Licuala is an evergreen perennial fan palm that grows in India and the island territories near this country. The plant is small in stature, with a short one or more trunks and large rounded corrugated leaves. The leaves have a shiny bright green color and sharp thorns along the edges of the leaf. The plant is flowering, the fruit is in the shape of a small red or orange berry.
Licuala palm is a very delicate plant, the leaves of which will not tolerate direct sunlight, burns may even appear in the form of drying spots. Diffused but bright lighting is recommended for the plant. Since the size of the flower does not allow it to be placed on a windowsill, it is best to keep a flower container with a palm tree near a window on the west or east side of the house.
Likuala is a thermophilic plant and prefers to grow all year round at a constant temperature of 20-25 degrees. It is very important in winter to prevent the room temperature from dropping below 16 degrees.
Likuala prefers to stay in a room with high humidity and loves regular and abundant spraying. For these water procedures, it is recommended to use only settled or filtered water. During the colder winter months, the number of sprays can be reduced.
The fan palm is very fond of moisture and abundant watering, especially in the warm season. In the spring and summer, the plant must be watered regularly to keep the topsoil always slightly damp. From October to the onset of spring, the amount of watering can remain the same only if kept in a warm (up to 25 degrees Celsius) room.
If the air temperature becomes lower, then the abundance of watering must be reduced, since the moisture will not have time to evaporate and the plant may die from its excess. Irrigation water must be necessarily settled for several days and correspond to room temperature, that is, about 22-27 degrees Celsius.
The fan palm feels great in slightly acidic soil. When planting a plant, you can purchase palm soil or prepare it at home. The soil mixture should consist of four components: one part of sand and peat and two parts of leaf and sod land.
The development and growth of licuala depends on the timely and correct application of fertilizers. The plant needs only organic feeding, once every 30 days regularly, from early spring to early October.
The licuala palm is a vulnerable plant, it is very painful to undergo transplantation. It is recommended to replant the plant only in case of urgent need and with great care so as not to damage the root system. It is advisable to keep the earthen lump to the maximum, adding only a little fresh soil. The new flower container should be larger in size than the previous one, and at the bottom there should be a layer of expanded clay or any other drainage.
Licuala's only way to reproduce is by seed. For sowing, it is advisable to use fresh seeds, since old ones germinate much longer. If the fresh ones can give the first shoots after 1-3 months, then the old ones can germinate only after a year.
Before sowing, it is recommended to soak the seeds in a growth promoter for several hours, and then bury them one centimeter into well-loosened soil. The seed container should be closed like a greenhouse, but with regular ventilation and spraying from a spray bottle. The room should be bright and warm, with an air temperature of about 23 degrees.
Diseases of fungal origin can develop from excess moisture in the winter. All other diseases of the fan palm usually occur with improper care of the plant. For example, direct sunlight, lower air temperatures, low humidity, lack of fertilizing, or the use of hard water. Of the pests for licuala, spider mites and scale insects are dangerous.
Among the various types and varieties of licuala, several of the most common ones can be distinguished.
Licuala grandis - this type of plant has huge shiny corrugated leaves with denticles along the edge of the entire leaf, round or oval in shape, reaching a width of up to one meter. Flowers are collected in inflorescences - cobs, bearing fruits - berries.
Licuala bidentata - This perennial type of palm is small in size with narrow and long leaves - segments, pointed at the end. In mature plants, the trunk reaches one meter in height.
Licuala spinosa - the trunk of this type of palm tree resembles a reed in structure. Each plant has several such trunks, about eight centimeters in diameter, located tightly to each other. The leaves have an unusual spiral shape with narrow segments.
Palm trees have long been used in interior design due to the unusual and highly beneficial properties of their leaves. Admiring a small indoor palm tree, we do not even think that the vast surface of its leaves absorbs a large amount of carbon dioxide and releases a lot of oxygen in the process of photosynthesis. That, evaporating water, the palm tree humidifies the air, improving the microclimate in the room, absorbs the smallest dust particles passing through the filters of vacuum cleaners, and the sharp edges of the leaves contribute to
biological ionization of air. In general, a palm tree in a room is an oxygen generator, humidifier, dust extractor and ionizer.
It is not so easy to create favorable conditions for the wintering of palm trees. These tropical plants make special demands on winter apartments, which must of course be light. There is often not enough daylight, so additional lighting must be used. Another problem for palm trees in winter is dry air in our houses and apartments. Therefore, it is not always possible to find a suitable room for wintering.
The best place for wintering indoor and tub palms is undoubtedly an isolated winter garden - a heated room with natural light and automatic temperature and humidity control. This is the perfect winter garden. However, few palm lovers have such a room at their disposal. Alternatively, you can use a heated greenhouse, which is easy to create such conditions.
But as for the wintering of tub palms, there is a problem of a different nature. Whether it is a conservatory or a greenhouse, we often encounter some restrictions regarding, first of all, the height of the ceilings. Fortunately, there are now enough different defensive options available for the more hardy varieties of palm trees to winter outdoors. The latest technology offers reliable frost protection, good lighting and warmth. Such solutions are not cheap, but quite acceptable for lovers of majestic palm trees. Everything is possible - from protective covers for tub plants in XXL format, thermal bags for potted plants, to all-season heated tents.
Open field palms:
Advantages and disadvantages of premises for wintering pot and tub palms:
Good lighting keeping the set temperature
Sufficient light level and suitable air temperature
It is necessary to equip heating
Semi-basement room with windows
Ideal air temperature
Additional artificial lighting required
Often cool, additional protection from cold is required
Different types of potted palms are distinguished by their winter hardiness and, accordingly, have different requirements for winter care:
Dipsis yellowish (Dypsis lutescens):
Decorative chamedorea (Chamaedorea):
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) - often offered as a houseplant, but not quite suitable for these purposes:
African or oil palm (Elaeis guineensis):
Jubaea chilean (Jubaea chilensis):
Likuala large (Licuala grandis)
Date palm (Phoenix)
Most of the potted palms hibernate indoors. While it is easy enough to find a suitable place for low-growing specimens, the choice of a location for large-sized varieties causes certain difficulties. Quite large palm trees are forced to remain in the open air. Often, a sheltered “home” is created for them in the garden or on the terrace.
As a general rule, palms should be kept outdoors for as long as possible. The main thing is that the roots are not cramped in the tub. The earthen coma must not be allowed to freeze. In addition, the substrate in the tub should not be wet.
Do not transfer the palm tree directly to a warm place. A sharp temperature drop will not give strength to the plant: the water balance will be disturbed. The leaves will immediately begin to evaporate moisture, and the roots will not be able to provide the plant with water. The substrate in the tub will be too cold and will take some time to warm up. During this period, the plant can dry out.
Palm trees that prefer a cool winter:
This method of wintering is effective only if not only the tubs, but also the plants themselves, are securely wrapped and protected from frost. For this, special devices for winter plant protection are used:
For planting in open ground, only very hardy species and varieties of palm trees are used. These include some varieties of trachycarpus, in particular, Trachycarpus fortunei, and you can also experiment with porcupine palm or small sabal (Sabal minor). At a young age, none of these plants will survive the winter outdoors. For wintering in the open ground, palm trees aged 4 years and older are suitable. In addition, hardening is very important to prevent palm trees from dying. This process consists in the fact that palms grown in rooms and greenhouses with further transplantation into the ground are gradually exposed to lower temperatures, close to environmental conditions. It is also important to choose the right location, which should be protected from the scorching sun and winds.
Despite the fact that the roots of open-planted palms are better protected from frost than the roots of plants growing in tubs (with the exception of heated tubs), it is still recommended to take some measures to protect the plants from frost:
After winter, palms should gradually get used to the sun. The sun is still low and yet there is a danger that the plants could get sunburn. For tub palms, this is not a problem: at first they are exposed in the morning and in the evening in a shady corner of a balcony or garden, gradually increasing the time spent in the fresh air. However, this is not the case with palms planted in open ground. In this case, shelters are removed from the plants in the morning and evening. After an hour or two, cover again, gradually increasing the time the palms stay without cover until they get used to the sun.
Translation: Lesya V.
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• low palms from the New Hebrides (Pacific Ocean)
• in culture - great likuala (Licuala grandis)
Genus Likuala (Licuala) is part of the vast Arekov family (Arecaceae, or Palmae). It includes about 140 species of palm trees, growing from India and southern China to New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and northeastern Australia, through Southeast Asia and the islands of the Malay Archipelago.
The name of the genus is a Latinized derivative of the name of this palm tree, common among the population of the Indonesian island of Celebos (Sulawesi) - leko vala (leko wala).
Licuals live under the canopy of large trees in warm and humid rainforests, where they receive protection from direct sun. They prefer to grow along rivers, along the edges of swamps, in low-lying and well-irrigated areas. Some species grow in very wetlands, in such conditions, to supply the roots with oxygen, they form special roots - pneumatophores (these types include Licuala ramsayi).
In terms of growth, these licues are very diverse. Among them there are rather tall palms, reaching 15 and even 25 m in height (L. ramsayi), but there are also dwarf ones, not exceeding 1 meter (L. triphylla).
There are single-barreled species (L. peltata, L. scortechinii), forming a single straight stem, and multi-stemmed, forming daughter offspring from the base of the stem. However, in stressful situations, when plants are damaged by animals, many single-stemmed plants can also give root suckers. Among the multi-stemmed species, there are species with a clear dominance of 1-2 stems in the group (L. ridleyana, L. malajana). Full growth of daughter offspring occurs only after damage to the prevailing stems. In other species, all plants in such groups develop approximately the same (L. spinosa, L. paludosa).
In addition to multi-stemmed species with erect trunks, there are species with thin, lodging stems, with large internodes. Initially, they grow as erect, but under the weight of the crown, they gradually tilt and continue to grow already in the supine position, while the crown remains raised. The length of such a stem can be quite significant. In these palms, offspring are formed not only at the base of the stems, but also along their entire length (L. sallehana, L. hallieriana).
Among the licual, there are palms without any visible trunks at all, their stems are either very small, or grow underground, above the soil surface, only a fan of several leaves is visible. Such species are stemless, usually very short plants. And among them there are also both single (L. triphylla, L. kiahii, L. tenuissima) and multi-stemmed (L. ahlidurii, L. bayana, L. lanuginosa), in which the growth of daughter shoots occurs underground, which leads to the formation of rather dense and extensive thickets.
The leaves of licual are fan-shaped, oval, in many they form an almost full circle, often deeply dissected, with wedge-shaped or finger-like lobes, but there are also species with whole leaves, as in the large licual common in culture (L. grandis). Due to the highly dissected fan leaves, licuals, like rapeseed trees, are often called Fan palms. The leaf blades are corrugated, with a serrated edge. The leaf lobes can be almost the same, but more often the central parts are wider than the lateral ones. The number of segments in one species can vary depending on the growing conditions and on the age of the plant, and is not an important feature in determining the species. At a young age, less dissected leaves usually grow than in adult plants, and also under favorable conditions, more complex leaves develop.
Gastula (the place of transition of the leaf petiole into the leaf blade) is well developed, has a triangular shape, is clearly visible from the lower side of the leaf and invisible from the upper side.
Leaf petioles can be up to 3 m long in some species and less than 10 cm in others. The length of leaf petioles in one species may differ and depends on the growing conditions, primarily on the intensity of light. The petiole is convex on the lower side, concave on the upper side, the edges are usually covered with spines that have a protective function. The petiole at the base passes into a wide sheath, which can persist for a long time on the stem after the leaves fall, splitting into a network of fine fibers.
Inflorescences in large species can reach 3-4 m, in undersized ones - not exceed 15 cm. They appear in the crown among the leaves, branched on the axis of the second and, less often, third order. In some species, the inflorescences are shorter than the leaves and do not extend beyond the crown, in others they are much larger. Have L. lanuginosa and L. ahlidurii erect inflorescences, L. cameronensis and L. mustapana - drooping.
Likuals are more often monoecious plants, with bisexual flowers bearing both female and male parts. Dioeciousness is rare. However, the L. gracilis some plants in the population have flowers exclusively with female organs, while others are outwardly hermaphroditic, but never produce fruit. The same phenomenon has been found in some other species of licual.
The flowers of the licual are quite simple in structure, three-membered (3 sepals, 3 petals, 6 stamens, in two circles of 3, and 3 carpels).
The fruits are small, round. When mature, they usually turn red or orange and serve as food for birds and small animals.
Licuals reproduce by sowing seeds, and multi-stemmed species also vegetatively, by division. Seeds are sown immediately after harvest as their germination rate drops rapidly.
Likuala Ramsey (Licuala ramsayi) Is an Australian species. It grows along the banks of rivers and swamps of the northeastern rainforests of Queensland. As a rule, it reaches 15 m in height, but it can grow up to 25 m. The stem is single, even, up to 20 cm in diameter. The crown consists of large, up to 2 m in diameter, almost round, fan-shaped wedge-shaped dissected leaves. The leaves are bright green above, and have a silvery shade below. The flowers are creamy, the fruits are red. It prefers to grow in a shady location in warm, humid rainforest conditions, with good irrigation. This is one of the most cold-resistant species of licual, but at the same time not frost-resistant.
Likuala thyroid diff. thyroid (Licuala peltata var. peltata) grows in the mountains in northeastern India up to the Malay Peninsula. It can reach up to 10 m in height, with a single straight stem up to 10-12 cm in diameter. The leaves are fan-shaped, round, dissected into numerous large wedge-shaped segments almost to the petiole, up to 1-2 m in diameter, dark and shiny. Petioles up to 1-2 m, with thorns. The inflorescences are very long, up to 4 m, with greenish-white flowers, rich in nectar and very aromatic. Fruits are spherical, 1.5 cm in diameter, orange. It can withstand a short drop in temperature to -2 o C. The species is slow-growing, but one of the most unpretentious in culture. The leaves are used to make hats and in folk medicine as a diuretic.
Likuala thyroid diff. Sumayongi (Licuala peltata var. sumawongii) - originally from the Malay Peninsula and Thailand. Very attractive small palm with a single, straight, short stem, can grow up to 3-5 m in height. The crown consists of 12-15 large round, whole, dark green leaves about 2 m in diameter, on two-meter petioles. Often found under the name Licuala elegans... Prefers a place protected from direct sun and wind. It can tolerate a short drop in temperature up to +3 o C.
Likuala large (Licuala grandis) grows in the lowland rainforests of the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. It is a slow growing palm tree that can grow up to 3 m in height. The trunk is single and straight, 5-6 cm in diameter, covered with remnants of old leaves. Petioles of leaves from 0.5 to 1 m. The leaf blade is pleated, round, about 60 cm in diameter, as a rule, whole, but sometimes it can be divided into 3 or more segments, with a jagged edge. Inflorescences are formed among the leaves and are longer than them, large and hanging. Compound fruits are very decorative, they consist of many bright red spherical fruits up to 1.2 cm in diameter.
This species is successfully grown as a houseplant. As an adult, it can tolerate direct sun in high humidity conditions. It is undesirable to keep it cool, it does not tolerate even a short-term drop in temperature to +3 o C.
Likuala Mattana (Licuala mattanensis) is a slow-growing palm tree from about. Borneo. Reaches 3 m in height, with a thin single erect stem covered with remnants of old leaves. The leaves are almost round, dark green, divided up to the petiole into 8-12 wedge-shaped segments up to 40 cm long. The inflorescences are short, appear among the leaves, the flowers are bisexual. Fruits are fusiform, up to 2.5 cm, yellow-orange.
The variegated Mapu and Tigrina varieties are very popular. These are dwarf varieties with mosaic green and yellow leaves, rather difficult to grow, require acidic soil, high air humidity, uniform heat all year round, regular watering and bright diffused light.
Likuala three-leafed (Licuala triphylla) native to the tropical forests of Malacca and Borneo, where it settles under the canopy of large trees. Single-stem, has an underground stem, only leaves grow above the ground. Plant height rarely exceeds 1 m. The leaf differs from other licuals, with a large central lobe and two small lateral lobes, hence the name of the species. The leaves of young plants may have 5 lobes, but in the adult state, only 3-lobed leaves grow on the palm.
Has variegated varieties. In culture, it requires high humidity, heat, regular watering and protection from direct sun.
Likuala Ahli Duri (Licuala ahlidurii) is native to Malaysia, where it grows in the undergrowth. Stemless multi-stemmed palm. Each group can grow up to 7 or more shoots, each of which holds from 5 to 10 leaves. The petiole is 1-2 m long, the base is red-brown. The leaf is semicircular, 60-120 cm in diameter, shiny. The dissection into lobes varies greatly in this species, from slightly large lobes in the middle to wide central and narrow lateral ones. The species was described as recently as 1997.
The difficulties in cultivating licual lie in their need for tropical warm and humid conditions with regular watering. It is often impossible to create high air humidity at home.
About growing licuala big - in the article Likuala: growing and care
When it is dark, damp and cold outside the window, it is so nice to come to a warm apartment, turn on the bright light and relax under the shade of palm leaves!
In an apartment, not every palm tree can survive. For example, attempts to grow a tree from a date stone end deplorably: it will germinate, but it will not live long. However, there are better options!
Spectacular palm tree with wide fan-shaped leaves. In nature, Livistons grow up to 25 m in height, and indoors they will be limited to 1.5-2 m, especially since this species grows rather slowly.
Livistona is photophilous: in summer it is better to keep it near the eastern or western windows, and in winter, when there is little sun, to transfer it to the southern ones. Livistone does not need heat: the optimum temperature for it is -16-20 °, and during the rest period - 14-16. °
Thin-stemmed bamboo palm, interesting for its bushy form, forming dense thickets. Over time, it grows more in breadth than in height, so indoor specimens rarely exceed 1 m 50 cm. Hamedorea often blooms in an apartment, fluffy flowers resemble mimosa. Shade-tolerant, can live in a room with windows to the north. The preferred temperature is -18-22 °, a couple of degrees less in winter.
A very unusual indoor palm tree with asymmetrical leaf plates similar to fish tails. Ideal for beginners, very undemanding. Cariota prefers east and west windows, can grow near the south, if the light is scattered by tulle. Watering is moderate, but the substrate should always be moist at the back of the pot. Cariotes do not need a cold winter; temperatures of 20-24 ° are suitable all year round.
Areca Butle Palm
A palm tree with an ideal silhouette: a wide trunk, decorated with dense rings on the bottom, and green and smooth on top, like a bottleneck, long, up to 1.5 m, smoothly curved, feathery leaves ... A real exotic in the apartment.And in vain it is rarely grown at home: it is not more capricious than other indoor palm trees, but in some ways even more hardy. For example, it does not require cold wintering, on the contrary, the Areca loves warmth at any time of the year, so if your house is at 30 °, this is ideal. There is only one problem: Areca drinks exceptionally soft water. If you don't have one, add a few drops of lemon juice to the usual one.
Another bamboo palm, typical of China and Japan. Easily shoots and bushes. For a start, it is better to get an adult rapeseed: with age, these plants acquire the ability to easily adapt to difficult conditions.
It is desirable that in summer the air temperature in the room where the rapis is located is 20-25 °, and in winter - 10-15 °. But, if it is not possible to arrange a cold wintering, the rapese will tolerate this as easily as drought.
From September to March, palm trees prefer to rest, so now is the time to switch to the winter mode of caring for these plants.
Avoid drafts. From the cold air, palms begin to turn yellow and even leaves can rot.
All palms love high humidity, regular spraying and bathing. For water procedures, use soft warm (at least 30 °) water. Spray twice a day in summer and reduce to once in winter.
Make sure that pests do not appear: ticks and scale insects reproduce well in dry air.
Sponge the leaves with warm water once a month, or give your palm a warm shower.
Do you want to feel as if tomorrow is March 8th many times a year? Then get yourself an elegant hamedorea!
Last spring, an exquisite plant settled in my house - a graceful hame-dorea. She also has another name - "bamboo palm". It is most likely due to the fact that the slender stems of chamedorea look a little like bamboo stems.
This palm tree is shade-tolerant, grows well in indoor conditions and is even capable of blooming several times a year: the delicate flowers of chamedorea are very reminiscent of festive mimosa. The appearance of a palm tree can be described as follows: a bushy plant with a bare, articulated trunk and kami about 3 cm in diameter, with short internodes. On each stem, up to 6-7 feathery dark green leaves on long petioles develop.
Hamedorea needs good care, since this person is very demanding on the conditions of detention. The main guarantee of her health is high air humidity. I do not advise placing chamedorea near heating radiators, from this, the tips of the leaves can easily begin to darken and dry.
Hamedorea does not like both dry soil and regular waterlogging. She needs a golden mean. Watering directly depends on the air temperature in the room: the higher it is, the more moisture the plant needs. The palm tree loves regular spraying, in the summer you can immerse the pot in water. My chamedorea is in a warm room, so I spray it with settled water at least twice a day, wash the leaves at least once a month and thoroughly ventilate the room.
Most of the 130 species of hamedorei known today are low tree-like or bushy palms with several trunks, but there are also epiphytic plants and even lianas. Hamedoreya is very much appreciated by adherents of feng shui teachings, they recommend keeping such a plant in every office. It is believed that chamedorea is able to extinguish conflicts, as well as fight apathy, depression and stress. The plant owner becomes more cheerful and cheerful.
I feed the palm from spring to August every two weeks with liquid fertilizers (with a high nitrogen content) for decorative deciduous plants or palms.
My sissy can't stand direct sunlight. Bright, but diffused light is the most comfortable for her. The capricious woman does not tolerate drafts at all; she can suffer even from cold air from the air conditioner. Draft will immediately provoke the appearance of dry spots on the leaves. If this happens, then the dried leaf can be cut off so that a small piece of the stem remains on the trunk.
Young palms are replanted every spring, and then every 3-4 years, when the roots completely fill the pot. For a transplant, so as not to mess around for a long time, I bought ready-made soil for palm trees. But if there is such a desire, then I will share the recipe: 2 parts of light clay-sod soil, 2 parts of humus-leaf soil, 1 part of peat, 1 part of rotted manure, 1 part of sand and a little charcoal.
Chamedorea reproduces by root suckers during transplantation, you just need to wait until their own roots are formed on them. It can also be propagated by dividing the bush and seeds. For propagation by seeds, you will have to acquire a room mini-greenhouse, since at temperatures below 24 ° the seeds will not sprout. You need to sow immediately after purchase, otherwise the seeds will lose their germination, and in order to germinate, they will need up to one and a half months.
In indoor floriculture, graceful chamedorea, Seyfritz chamedorea and high chamedorea are most often grown. I read somewhere that, in general, these are unpretentious plants with minimal requirements. But from my own experience I realized: in order to grow a beautiful and healthy specimen, you need to put a lot of effort and patience.
I advise all flower lovers to experiment and enjoy this activity. Remember, plants always feel our care and love, they certainly respond to a change of mood. Good luck everyone!
© The author is a wonderful specialist S. Batov, candidate of agricultural sciences. Photo by the author