sprouts

Brussels sprouts look very unusual. Thick straight stems about 0.5-1 m high are densely covered with small, no more than 3-4 cm in diameter, heads of cabbage, similar to white cabbage in miniature. They are comparable in size to walnuts. On one plant they can be from 30-50 to 100-120 pieces. These heads of cabbage form in the axils of narrow leaves with long petioles. In most varieties, they are colored green with a bluish-lilac tint, the surface is bubbly. At the top of the stem, the leaves form a small rosette that persists even during fruiting. Heads of cabbage, depending on the variety, can be either very dense or rather loose.

Brussels sprouts look quite unusual, from a distance the plant resembles a miniature palm tree

Of all the cabbage varieties, Brussels sprouts have the longest growing season. The formation of heads of cabbage takes at least four months, and on average - 150-180 days. During all this time, it should be warm enough - 20-24 ° C. That is why, in the European part of Russia and in other regions with a temperate climate, culture has not become widespread among amateur gardeners. The harvest simply does not have time to ripen in the conditions of a short and not always warm summer.

Brussels sprouts - a plant with a long growing season

In the Urals and Siberia, the culture is grown exclusively by seedlings, transferring it to the garden bed no earlier than mid-May. Seeds are planted at least two months before. In the Moscow region and in the European part of the territory of Russia, it is advisable to choose early or mid-early varieties and hybrids for planting. Then even if the seeds are planted in the ground in the first half of May, the harvest can be harvested somewhere in the middle of October. And in the southern regions it is already warm enough in April.

Brussels sprouts have large leaves with long stalks

At the same time, the thermophilic Mediterranean culture is quite frost-resistant. The same cannot be said about the seedlings just planted in the ground, but adult plants are able to withstand a short-term temperature drop down to -8 ° C.

The root system of Brussels sprouts is quite powerful. Therefore, it suffers less than other varieties from heat and poor watering.

Heads of cabbage from Brussels sprouts can be both dense and quite loose

Brussels sprouts among relatives are the champion in the content of vitamins and microelements. It is also rich in amino acids (practically not inferior in this indicator to meat and dairy products) and proteins (there are only slightly less of them than in legumes). It is almost indispensable for those who adhere to vegetarian dietary principles.

Heads of cabbage are extremely healthy. The high content of iodine, potassium, phosphorus, iron determines the benefits of Brussels sprouts to increase immunity and restore it after a serious illness or surgery. Also, its regular use is an effective prevention of diseases of the heart, blood vessels, and the thyroid gland. Heads of cabbage acquire a characteristic bitter aftertaste due to the presence of glucosinolates. It is scientifically proven that they prevent the development of malignant tumors.

Brussels sprouts are not only healthy, but also very tasty

The benefits of Brussels sprouts are fully preserved when frozen. The taste does not suffer either. Another way to preserve the harvest for a long time is drying.

There are also contraindications. Brussels sprouts are not recommended to be included in the diet for those who suffer from joint diseases, in the presence of kidney or gall bladder stones, as well as in exacerbation of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Breeders have developed varieties of Brussels sprouts with red leaves, such an unusual shade is due to the high content of anthocyanins

Like any variety of cabbage, it is a plant with a two-year development cycle. If you leave it in the garden for the winter, next year, large pod-like fruits with many black seeds inside will form in place of the heads of cabbage. They can be collected and used for future planting. They retain germination for a long time, for five years.

In place of the heads of Brussels sprouts, if they are not cut, fruits and seeds are formed the next year

Video: health benefits of Brussels sprouts

Growing seedlings and planting them in the ground

Gardeners who cultivate Brussels sprouts in Russia, in the vast majority of cases, grow it in seedlings so as not to risk the future harvest. Seeds are sown in the first half of March.

Pre-planting seed preparation is mandatory. First of all, they are placed in a thermos filled with hot (45–50 ° C) water for half an hour, then they are literally poured with cold water for a minute or two. Rejection is carried out at the same time. Seeds that float to the surface can be discarded immediately. They will definitely not germinate.

For seeds of Brussels sprouts, it does not matter if they are harvested independently or purchased, pre-planting preparation is required

Then the seeds are soaked for half a day in a solution of any biostimulant. Suitable as a drug bought in a store (Epin, Zircon, potassium humate), and folk remedies (aloe juice, succinic acid, honey diluted with water). After that, they are washed and kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours, in a special box for storing vegetables and fruits.

The final stage is etching for 15–20 minutes in a solution of any biofungicide (Ridomil-Gold, Baylon, Topaz). You can replace it with raspberry potassium permanganate solution. This is necessary for the prevention of fungal diseases, to which any type of cabbage is very susceptible. After that, the seeds are washed again, dried to a state of flowability and they can be planted.

Seedlings of Brussels sprouts give quick enough, but the whole process of growing seedlings takes at least two months

Seedlings of Brussels sprouts are grown according to the following algorithm:

  1. The culture departs from any transplant and picking for a long time and hard, so the seeds are sown immediately in small diameter peat pots. The containers are filled with a mixture of fertile sod land or humus, peat crumbs and coarse sand, taking approximately equal parts of all the ingredients. Per liter of the finished mixture add 3-5 g of phosphorus and potash fertilizers and a tablespoon of sifted wood ash or crushed chalk. The soil must be sterilized. About half an hour before planting, the substrate is well spilled with water.
  2. 2-3 seeds are sown in each container, deepening them by a maximum of 1-1.5 cm. Then glass is placed on top or a film is stretched to create a greenhouse effect and the pots are transferred to a dark place where they must be kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C until they appear. seedlings. This usually happens quite quickly, after 4–5 days.
  3. For proper development, seedlings need a day of light lasting at least 12 hours (even 14-16 hours is better) and a relatively low temperature. At night it should be 8-10 ° C, during the day - 14-16 ° C. It is quite difficult to create such conditions in an apartment without prejudice to its inhabitants, therefore it is advisable to take the seedlings out to a glazed loggia at night, and during the day to keep them on the windowsill, often ventilating the room. Additional lighting is required. For this, special phytolamps, LED lamps and even ordinary fluorescent lamps are suitable. They are placed 25-30 cm above the pots at a slight angle.
  4. The substrate is kept moderately moist at all times. It is very important not to overdo it with watering in order to avoid the development of black leg. The first time Brussels sprouts are watered two weeks after planting the seeds, then every 2-3 days. When the seedlings form 2-3 true leaves, they are fed. The nutrient solution is prepared by diluting 4-5 g of simple superphosphate, 2-3 g of carbamide and 1-2 g of potassium sulfate in a liter of water. You can also use complex fertilizers for cabbage seedlings (Rostock, Agricola, Orton, OMU). The procedure is repeated after another 12-15 days. Each time, about half an hour after feeding, the seedlings need to be watered.
  5. The hardening of Brussels sprouts seedlings begins about two weeks before planting. The duration of stay in the open air is gradually extended from 2-3 hours to 12-14 hours. In the last 2-3 days, the containers are generally left to spend the night outside.

Video: sowing Brussels sprouts seeds for seedlings

Two-month seedlings are planted in the ground. By this time, the seedlings should already have 5-6 true leaves. Their average height is 18–20 cm, the thickness of the stem is about 5 mm. Depending on the climate and weather in the region, the specific landing date falls on the period from mid-May to the end of the first decade of June. A week before, the seedlings stop watering, the potted substrate is well moistened only about an hour before the procedure.

For planting seedlings, choose a cloudy, cool day. Or you need to wait for the evening when the sun goes down. An interval of 55-60 cm is maintained between plants, the same gap is left between the rows of plantings.

It is advisable to plant seedlings of Brussels sprouts in cloudy weather, for the first time they are protected from direct sunlight

The depth of the hole for planting Brussels sprouts is 12-15 cm. A little humus and a tablespoon of wood ash are poured onto the bottom. To repel pests - onion peels. Wells are well spilled with warm water. Brussels sprouts are planted in the mud. Seedlings are buried in the ground to the lowest leaves. The soil near the stem is well compacted so that the seedling does not turn out of the ground as it grows. Then the plants are watered again abundantly, spending about a liter of water each, and the soil is mulched when the moisture is absorbed. For the first 7–10 days, arcs are installed over the seedlings of Brussels sprouts and any white covering material is pulled over them, protecting it from direct sunlight until the plants take root in a new place.

Mulching saves the grower time on weeding and watering

The area of ​​Brussels sprouts is quite large and ripens slowly. To save space on the site, spicy herbs are planted in the aisles. Another option is marigolds, calendula, lavender, chamomile. They scare away many pests from the culture.

Planting Brussels sprouts seeds in a garden and preparing for it

Directly in the garden, seeds of Brussels sprouts with the expectation of obtaining a crop in Russia can be sown only in the Black Sea region. Sometimes early varieties can be grown in the Moscow region, but only if you are very lucky with the weather in the spring and summer. And gardeners try not to risk the future harvest.

Even a slight shading of the culture reacts negatively, the heads of cabbage either do not form at all, or they turn out to be very loose. Therefore, an open place, well-lit and warmed by the sun, is taken under a garden bed with Brussels sprouts.

Brussels sprouts cannot stand even light partial shade, they choose an open area for it, which is illuminated by the sun for most of the day

This culture prefers a fertile, but at the same time rather loose substrate with a neutral acid-base reaction. The ideal option for her is loam. As practice shows, such soil is freed from snow faster in spring and warms up to the desired temperature.

Brussels sprouts are less demanding on the quality of the soil than white cabbage, but in a heavy substrate it will not grow and develop due to insufficient aeration of the roots, and from a light sandy soil it will simply turn out rather tall and massive plants, despite a well-developed root system.

Good predecessors for Brussels sprouts are plants from the legume family, any root vegetables (except beets), onions and garlic, and herbs. Green manure is also suitable, loosening the soil and saturating it with nitrogen. But after other representatives of the Cruciferous family (cabbage, radish, radish, daikon) and Solanaceae (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, potatoes), it can be planted no earlier than in 4–5 years.

A garden bed for Brussels sprouts has been prepared since autumn. It is dug to a depth of one bayonet of a shovel, at the same time bringing in 8-10 liters of humus per 1 m². Of the fertilizers, only potash and phosphorus fertilizers are needed (15–20 g / m² and 30–40 g / m², respectively). Instead of mineral dressings (superphosphate, potassium sulfate), wood ash (0.5 l / m²) can be used. Excessive acidity is neutralized with dolomite flour or eggshell crushed to a powder. They also saturate the soil with calcium, the need for which is very high in Brussels sprouts.

Dolomite flour is a natural soil deoxidizer, if the dosage is observed, it has no side effects

In the spring, about 7-10 days before planting the seeds, the soil in the garden should be well loosened and spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate of bright crimson color or any fungicide for disinfection. After that, it is covered with a black film, which is removed only before planting. It is strictly forbidden to introduce fresh manure in the spring. This greatly inhibits the formation of heads of cabbage.

Wood ash - a source of potassium and phosphorus

Seeds are sown in the ground in the second decade of April. By this time, the temperature at night should not drop below 5 ° C. The daily indicator is at least 18 ° C. For them, exactly the same pre-planting preparation is carried out as described above. They are sown in the soil, deepening a maximum of 1–2 cm, with the same interval as the seedlings. Put 2-3 pieces in each hole. From above, the seeds are sprinkled with peat crumbs or humus, until the seedlings appear, the bed is covered with a film. This usually takes 7-10 days.

Care for seedlings in the open field is not much different from what is required for seedlings of Brussels sprouts. But there are also some differences. The soil in the garden should be weeded regularly. For protection from direct sunlight, cabbage is kept under a canopy for about a month or a month and a half or covered with spruce branches, old buckets. Water it more moderately, once every 5-7 days. Two weeks after sprouting, the garden is sprinkled with tobacco dust or ground red pepper to protect them from cruciferous flea beetles. Or you can treat plants and soil with any drug recommended to combat it.

Seeds of Brussels sprouts in open ground are planted in several pieces per hole, then the seedlings are thinned out

In the phase of the second or third true leaf, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving only one plant in each hole, the most powerful and developed. Unnecessary are cut with scissors or pinched at the very soil. You cannot pull them out so as not to damage the roots of the selected specimen.

Crop care recommendations

Agricultural technology for growing Brussels sprouts is not much different from the care of white cabbage. But there are also some important nuances that you should know about in advance. The most important difference is that in Brussels sprouts 3-4 weeks before the expected harvest, you need to pinch the stem and cut off all the leaves in the outlet so that nutrients and moisture from the roots go mainly to the heads, which by that time should reach the size of a pea. As a result of this procedure, their number and size increases. It is especially important for late-ripening varieties.

Naturally, you need to regularly weed and loosen the garden bed. It is not recommended to huddle Brussels sprouts - heads of cabbage (and the largest ones) are tied even at the base of the stem. Loosening is carried out carefully, to a maximum depth of 8-10 cm. Ideally, this should be done after each watering. The mulch layer is renewed as needed. Mulching helps the gardener save time on weeding, in addition, peat, humus, freshly cut grass retain moisture in the soil. Plants will need to be watered less frequently. This is especially true for those gardeners who do not live on the site permanently.

Like all varieties of cabbage, Brussels sprouts are moisture-loving. Depending on how warm and rainy the summer is, it is watered once every 2-3 days (in normal weather for the culture) or twice a day (if there is a strong heat and there is no precipitation for a long time). Air humidity is also desirable high (70% or more), therefore, additional plants can be sprayed in the evenings.

Brussels sprouts need regular watering, this applies to both young seedlings and adult plants

The rate of water consumption is about 35–40 l / m² before the formation of heads of cabbage and 45–50 l / m² after that. The best way to water Brussels sprouts is by sprinkling to evenly wet the soil. Drip irrigation is also well suited for her, but pouring water directly under the roots is undesirable. The root system of the plant is superficial, they quickly become bare and dry.

As for fertilizers, the crop prefers natural organic matter. For the first time, Brussels sprouts are fed 15–20 days after planting seedlings in the ground or a month and a half after the emergence of seedlings.

Young plants need nitrogen to stimulate the growth of green mass. They are watered with a solution of Azofoski, Nitroammofoski, Diammofoski (25–30 g per 10 l of water). In the future, you need to be more careful with nitrogen-containing fertilizers - their excess negatively affects the plant's immunity, promotes the accumulation of nitrates in the heads of cabbage and inhibits the process of their formation.

Nitrogen in the right doses stimulates Brussels sprouts to actively build up green mass, and its excess is to the detriment of the future harvest

Starting from the end of July, once every 1.5–2 weeks, Brussels sprouts are watered with infusion of fresh manure, bird droppings, nettle greens or dandelion leaves. It is prepared for 3-4 days by placing the raw material in a container and pouring it with water. Then the container must be closed with a lid and left in the sun. Before use, the fertilizer is filtered and diluted in a ratio of 1:10 or 1:15, if it is droppings. You can alternate such dressings with a store-bought complex fertilizer for cabbage.

Nettle infusion is a natural and absolutely environmentally friendly fertilizer

Heads of cabbage that are forming need phosphorus and potassium. In mid-September, 25-30 g of potassium sulfate and 50-60 g of simple superphosphate are distributed over the garden in a dry form or water the plants with a solution, diluting the specified amount in 10 liters of water. From natural fertilizers at this time, you can use an infusion of wood ash (0.5 liters per 3 liters of boiling water). Also, ABA, Autumn preparations are suitable.

Video: growing and caring for Brussels sprouts

Diseases, pests and control of them

Diseases and pests are the Achilles' heel of most cabbage varieties. Brussels is no exception in this regard. Therefore, it is imperative to carry out pre-planting seed preparation, observe the planting scheme and do not forget about crop rotation.

Of the pests, the most dangerous for the culture are:

  • Cruciferous flea. Adults and their larvae feed on plant tissues, turning cabbage leaves into a sieve in a matter of days. After that, they dry quickly, the plant dies. At the first signs of a pest, the cabbage is sprayed with vinegar essence diluted with water (15 ml per 10 l). If there is no effect, the drugs Aktellik, Aktara, Foksim are used. Practice shows that any kind of lettuce planted in the aisles repels the pest.
  • Cabbage fly. The larvae of the pest settle on the roots of the plant, eating them from the inside. Then they move into the stems, in which long tunnels are also made. For prophylaxis, the soil is powdered with a mixture of tobacco dust, sifted wood ash and ground pepper, taken in approximately equal proportions, a week and a half after planting the seedlings in the ground. To scare off adults from planting, they are sprayed with infusion of tansy or celandine. In the event of a mass invasion, Ambush, Rovikurt, Corsair are used.
  • Caterpillar of a cabbage scoop. Large grayish-beige caterpillars gnaw at the leaves, starting from the edges. In just 2-3 days, only veins remain from them. The plant dries up and dies. For prevention, the soil in the garden is regularly loosened, cabbage is sprayed with foam of green potash or laundry soap, infusion of wood ash. Adults are destroyed by luring them with the help of pheromone or homemade traps (deep containers with honey, jam, sugar syrup diluted with water). They are scared off by the drugs Lepidocid, Bitoxibacillin. To combat the larvae, plants and soil in the garden are sprayed with a solution of Fufanon, Aktellik, Belofos, Talkord.
  • Aphid. Almost all garden crops suffer from this pest to one degree or another. Aphids attack plants with whole colonies, literally clinging to the inside of the leaves, the top of the stem, and the ovary of the heads of cabbage. She feeds on plant juices. The affected tissues are covered with small dots, clearly visible in the light, the leaves are deformed and dry out. The pest is scared away from the Brussels sprouts by spraying it with infusions of greens of any plants with a pronounced pungent odor. Orange peel, dry tobacco leaves, ground red pepper, mustard powder have a similar effect. Processing is carried out every 5-7 days, if the aphid has already appeared on the plant - 3-4 times a day. In the event of a mass invasion of a pest, any general action insecticides are used - Inta-Vir, Calypso, Fury, Iskra-Bio, Commander.
  • Snails and slugs. They feed on plant tissues, eating large holes in the leaves and heads of cabbage. A layer of sticky silvery coating remains on the surface. Young seedlings can be completely destroyed. The keeping quality of damaged Brussels sprouts drops sharply, and you don't really want to eat it. A massive invasion of slugs is a rare phenomenon. Only in this case it is necessary to use chemicals (Meta, Thunderstorm, Slime-eater), in all the rest it is quite possible to do with folk remedies. Slugs are lured with the help of traps by digging cut plastic bottles or other deep containers into the ground, filling them with beer, fermented kvass, pieces of cabbage or grapefruit. Individual pests can be collected manually - they have no camouflage abilities in principle, they also do not differ in speed of movement. The plant stems are surrounded by barriers of coarse sand, spruce needles, ground eggs or nutshells.

Photo gallery: what pests dangerous for Brussels sprouts look like

Of the diseases, Brussels sprouts most often suffer from fungi. Before planting, seeds must be pickled in a fungicide solution. But this does not give a 100% guarantee of protection against infection, especially if planting care cannot be called ideal. Most often, Brussels sprouts are attacked by the following diseases:

  • Keela. Ugly growths appear on the roots, similar to tumors. On the aerial part of the plant, the fungus does not appear in any way. It seems that cabbage stops developing and dies for no reason. Observance of crop rotation is very important for the prevention of the disease. The plant affected by the keel can only be pulled out and burned as quickly as possible, thus eliminating the source of the infection. For disinfection, the soil in this place is spilled with a solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid (0.5 l per 0 l of water).
  • White rot. The fungus grows especially well in acidic or nitrogen-saturated soil. Leaves and heads of cabbage are covered with a layer of white bloom, similar to peeling paint. Gradually, it darkens, the affected parts stop growing and deform, the tissues turn brown and rot. At a late stage of development, the disease is not amenable to treatment. If it has affected only individual leaves so far, the infected tissues are cut out, the wounds are washed with 2% copper sulfate, and powdered with activated carbon is sprinkled. The soil is spilled with a solution of any fungicide.
  • Dry rot. Leaves and heads of cabbage are covered with light grayish-beige spots with small black blotches. The inside of the leaf takes on an unnatural purple color. The affected tissues are cut out with a sharp knife, the plant is treated with Thiram, Fitosporin-M.
  • Blackleg. The disease affects seedlings and develops very quickly. If you do nothing, you can lose your crop already at this stage. The base of the stem turns black and softens, the plant wilts and dries. To protect the seedlings, crushed chalk or wood ash must be added to the seedling soil. At the first signs of fungal development, watering is reduced to the required minimum, the water is replaced with a light pink potassium permanganate solution. Seedlings and substrate are sprayed with Fitosporin-M, Fitolavin, Baktofit. When transplanting cabbage into a garden bed, Trichodermin or Glyocladin in granules is introduced into the hole.
  • Peronosporiosis (downy mildew). The front side of the sheet is covered with yellowish blurry spots, the wrong side is covered with a continuous layer of ash. Affected tissues turn black and rot. To avoid fungal attack, the soil in the garden is sprinkled with wood ash, colloidal sulfur, tobacco crumbs. In the early stages of the development of the disease, it is quite possible to cope with it with folk remedies - soda ash diluted with water, laundry soap foam, a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate. If it was not noticed on time, fungicides are used - Alirin-B, Topaz, Horus, Baikal-EM and so on. There are also tools that have been tested by more than one generation of gardeners and have proven their effectiveness - Bordeaux liquid and copper sulfate.
  • Alternaria (black spot). The leaves are covered with small gray-black spots, gradually turning into concentric rings. Then they quickly wither and dry. Prevention and control measures are the same as for peronosporiosis.

Photo Gallery: Symptoms of Diseases Typical for Brussels Sprouts

Harvesting and storage

Do not rush to harvest Brussels sprouts if the cold is approaching. Practice shows that the taste of heads of cabbage only improves from exposure to low temperatures (within -6–7 ° C). But if a cold snap is expected to -10 ° C and below, the culture will no longer tolerate this. The stem is cut off at the base, the rosette of leaves is cut off at the top. In this form, heads of cabbage can be stored for about a month.

You should not rush to harvest Brussels sprouts, even if it snows, small negative temperatures are only good for the heads of cabbage

And if you remove the whole plant from the soil, cut off the leaves and dig in in the basement or cellar, covering the roots with wet peat or sand, the period increases to 3-4 months. Brussels sprouts will not take up much space - up to 30 plants can be placed on 1 m². Nutrients from the stem continue to flow to the heads of cabbage, so during storage they increase a little more in volume.

A dry, cloudy, cool day is chosen for harvesting. Usually heads of cabbage are cut, gradually moving up the stem of the plant. The signal that the next head of cabbage is ripe is a dried or fallen leaf, in the bosom of which it is located. As a rule, the early Brussels sprouts are cut at a time, the late ones in 2-3 approaches.

The maximum shelf life is 3-4 months. The heads of cabbage are cut off together with the stalk, with which they are attached to the stem, and those where there are not the slightest traces of insect damage, rot, mold, and so on are selected. They are laid out in small boxes or cardboard boxes, sprinkled with sawdust, sand, wood shavings, and scraps of newsprint. You can wrap each one in plastic wrap, but it will take a very long time. The boxes are stored in a basement, cellar, other dark place with good ventilation, maintaining a constant temperature of 2–4 ° C and air humidity at 70–80%.

Brussels sprouts last longer if not cut off the stems

In the refrigerator, in a special compartment for fruits and vegetables, Brussels sprouts will last no more than 4-6 weeks. Freezing will help to save the harvest as long as possible. As practice shows, the benefits and taste of the heads of cabbage do not suffer for a year and a half.

The harvest of Brussels sprouts is harvested immediately or 2-3 times, it depends on the variety

Heads of cabbage intended for freezing are washed, the upper leaves are removed if they are dry or damaged. Then they are immersed in cold water for 15 minutes, after which they are blanched in boiling water for 2-3 minutes. The excess liquid is allowed to drain, the cabbage is sent to the freezer for a few minutes, operating in shock freeze mode, by spreading the heads of cabbage on baking sheets covered with paper towels. After that, they are immediately laid out in bags with airtight fasteners and sent for storage. Frozen Brussels sprouts are cooked for a very short time before serving, literally 2-3 minutes.

Freezing helps preserve the flavor and benefits of Brussels sprouts for as long as possible

Video: freezing procedure for Brussels sprouts

Growing Brussels sprouts, which are both delicious and healthy, is not particularly difficult. The main obstacle for the gardener is the climate. But if you plant it with seedlings and properly care for the plants, you can get a good harvest. And in the southern regions with a subtropical climate, a heat-loving culture is also grown from seeds sown directly in the garden.

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The cabbage plant (Brassica) is a member of the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family, which also includes turnips, radishes, rutabagas, cabbage, radishes, turnips and mustard. This genus unites about 50 species. In natural conditions, they are found in the Mediterranean, Central Europe, Central and East Asia. Only those species that were exported from Europe grow on the territory of America. People began to cultivate cabbage about 4 thousand years ago, the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and Romans did it. This culture came to the territory of modern Russia thanks to merchants, and it was introduced in the 13th century from Western Europe during the heyday of Kievan Rus. At the same time, by the 18th century, it had already very firmly entered Russian life, it was at this time that the tradition arose, after the Orthodox holiday of the Exaltation (September 27), to start collective harvesting of cabbage for the winter, for this it was chopped and salted. At the same time, for 14 days, cheerful folk games called skits were organized everywhere.In the 19th century, the famous Russian scientist and vegetable grower Rytov described already 22 varieties of cabbage.

When to plant cabbage for seedlings in 2021

If you do not know when to plant cabbage for seedlings, it is best to refer to the lunar planting calendar.

Sowing cabbage for seedlings in January 2021 of the year

Sowing dates of cabbage for seedlings in February 2021

Sowing cabbage in March 2021 for seedlings

Sowing cabbage for seedlings in April 2021 of the year

Growing cabbage seedlings in May 2021 of the year


The agricultural technology for planting seeds is quite simple. It must be planted in small containers, no more than 5-7 cm deep. It is necessary to add the soil mixture that was prepared earlier to each of the containers. After that, the whole earth is watered with potassium manganese solution and infused for 5-10 minutes.

Then they begin to make holes for planting seeds. Their depth should be about 1 cm, and their width should be 2-3 cm. When all the seeds are planted, the holes are sprinkled with a small layer of earth and watered with heated water. Then all containers are covered with plastic wrap and transferred to a bright room. They are opened only after the first shoots appear.

12. Prevention of diseases and their timely treatment

If you overdo it with watering, did not keep track of the temperature, poorly ventilated, and so on, as a result of which the seedlings got sick: black leg, root rot or other ailments - do not hope that the disease will go away by itself, save the seedlings immediately.


To combat the black leg, dry the soil inside the tray (pots), sprinkle the seedlings themselves with ash and loosen the substrate.

Root rot

In the fight against root rot (and black leg too) of the seedlings, treat it with Trichodermin or Rizoplan. These are environmentally friendly biological preparations, the effect is based on the action of a specially grown mycelium, which, while developing, releases substances that inhibit various pathogenic organisms.

Treatment with "Trichodermin" allows you to create a protective zone around plant roots from microorganisms, and treatment with "Rizoplan" promotes the absorption of iron by seedlings, due to which they develop immunity to the same black leg. In addition, the latter makes it possible for seedlings to fight not only with black leg, but also with various bacteriosis, stem and root rot.

How to add drugs

"Trichodermin" should be added to the soil mixture before picking cabbage seedlings into pots, at the rate of 1 g of the drug for 1 plant. Together with it, it is necessary to add to the soil one grain of barley treated with microspores of the fungus - it is cultivated on it. With "Rizoplan" you can simply water the plants or spray the seedlings with the preparation, after diluting 1 g in 100 ml of water.

Cruciferous flea

In the fight against the cruciferous flea (small striped bugs) - the worst enemy of cabbage seedlings, you will be helped by the early treatment of the seedlings with the "Intavir" preparation.

I told you all the secrets of growing strong cabbage seedlings - at least those that I knew :) I would be glad if you share your secrets of growing cabbage seedlings in the comments.

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