Plant hoya (lat.Hoya), or, as we call it, ivy wax, belongs to the genus of evergreen shrubs and lianas of the Lastovnevy subfamily, the Kutrovy family. More than two hundred species of hoya grow in the tropics of South and Southeast Asia, in Polynesia and on the west coast of Australia. Liana hoya prefers woodland, in which she finds a tree for support, or rocky slopes. The hoya flower was named by the famous Scottish scientist Brown, the author of the theory of "Brownian motion", in honor of his fellow English gardener Thomas Hoy, who devoted his life to cultivating tropical plants in the greenhouses of the Duke of Northumberland.
Read more about growing hoya below.
In nature, an adult plant can reach 10 meters in length. Leafless young shoots have a purple-brown hue, but as they mature, when leaves and aerial roots begin to appear on them, the shoots turn green, and over time they become woody. Fleshy and shiny at a young age, the leaves gradually become dull, they have an oval shape and are pointed towards the top. The size of the leaves is 5-8 cm in length and 3-5 cm in width. Hoya flowers, white or pinkish, bisexual, star-shaped, collected in umbrellas located on rod branches. The diameter of each flower is 1-2 cm, except for the flowers of the imperial hoya, which reach 8 cm in diameter. In the center of the flower's corolla there is a five-membered crown, towering over the petals. The flowers are fragrant and give off nectar that attracts insects.
In culture, the flowering of hoya is possible only on brightly lit windows, in addition, the plant has become so domesticated that it no longer needs to stay in the fresh air even in the warm season. The room hoya is divided into three categories:
Different types of hoyi are grown in the culture, and each requires the fulfillment of its own conditions of detention, therefore it is difficult to give general recommendations for all types of recommendations. The only common wish for all plants of the Hoya genus is: avoid waterlogging of the soil, as a result of which liquid mud forms in the roots.
For convenience, we will divide the hoyi into categories according to the amount of moisture consumed and the required level of lighting:
As for the comfortable temperature for hoya, in summer it is 17-25 ºC, and in winter - not lower than 10 ºC, although it would be better to slightly higher - about 15 ºC. The exception is the beautiful hoya (Hoya bella), which loses its leaves from the cold.
At home, the hoya does not have a pronounced dormant period, but if you notice that the plant has slowed down, reduce watering and stop feeding - let the hoya rest. Usually, the hoya stops growing when the daylight becomes short, but if you decide on the issue of additional lighting for the plant, the hoya may skip the dormant period.
In nature, different types of hoya grow in different places, in different soils, and therefore need different types of fertilizers. But according to many observations, the results of which have been published, it is best to feed hoya with fertilizers for flowering succulents - all species respond well to them. And if you regularly transplant hoya into a fresh substrate, then you can not resort to top dressing at all.
Young plants are transplanted annually in spring, and adults - once every three years, if necessary. A large hoye pot is not needed, but buy a new pot for transplanting each time - the one left after any other plant is not good. And even a new pot must be thoroughly washed with ordinary soap before being transplanted into it, and the substrate must be sterilized.
Hoya soil needs breathable, neutral or slightly acidic reaction, preferably of this composition: one part of humus and leafy soil and two parts of clay-sod, but many grow hoya in an orchid substrate and even just in garden soil - it all depends on the type of hoya, therefore approach plant transplantation creatively, having previously studied in what conditions and in what soil your hoya grows in the wild. A drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the pot, the plant is rolled into a new pot along with an earthen lump.
How to propagate hoya if you happen to be the owners of a rare treasure - hoya seeds? Ripe and well-dried hoya seeds in the year of their harvest are sown in a loose substrate consisting of an earthen mixture and chopped sphagnum moss. Seeds germinate within a week, and as soon as shoots appear, you must ensure that the soil in the crops never dries out and at the same time is not wet. Keep the seedling dish in a warm, bright place.
To prevent fungal diseases, spray the seedlings with Bordeaux mixture or any other copper-containing preparation in strict accordance with the instructions. After 90 days, when the seedlings release several pairs of leaves, they are planted in personal pots. However, growing hoya from seeds is hampered by the fact that it is impossible to find seed on sale, and it is almost impossible to get seeds from a hoya growing at home.
This is the easiest and most reliable way to get a new plant, since hoya cuttings take root easily. The stalk should be short, but have at least two nodes and one or two pairs of leaves. You can root cuttings in water or in a substrate. For rooting in water, wrap the container with foil on all sides, making holes for the cuttings. Leave only the top pair of leaves on the cuttings, treat the bottom cuts with root hormone, and push the cuttings through the holes in the foil so deep that the bottom node is in the water.
The temperature for rooting should be no higher than 22 ºC, but high humidity is also important for this process, otherwise the cuttings will simply fade. To increase the air humidity, put a transparent plastic bag on the container with the cuttings, but do not block the air flow under it. Hoya rooting occurs after two weeks, and it is important to transplant the cutting to a permanent place at an early stage of root formation, otherwise the cuttings become fragile and break.
How can you root hoya immediately in the substrate? The rooting soil must be so permeable that excess water can easily flow through it. Treat the bottom cut of the cuttings with a root root before planting. Sterilize the substrate and pot, and place the cutting in the soil so deep that the lower node is in the soil. If the air humidity in the room is low, loosely place a transparent bag over the cuttings pot. After 2-3 weeks, signs of new growth should appear. If you received rooting cuttings in the mail and you think they are too dry, soak them for several hours in slightly sweet water, and they will restore their moisture.
Hoyis are very resistant to all troubles, but if they grow in inappropriate conditions and are poorly cared for, then the plants may have problems with scale insects, aphids and red spider mites, the fight against which consists in treating the hoya with actellic or some other insecticide. but species and varieties with thick leathery leaves can be saved from pests by wiping the leaves with a swab dipped in alcohol. And so that the hoya is not pestered by nematodes, the soil and the pot must be sterilized when transplanting the plants.
Usually, the reasons that the hoya refuses to bloom are overwintering in a room that is too warm, over-fertilizing, too much pruning, or lack of lighting.
What if the hoya does not bloom? Correct care errors: let the plant rest in winter in a cool room - on an insulated unheated loggia or balcony, reducing watering and stopping feeding, and in the spring bring the hoya into the heat under bright diffused light, resume watering and feeding. Also, make sure that the hoya pot is not too large - for an adult plant, 15-20 cm in diameter is enough.
If your plant is suffering from too much heat or insufficient light, its leaves turn yellow. How to deal with this, decide for yourself, having once again studied the rules for keeping a hoya at home.
Most often, hoya is not grown in apartments, but in offices and offices, and the reason for this is superstition. It has long been popularly believed that wax ivy survives from the husband's family and drives adult sons out of the house. Other, equally convincing sources claim that hoya relieves resentment and pacifies envy. There are publications that say that hoya is "a plant of family happiness, it is advisable to put it in the bedroom." What to believe? Maybe you should try to grow hoya at home and clarify the extent of its influence on the fate of a person? You decide. I see in the hoya only a cozy plant with beautiful flowers, which is a pleasure to care for.
Not so long ago, the houseplant hoya in culture was represented only by hoya carnosa, or fleshy hoya and hoya bella, she is beautiful hoya.
An evergreen climbing plant that reaches a length of 6 meters and requires support. Fragrant flowers, white with a pink crown in the center, collected in a rosette. It has small oval leaves, thick and tough, covered with a waxy bloom and silvery markings on a dark green background.
Although there are among the varieties of this species:
Branching shrub with small, ovate-lanceolate, densely growing leaves on hanging shoots. The flowers of this species are so perfect that they seem to be jewelry - small white stars with a purple crown, collected in umbrellas of 7-9 pieces. Leaves, depending on the variety, can be monotonous green or variegated. The beautiful hoya is often grown as an ampelous plant.
In addition to these two well-established species in culture, today the following are becoming more common:
Climbing plant with oblong-linear leaves and numerous yellow flowers with narrow petals and a crown with arcuate spurs;
In nature, a shrub with oval-oblong leathery leaves 15-20 cm long on pubescent cuttings 5-7 cm long. Shoots are also pubescent. Fragrant flowers, collected in umbrellas of 6-10 pieces, with a short pubescent crown, dark red inside and yellow-green outside;
In nature, it is an epiphyte, in culture, the shoots look like densely growing cascades of lashes covered with dark green diamond-shaped leaves up to 6 cm long with curled edges, which makes the leaf plate seem concave. Young shoots are reddish brown. Flowers collected in umbrellas have a white, fleecy corolla with a yellow center;
It has leaves shaped like a heart, therefore it is called "valentine" or "hoya in love". The stems have to be tied up so that they do not fall. The leaves are succulent, 5 to 15 cm long and wide.The pubescent flowers are collected in 15-25 pieces in spherical umbrellas, their color depends on the amount of light in the room where the hoya grows: white with a barely noticeable lemon tint, yellowish, yellow-lemon or pale pink. Move the flower farther from the window or, conversely, closer to it, and the shade of the flowers will change. Moreover, as we age, due to the nectar, which has a dark color, the petals of the flower turn pink, then dark pink, then red-brown.
Hoya serpens (Hoya serpens), fragrant hoya (Hoya odorata), cup-shaped hoya (Hoya calycina), hoya mindorensis (Hoya mindorensis), southern hoya (Hoya australis) and others are also known in culture.
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Lovers of climbing house plants start hoyu at home. This is wax ivy, unpretentious in care, but capricious in flowering. He often does not throw out the buds for several years.
This is due to improper care of the plant, since most amateur owners simply do not know how to make hoya bloom.
Problems can be easily solved if you study all the subtleties before planting or purchasing ivy.
Don't forget to fertilize your jasmine. Wood ash is ideal for feeding this type of plant. It is useful both to simply add it to the soil (soil) and to water it, after kneading it in water.
Fertilize during the period of active growth.
When transplanting your cuttings into a separate pot, be sure to take care of good drainage. Also, for young plants, it is necessary to consider a support, in the form of a wire arc or ladder.
Sprinkle and water the jasmine regularly. This is a moisture-loving plant
Remember, pinching the tops of the plant will help the jasmine to tiller.
Florists practice sowing seeds and rooting stem cuttings. With a certain amount of patience, it is possible to grow a hoya from a single leaf blade. Before propagating hoya at home, you need to familiarize yourself with the existing methods for obtaining new plants.
The best time for hoya breeding is the beginning of the growing season. Although the plant does not have a pronounced rest time, during the cold season of the year, the growth of the vine slows down. With the arrival of spring, hoya lends itself more effectively to reproduction, although it is possible to experiment with rooting of shoots in other months, but not at the time of flowering.
The stalk is cut from a healthy pagon. It should be short - 5-6 cm, consist of two internodes and 1-2 pairs of leaves. The lower leaf blades are removed, leaving only the upper pair. Before rooting the hoya, the cutting is dried for a couple of hours, then the cut is treated with a root formation stimulator - heteroauxin, zircon or root root and buried in a soil mixture or in a vessel with water.
Substrate options for rooting cuttings:
A plate with a handle placed in water or a substrate is covered with plastic wrap or glass on top and regularly moistened with a spray bottle, do not forget to air it quite often. Experienced growers use plastic bottles with a cut off the bottom and provide air access by unscrewing the cork.
A vessel with a rooted handle is placed in a warm place where it is possible to constantly maintain a temperature of 22 degrees Celsius. The roots will appear after 2 weeks. The plant is transplanted into an independent pot without waiting for a developed root system, because, as it lengthens, fragile roots break easily during transplantation.
The leaf is chosen healthy and young, cut off with a small fragment of the petiole - it is there that the growth point is located. This is important because, cut off at the very base, it will remain a leafy blade sticking out in the ground, albeit with roots, and will not form a shoot.
The method of obtaining a new specimen from a separate leaf is similar to how the hoya propagates by a cuttings. The planting material is also dried and treated with root or other root formation stimulant. The composition of the soil mixture is the same, however, the leaves are planted in a cramped pot in several pieces and periodically fed. It will take a long time, about a year, before a pagon is formed from a rooted leaf.
Under indoor conditions, the process of pollination is difficult, and it is almost impossible to become the owner of the planting material. However, if you're lucky, it can be purchased from a specialty store or ordered from suppliers. Hoya seeds in the photo look small, hemispherical and dark chestnut in color, with a characteristic fluff like a dandelion. They ripen in small pods. They should be sown in a soil mixture consisting of leafy and soddy soil mixed with chopped sphagnum moss in the year of harvest.
Seedlings appear quickly, after about a week. The soil is constantly watered, but make sure that excess water flows into the pan through the drainage holes. A vessel with seedlings is kept in a warm corner of the room, and after about 3 months, a plant with 2-4 leaves is seated in separate containers. For the prevention of fungal infection, it is periodically sprayed with Bordeaux liquid.
Knowing how to grow hoya from seeds, many new specimens are obtained, but this method is not entirely suitable for hybrid plants - the parental characteristics of the variety are often lost.
Hoya is planted not only in flowerpots, but also in open areas. If you provide favorable conditions for her outdoors - a light shade in the midday heat, abundant watering, then the vine will develop well. It is recommended to immediately build a support, then the bush will begin to fancifully wrap it around.
In landscape design, hoya is used to beautify gazebos or secluded nooks. It cannot be used in open areas without proper support.
Otherwise, all shoots will creep along the ground. Such an impression will not be created.
While watching the video, you will learn about the hoya.
Thus, hoya is used for decorative cultivation at home in a pot, or for decorating with interesting bright flowers with a fragrant smell of outdoor gazebos.
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Common problems when growing hoya and how to fix them:
Observe the watering regime. The colder it is in the room, the less the hoya needs moisture.
In the spring-summer period, shade from 11 to 17 hours
Transplant into a new substrate, fertilize regularly during the growing season
Drying the tips of the leaves
Low humidity at high air temperature
Spray the leaves (water should not get on the flowers), keep away from heating appliances
The use of an electric autoclave for canning can significantly reduce time costs and improve storage reliability. To learn how to cook deliciously in an autoclave, you should study the technological instructions for preparing each dish separately.
Delicious stew can be obtained from any type of meat
Consider a few simple recipes for homemade stew in an autoclave from pork, beef and chicken. We will lay out the meat in 0.5 liter jars.
You will succeed in the correct homemade stew only if you follow the clear requirements for cooking:
Please note that the cooking time of the stew will depend on the type of meat and the volume of the cans. For greater clarity, I summarized the main indicators in a table:
|Type of stew||The volume of cans, l||Sterilization temperature, С °||Cooking time, min|
|Pork, beef, lamb||0,35||110||30|
Cut the meat into pieces of 50 g. Put chopped onion, pepper and bay leaf on the bottom of the jar. Pour salted water on top. We put the meat and close the lid. We fill in water and start the autoclave.
Rinse the beef and cut into even cubes. Coarsely chop the onions and carrots, put them on the bottom of the jar. Add bay leaves and pepper. Place the meat loosely and salt. We load the cans into the autoclave, pour water and start the extinguishing process.
Cut the chicken into small pieces, rub with salt and finely chopped bay leaves. We put the jar, add pepper and spices. That's it, the meat is ready for stewing.
Feel free to experiment with ingredients. Try adding tomato paste, cereals, and garlic to meat. After all, the strict cooking rules only apply to the stewing process itself. The content of the jar is a space for your improvisation.
Failures in cooking stew occurs if you violate the requirements for the sterilization process. Here are the most common mistakes:
When working with an autoclave, you should take into account some of the nuances that will help you avoid troubles when working with the device and prepare delicious homemade canned fish:
Nothing can be tastier than fish canned in oil with spices. The only exceptions are canned fish, prepared at home, where you know how much and what you put in the jar.
Natural fish with the addition of oil is prepared according to the following technology (based on a 0.5 liter can):
When preparing canned food according to this recipe, it should be borne in mind that 1 half-liter can of homemade canned food is obtained from 0.5 kg of fish.
Fish cooked in a tomato is also tasty in an autoclave. One of the most budgetary options for canned food is gobies in tomato, which are in no way inferior to factory products in taste. According to the recipe below, you can prepare 8 half-liter cans of canned fish.
To do this, you need to buy 5 kg of fish in advance and clean it by removing the head and entrails. Then add salt to the gobies and leave in a bowl for 2 hours to absorb enough salt. Then the fish is fried in flour breadcrumbs until cooked.
At the next stage, tomato filling is prepared. To do this, fry the onion (0.5 kg) in vegetable oil, then add tomato paste (150 g) and 6 tablespoons of sugar. When the frying is ready, it is transferred to a saucepan of boiling water (1.7 L) and vinegar (2 tablespoons) is added. As soon as the tomato sauce boils, the pan is removed from the heat.
Now you can start preparing canned fish in a special apparatus (home autoclave). To do this, a couple of spoons of tomato fry are poured onto the bottom of sterilized cans, and then gobies are placed on top. When all the fish is decomposed, the rest of the frying must be poured evenly over all the jars. After that, they put on lids and roll them up with a tin key. The home autoclave is installed on a gas stove and the temperature in the apparatus is brought to 110 degrees at maximum fire, and then it is held for 1 hour. After the time has elapsed, the stove is turned off, and the cans are left in the apparatus until they cool completely.
Homemade canned carp is prepared using the same technology as any other fish in oil. First, the jars and lids are prepared. Then they start processing the fish. In crucian carp, the head, gills, entrails and all fins are removed. Then the fish is cut into small pieces across the ridge, and if the crucians are large, then along. After that, you need to salt it to taste.
To prepare canned food according to this recipe, you will need fillets of any fresh fish. It is cut into 80 g pieces, salted and tamped into jars along with allspice and bay leaves. But even more delicious and aromatic are canned fish in an autoclave, cooked with vegetables. To do this, when applying raw materials, 30 g of carrots and onions are added to the jar. Vegetables can be cut into small pieces or left intact.
The cooking time of fish fillets in an autoclave should not exceed 25 minutes. Otherwise, the fish pieces will turn into a fragrant porridge.
Canned sprat in tomato sauce, loved by many, can be prepared independently using an autoclave. To do this, it is not at all necessary to clean the fish, especially if it is small. This is exactly how canned fish is prepared in an autoclave on an industrial scale - sprat is taken right with the head. In addition to fish, you will also need tomato filling. To cook it, you need to add tomato sauce (400 ml) to the onions and carrots fried in a pan. You will also need black peppercorns (3 pcs.), Bay leaves (2 pcs.), 2 cloves of garlic and sugar (1 tsp). You can buy the sauce at the store or make your own using tomato paste, water, and spices.
When the filling is ready, add salted sprat (500 g) to it, mix everything well and tamp it into jars. Canned food is prepared for 1.5 hours at a temperature of 110 degrees and a pressure inside the autoclave of 4 atmospheres.
Recipe for canned fish in broth
A wide variety of fish dishes are prepared at home in an autoclave. This recipe uses a strong fish broth. After such canned food has stood for some time in a jar, the liquid thickens a little like jellied meat.
Important! If the temperature regime is not observed in the autoclave, the fish will end up either raw or overcooked.
Canned fish in an autoclave with beans
Canned fish with beans is a separate dish that is perfect for both lunch and dinner.
Canned fish in an autoclave are no worse than those sold in the store. The fish retains its juice, taste, remains very healthy and nutritious. Such dishes are simple to prepare. The main thing is to find a suitable recipe that the family will like and follow the rules of cooking.
An excellent delicate pate is best prepared from small river fish. There will be no bones in the pleasant creamy mass, it is easy to use it for making sandwiches and tartlets. What you need: small fish - 1 kg, 300 g butter, 5 carrots, 4 onions, a handful of black peas, a bunch of cilantro greens, salt to taste.
An appetizing fish paste can be prepared in steps: Put the washed onion head with husks in a saucepan, add pepper with peeled fish and fill the workpiece with water. Turn on low heat and bring the broth to a boil, skimming off the foam. Cover the container with a lid and simmer for 4 hours to soften the bones.
Fry chopped onions with carrots until golden brown. Add chopped cilantro to the vegetables. Mix vegetables with fish, thoroughly beat all components with a blender, distribute among washed jars and put into an autoclave. Hold at 120 ℃ for 40 minutes, cool and keep cool.
Plain and nutritious canned fish balls can be an excellent addition to soup or noodles. It is necessary to prepare for 10 cans with a capacity of 0.5 l: fillet of white fish (pike perch, carp, pike) - 2.7 kg, ½ loaf of bread, 4-5 onions, 4 eggs, a glass of vegetable oil, a pinch of allspice and black pepper, 50 g of fine salt , 2 bay leaves.
In the preparation of meatballs from fish, you should perform the following actions: Cut the fillet into pieces and salt at the rate of 1 tbsp. l. for 1 kg of fish. Leave the fillet to salt for half an hour. Scroll the fish through a meat grinder with bread soaked in water and chopped onions fried in butter. Add eggs to the minced meat, add salt and pepper. Form balls weighing about 40-50 g from carefully mixed minced meat.
From the fish leftovers, cook 1.5 hours of strong broth based on the calculation of 1 kg of waste per 1.5 liters of water. Salt broth, strain and boil meatballs in it. Using a slotted spoon, put the meatballs in the washed jars. Pour 3/2 with strained broth. Roll up and sterilize at 105 ℃ for 2 hours.
You can make any mushrooms in an autoclave. They are pre-cleaned, trimmed, cut, if necessary. Excess liquid is removed by frying in vegetable oil.
Next, the mushrooms are immersed in the bottom of the container, finely chopped onions and carrots are added if desired, seasonings, salt (one teaspoon per kilogram of mushrooms). Simmer in an autoclave for about 50 minutes at 110 degrees.
The meat is fried, the bacon is heated in a frying pan. Place the meat in layers with seasonings so that they fill no more than half of the container. Sterilize for 50 minutes at 110 degrees.
|Ingredients||0.5 l can||1 l can|
|Raw meat, g||190||360|
|Wheat flour, g||14||25|
|Peeled onions, g||60||110|
|Fat for frying onions, g||15||25|
|Black pepper. r||1||2|
|Peeled carrots, g||25||50|
|Bay leaf, pcs.||1||2|
|Fresh cabbage, g||250||450|
|Tomato paste (30%). r||23||46|
|Raw materials||Consumption rates of raw materials in g per 1 kg of pilaf|
|Lamb Lamb fat melted Rice Carrots Onions Salt Red pepper Black pepper Fat||284,2 87,9 298,3 344,2 112,4 12,1 0,91 2,22 14,1|
The lamb is thinly cut and fried until light golden tone. The cans fill her by a quarter. Next, lay out the washed cereals so that the entire composition fills half of the container. Pour water - up to three quarters. Sterilization is carried out for 40 minutes at 120 degrees.
|Ingredients||0.5 l can||1 l can|
|Fried meat (raw), g||400 (705)||800 (1400)|
|Melted fat, g||70||140|
|Ground black pepper, g||1||2|
|Bay leaf, pcs.||1||2|
|Tomato paste (12%), g||30||60|
|Wheat flour, g||15||30|
Pre-prepared minced meat is spread in sterilized jars. Add water - 4-5 tablespoons per kilogram will be enough. Sterilization for 50 minutes at 110 degrees.
Seasonal vegetables are also very tasty in the autoclave. They can be eaten as a regular stew, added to pasta and cereals, and used as frying for delicious soup or borscht in the cold season. You will need to take:
The main thing is to consistently fry the vegetable. In this case, they will not darken and retain their shape even with long-term storage of the cans.
First, eggplants are fried for 4 minutes, put in a separate container. Pepper cut into strips is fried in the remaining oil, after 5 minutes onions and carrots are thrown to it. After the onion has become golden, the tomatoes are added, which are also finely chopped.
Seasonings are placed at the bottom of the jars, you can use dill umbrellas, add garlic. Lay out the vegetables in layers, remembering to sprinkle each layer with salt. Sterilization in an autoclave is incomplete - only 20 minutes at average temperatures.
For preservation you will need to take:
Tomatoes are chosen as ripe as possible, juicy, with a thin skin. Vegetables are passed through a meat grinder, then boiled in a pan or in an enamel container to half the initial volume. Other vegetables are also chopped - with a knife, blender or in a meat grinder. Everything is mixed and poured into jars. Sterilization takes at least half an hour at 110 degrees.
The convenience of this preparation is that any poultry meat can be used. Tasty if you take chicken, but you can take duck, goose, turkey, or supplement the chicken with other meat. There can be a large number of combinations, so you can try different options for blanks.
Per kilogram of the main ingredient is taken:
You need to cut the meat into small pieces - about 2 centimeters long and wide. Not fried, put it in a container, add onion, spices and seasonings cut into rings or half rings down and on top. In an autoclave, the composition will be prepared in just half an hour at a temperature of 110 degrees.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that there is fat in the meat of a goose, turkey, so it serves as a natural oil when kindling for frying. Chicken has a minimum of it, so you need to add a little boiled water.