A group of taped gooseberry bushes
on a vertical trellis in the form of the letter P
Traditionally, vertical formation is used when growing a variety of climbing plants (for example, lemongrass, actinidia, clematis, etc.), and raspberries and blackberries are grown in this way from the usual garden crops in our harsh latitudes. As for the gooseberry, it was always and everywhere grown by an ordinary bush and nothing else, since this is the way of formation, as it were, assigned to this plant and by nature itself.
Recently, however, more and more often there are notes and articles about the experience of growing gooseberries (as well as red currants) on trellises. Sometimes, it happens, even more exotic variants of formation are mentioned - elite, cordon and others, but they can already interest only incredible enthusiasts.
The classic and trellis variants of the formation have their pros and cons, according to which some gardeners are inclined in favor of the classics, while others - in favor of the newfangled trellis. However, due to a number of circumstances, twenty years ago, I was forced to come up with my own way of forming gooseberry bushes, in fact, simply taking the best of the two above technologies. Two reasons prompted me to such an innovation: on the one hand, at that time I could only take a small area under the gooseberries, but at the same time I wanted to achieve a very high yield, since the berries of this crop are consumed in our family in large quantities.
On the other hand, in those days, again, due to a number of circumstances, there were practically no assistants in my garden-vegetable garden, and, therefore, I simply could not stop at a more labor-intensive tapestry technology. The result of the experiments was my version of shaping - a kind of "hybrid of a tapestry and a classic".
Gooseberry bush formed on a trellis
strewn with berries from bottom to top
When grown on a trellis, it is assumed that the number of branches is limited, and there can be no branches in the bush that are not vertically. As a result, the bush becomes quite flat. In principle, this is a plus, since such an arrangement of branches allows you to take a narrow strip of soil under the gooseberry, which may be interesting for a number of gardeners who have garden plots of modest size.
However, tapestry technology has two significant drawbacks. First, you have to remove good horizontal branches, which for some reason cannot be directed vertically. And this is unreasonable (good branches must be protected). Secondly, due to the "flatness" of the bush, the yield from it turns out to be lower than theoretically it could be.
Therefore, if the area allows, it is more efficient to distribute the maximum possible number of branches (in terms of illumination and ventilation) over the entire available light space - that is, not only vertically, but also horizontally (more precisely, approximately at an angle of 45 °, which is usually obtained with the classic formation, when the bushes are fenced off).
This will be a variant of the formation, appearing under the name "A hybrid of trellis and classics", in which the bushes occupy the maximum possible space - both vertically and horizontally.
formed on a trellis parallelepiped
Let's dwell on the features of such a formation.
First two years (that is, at the initial stage of development) the bushes are pruned in the usual way - in other words, they form a base of strong branches. This means that all the weak, dry, sick and lying on the ground shoots (they only thicken the bush and reduce the future yield) are cut out. In addition, the frozen one-year growths are cut off to the surviving buds (with access to the healthy part). Such pruning can be carried out both in late autumn and in spring (an exception is pruning of frozen annual growths, which is always done in spring).
In the third year around the bush (or several bushes planted with a tape), a temporary square fence is installed, and when several bushes are planted, a rectangular fence 30-35 cm high. That is, approximately the same as that installed in the classical formation. In this case, the branches are evenly distributed inside it, if necessary, some of the branches are tied with twine (the branches should be tied with twine, and not with cotton ropes, the service life of which is very short).
In the fourth year inside this fence, wooden trellises with a height of 2 m are installed. When planting bushes with a tape, the trellis should look like the letter "P", and for bushes planted one by one, you can make a trellis in the form of a parallelepiped - a kind of additional fence located inside the main one. After that, a part of the shoots suitable for the slope is tied to the trellis, trying to cover the largest part of the light space with them.
In the fifth yearwhen the bush already has many long strong branches, a number of which bends too low, the temporary fence is replaced with a permanent one. It is made higher (approximately 50-60 cm high) and much larger in the area of the temporary fence. Then all the branches are evenly redistributed over the fence, while checking if any of them need to be directed vertically, tying them to the trellises. As a result of such a redistribution, the main goal should be achieved - to form the maximum permissible (in terms of illumination and ventilation) number of strong branches.
It should be noted that the heights of all wooden structures are indicated more than approximately, since they depend on the height of specific gooseberry varieties and the conditions for their cultivation (in particular, the degree of soil fertility). For example, I have a gooseberry planted on APIONs (APIONs are long-term fertilizers that provide a continuous supply of nutrients to the roots of plants, which allows you to use every day of the growing season with maximum efficiency). Therefore, it reaches over two meters.
In a nutshell, let's focus on the pros and cons of the considered option for the formation of gooseberries... The pluses include:
The spectacular appearance of the bushes should also be noted - at the time of flowering and fruiting, they look at least fabulous, and all passing neighbors admire them.
Unfortunately, this technology also has its drawbacks. Firstly, the considered shaping option cannot be used for non-frost-resistant gooseberry varieties, since there is no guarantee that tall bushes will be covered with snow before the onset of frost.
Secondly, in comparison with the classical approach, the use of this technique requires a certain additional time from the gardener to redistribute and tie the branches.
Also, one cannot fail to say about some of the difficulties that may arise in the process of pruning, since there are many branches, and you need to wield a pruner among them carefully so as not to be scratched by a large number of thorns.
The latter, however, is no longer so relevant today, since both high-quality secateurs and special gloves that are able to protect hands from thorns can be found on sale without any problems.
Photo by the author
Regular and accurate pruning is an essential element of proper maintenance of trellis trees. It is she who allows you to give the tree the desired shape and position it on the supports as it should.
For pruning, you need a sharpened pruner, and all cuts must be done at an angle.
Young trees are pruned in early spring, before the growing season has begun, and no more than once a year. The exceptions are cherries and plums - they are best cut in late spring, summer or early fall.
During spring pruning, the tree is given the desired shape, forming the length of the trunk and branches.
The tree that begins to bear fruit is pruned twice a year. Moreover, additional pruning is carried out in the summer, during the ripening period of the fruit. First of all, remove the branches that cover ripening fruits from the sun, then diseased, dry and damaged ones. Formative pruning relieves the tree of dense foliage, which allows nutrients to be directed to the development of fruits and, as a result, to a rich harvest. New branches are cut with a margin of 1 cm after the growth nodule.
Crops that produce large fruits (peaches, plums, apple trees) are thinned first, removing weak and unhealthy fruits. The rest of the fruits will develop better, look healthier and delight you with their appearance and taste.
Trellis trees are a great opportunity to get a bountiful and healthy harvest from a small area. All that is required of you is timely pruning and watering of trees. If you have experience of growing trees on a trellis, be sure to share it on our forum.
The hassle with cucumbers that grow on trellises or in barrels is usually much less than those with those that are planted in ordinary beds. In addition, the yield of such cucumbers is usually quite high. One barrel of cucumbers is equal to one bed, so those who want to save space on the site will certainly like this method.
Royal berry - so often called gooseberry - apparently because from it, both in the old days, and now they prepare the so-called royal jam (gooseberry with a cherry leaf).
There are over a thousand gooseberry varieties , in some of them the berries reach the size of a plum. Gooseberries bear fruit annually and abundantly. The most common in the middle lane, including in Belarus, the following gooseberry varieties : early - Pioneer, Spring mid-season - English yellow, Kaplya, Malachite, London, Change mid-late and late - Five-Year Plan, Generous and others.
Gooseberry - This is a relatively small bush, reaching a height of 80 - 120 cm. Depending on the variety, the bushes can be vigorous (within the size of this culture), medium-sized, erect, compact, spreading. Shoots in the vast majority of varieties are covered with thorns and thorns, so gooseberries must be handled carefully.
The flowers of the gooseberry are bisexual, mostly self-pollinating.
Like a currant gooseberry bush, it consists of branches of different ages. On young basal shoots of zero order, appearing at the base of the bush, lateral branches of the first order grow the next year. In total, gooseberry branches have up to 5-6 orders of branching. The shortest are fruit. They are formed on two-year-old wood and live for 5-6 years. The greatest yield is given by 2 - 3-year-old fruits. The berries ripen after flowering in 50-60 days.
Breeds gooseberry horizontal layering. It is better to take them from young or rejuvenated bushes. Branches for layering are laid in early spring, as soon as the soil warms up. The soil under the bush must be carefully dug up, mixed with fertilizers and leveled by removing the rhizomes of the weeds. For rooting, well-developed one- and two-year branches with strong lateral growths are selected. In the soil from the base of the bush, shallow grooves are made and branches intended for reproduction are pinned in them with flyers. When green shoots reach 10-12 cm in length, they are sprinkled halfway with wet humus or compost mixed with earth. After 15 - 20 days, the powder is repeated. Depending on the moisture content of the soil and the condition of the mother bush, a good root system develops within one to two years.
Bushes gooseberry grow quickly, dropping branches to the ground itself - you cannot approach when picking berries. In addition, the soil under the bushes needs to be loosened and weeds removed. The way out is pretty simple. You need to drive a stake closer to the middle of the bush, and drive a few nails into its end. They are tied to laces with hooks at the ends (hooks are usually made from the forks of dry branches), which will hold the gooseberry branches at the desired height.
The same operation can be carried out using a rectangular frame made of strips (height - 20 - 30 cm). Branches raised above the ground are less affected by powdery mildew.
Have gooseberry many enemies: leaf rollers, scale insects, pale-footed gooseberry sawfly, moth, powdery mildew and other insect pests and diseases. One of the most dangerous and common pests is the gooseberry moth. Let us dwell on the measures to combat it in more detail.
Gooseberry moth caterpillars gnaw the contents of the berries. Damaged fruits are clearly visible: long before ripening, they turn red and dry out, entangled in cobwebs with caterpillar excrement. Pupae overwinter in spider cocoons in the upper layers of the soil under the bushes. Moth butterflies fly out before the gooseberry bloom, lay their eggs in flowers. Caterpillars that appear soon take root in the ovaries and eat up their contents. The moth caterpillars feed for about a month. Each can damage up to 6 berries. Adult caterpillars reach 18 mm in length - they are bright green with a black head. For pupation and wintering, the caterpillars go into the soil before the harvest ripens.
Measures to combat gooseberry moth: collecting and destroying damaged berries (while caterpillars feed on them) spraying the bushes before flowering and immediately after flowering with one of the microbiological preparations (1% bitoxybacillin, 0.5% denDro bacillin, 0.3% lepidocide) during the formation of berries, it is effective to use infusions of mustard, tops and stepchildren of tomatoes, large celandine, wood ash. Spraying is best done when young caterpillars begin to emerge from the first berries they damage and crawl into other berries.
The gooseberry moth also affects all types of currants.
Gooseberry - This is a fast-growing, high-yielding, annually fruiting culture, moderately demanding on the soil, relatively winter-hardy and resistant to fungal diseases.
Gooseberry can be eaten at various stages of maturity. Unripe, green berries are processed into compotes, half-ripe ones are used to make jam, and ripe berries are a wonderful dessert.
The color of the berries depends on the variety: white, yellow, light cherry red to almost black. In terms of vitamin PP content, they surpass strawberries. Gooseberry berries contain biologically active hypotensive and capillary-strengthening P-active compounds, vitamins, as well as pectin, which promotes the elimination of heavy metal salts from the body.
Gooseberries are easily propagated by root suckers, rooted cuttings, bush division and shoots on the mother plant.
The structure of the gooseberry bush.
A bush with a height of 80-150 cm and a diameter of 120-200 cm, depending on the variety, consists of branches of different ages. Branches of the first, second and subsequent orders develop on young basal shoots of the zero order.In total, there can be 5-6 branching orders on a bush. On the shoots of the second and subsequent orders, fruits are formed, functioning for 2-4 years. In the future, their productivity decreases.
Gooseberry flowers are bisexual, most varieties are self-fertile. Flowering occurs earlier than other berry crops, so sometimes spring frosts damage some of the flowers and the berry yield decreases.
The roots are located at a depth of 10-40 cm. In some snowless winters, they can freeze slightly. The gooseberry is undemanding to the soil: it grows well on clay, loamy, sandy loam and sandy soils, but does not tolerate acidic, swampy and cold soils, heavy clay soils with standing groundwater. When growing on clay soils, it is necessary to use frequent loosening, and on sandy and sandy soils, organic fertilizers should be applied annually. Gooseberry plants need good light, so it is recommended to plant them in open areas.
Propagation by horizontal layers.
Reproduction by horizontal layers.
The aboveground parts of the gooseberry, in contact with the loose moist soil, easily and quickly form roots. Given this biological feature, gooseberries can be propagated by horizontal layers. This is the simplest and most affordable way to obtain planting material. Layers are taken from young or rejuvenated bushes.
In early spring, as soon as the soil warms up, shallow grooves are dug near the bush and the longest annual branches of the zero order are laid in them, without separating them from the bush and pinning them to the ground with hooks made of aluminum wire or wooden slingshot branches. When green twigs up to 10 cm long appear on the laid shoots, they are sprinkled with earth on top, watered and mulched well. As the shoots grow, they are re-spudded with earth and humus. During the growing season, the soil moisture is monitored by rooting cuttings. The soil under these bushes should be free of all vegetation, especially wheatgrass. On a good young mother bush, with careful care, in 1-2 years you can get high-quality cuttings with a powerful root system and several aerial shoots.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
Gooseberry propagation by dividing the bush
One of the easiest breeding methods. To do this, the bush is dug up, all the old branches are cut off and the bush is divided into parts, so that the new seedlings have both roots and branches.
Propagation by lignified cuttings
In the fall, an annual basal branch is cut off and cuttings 15 cm long are cut from its middle. Place the cutting in wet sand. Having kept there for 2 months at a temperature of 2-3 ° C, and then placed in a snow pile and covered with sawdust until spring planting.
Reproduction on the mother plant.
Reproduction of a seedling on a mother plant
Choose a good one-two-year-old shoot, put on it a polyethylene sleeve with a diameter of 15-20, 25-30 cm long. The lower end of the sleeve is tied with twine around the shoot. A growth stimulator is poured into it (according to the instructions). Pull the sleeve up so that the solution in it rises by 10-12 cm, and tied up with a twine. This bubble is covered with a thick paper cap and left for 20-40 hours. Then the solution is drained and replaced with a nutrient mixture of 1 part of humus and 2 parts of aerated peat (which has lain for a year or two in an open place). After a week and a half, roots are formed. If rooting began at the end of April, then three months later, at the end of July, it will already have roots. The sleeve is removed, the rooted branch is cut off, grabbing 2 cm of the mother. They plant (in the usual way) 2-3 such branches in the hole. And the harvest from young bushes is already obtained for 2-3 years.
Site preparation begins with digging. All weeds, especially wheatgrass, are removed at the same time. It is combed out with a pitchfork, a rake, or better by hand, while not a single, even insignificant, section of wheatgrass should be left, since this weed multiplies very quickly and suppresses all cultivated plants. For the complete destruction of wheatgrass, it is necessary to weed the aisles 3-4 more times per season. It is advisable to apply organic fertilizers to the loosened and weed-free soil - manure, humus, compost at the rate of 2-4 kg per 1 m 2. The poorer the soil, the higher the dose of organic fertilizers. Additionally, they are applied per 1 m 2 (20-30 g of urea, 30-50 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium chloride).
If there is little organic matter, it is better to add it to the planting pits. Pits are dug under the gooseberry with a depth of 30-40 cm and a width of 40-50 cm. If the soil is sandy, it is necessary to put clay on the bottom of the pit with a layer of 5-7 cm, and if it is heavy clay - coarse river sand. Then a bucket of organic fertilizers is applied (humus, compost, peat), mineral fertilizers (superphosphate 250-300 g, potassium salt 30-40 g, wood ash 300 g), and on top of the garden nutrient soil. Planting scheme for gooseberry plants 1.5 x 1.5 or 1.0 x 1.5 m.
Pruning gooseberries when planting.
The best time for planting gooseberries is late September - early October. In this case, the plants will root well before frost, and in early spring they will begin to grow normally. Spring planting should be very early: before bud break.
Gooseberries can form additional roots. Therefore, on sandy and light sandy loam soils, plants should be planted 5-6 cm lower than they grew during rooting. For better rooting of plants on heavy clay soil, it is recommended to plant them at an angle.
It consists in the systematic destruction of weeds, loosening the soil, top dressing, watering and pruning the bushes. Such activities are performed if necessary.
Gooseberries begin to vegetate earlier than other crops in the spring. Therefore, caring for him should be started earlier. Even before the kidneys swell, give him a hot shower (exactly the same as for currants) - boil water and immediately pour it into a watering can. Pour this hot water over a bush. This will heal the plant. Then scatter fertilizers in the near-trunk circle (for example, scatter the ash in a thin layer), loosen the soil and mulch or simply cover it (with thick paper, roofing material, covering material, film). This will heal the plant and save you from many troubles. When blooming from frost, use lightweight film shelters, as such shelters will protect from cold rains.
The gooseberry root system is shallow, and moderate soil moisture is required for good growth and fruiting. Plants should be watered frequently, especially when the weather is dry during the growing season.
Approximate doses of fertilization on the bush: (manure or compost 8-10 kg, ammonium nitrate 30-50 g, potassium chloride 20-30 g, superphosphate 50-80 d).
The structure of the gooseberry bush.
The tasks of pruning are to form a full-fledged bush with many branches of different ages and maintain its high stable yield. The gooseberry pruning technique is no different from the red and white currant pruning technique). They cut out small, thickening shoots, replace old skeletal branches with new ones of zero order. It should be noted that the most valuable gooseberry branches are 5-7 years old, and the most valuable branches are of the first, second and third orders. Branches of the fourth and fifth orders on branches older than seven years of age are unproductive. Branches older than 8-10 years are cut at the base to obtain zero-order shoots that will replace the aging ones. You should not cut off the tops of the shoots, except for those cases when small berries are formed from the apical flower buds. Then light anti-aging is applied.
Gooseberry bush formation.
Plants are damaged by the gooseberry sawfly and the gooseberry moth, whose larvae eat up the leaves, sometimes completely exposing the bushes, the gooseberry moth, whose caterpillars damage the berries, the gooseberry shoot aphid, which sucks the juice from the leaves and young shoots.
Gooseberries are affected by powdery mildew, which manifests itself in the form of a white powdery coating on all parts of the plants, white spot, rust affecting the leaves.
It is necessary to systematically carry out measures to protect against pests and diseases.
The scheme for pruning gooseberries in autumn differs from the spring removal of shoots. It can be carried out within a year after planting the gooseberry. Held in autumn after harvest or in early spring. Throughout the growing season, the bush loves to sprout young shoots. In late autumn, the plant is completely overgrown. There is nothing difficult in pruning gooseberries in the fall, even a beginner can handle it. Don't be afraid to cut a lot of branches.
Correct bush processing technique:
Thanks to this treatment, the bush will withstand the winter..
Gooseberries are grown on a trellis and in a standard way. Experienced gardeners claim that the most convenient harvesting process is in the classic bush creation.
This cultivation of gooseberries is explained by the formation of a tree from it with one main trunk. The method makes processing, watering, loosening and picking berries easier. The fruits are getting larger. They are illuminated by the sun and are well ventilated, the risk of berry diseases is reduced. The stamp method includes 2 types: the first is to create the main plant pillar or grafting gooseberries onto a stem.
The method is achieved in more than one year.
Achala agrus is planted in a temporary place. After a year, the dry branches that have borne fruit are cut off, and young replacement shoots remain. Of all these shoots, the most powerful and strong ones stand out, the rest are cut off. After harvesting, it is they who will become the trunk heads in the future. Subsequently, the base of the bush is tied to a peg for fixation. In the third year, large fruits will already be formed. Root shoots throughout the growing season fully trimmed... On the stem of the stem, the side branches are shortened, in which 1 bud each remains.
In the fourth year of fruiting, the bush forms a powerful root system. 1 or 2 stepsons remain on the plant, which will subsequently replace the old agrus. After harvesting, the main stem is completely removed. Pruning should be regular in subsequent years. It is possible to form a bush with two or three trunks if it is powerful. Here, gardeners limit themselves to circumcision of children, who thicken it and leave only 3 replacement stepsons.
You can form a gooseberry bole on golden currants. To do this, it is necessary to graft it on two-year-old shoots of a berry plant by copulation or by saddle at the end of August. Gooseberries are grafted at a height of 50 cm to one meter, depending on the state of the currant branches.
The currant stock must be grown independently from cuttings. Forcing is carried out by a vertical process. Yoshta offspring are straight, even, winter-hardy, not susceptible to disease. The lateral shoots of this trunk are pinched. The permanent place of the standard gooseberry should be at a distance of one meter from other seedlings, and between the rows - 2 m.
The method is not new and has not been used for a single year by European gardeners in many countries of the world. The method is problematic in plant care, but it increases yields. Branches on the trellis bush are evenly distributed in one plane. This increases the penetration of sunlight throughout the day.
The berries ripen earlier than under normal conditions. It is convenient to pick fruits from the trellis, they reach a weight of 6-7 grams. The cultivation method provides unhindered access to berries, as well as when caring for plants.Regular pruning prevents the development of powdery mildew that attacks the tops of the stems.
Gooseberries of any variety are grown on the trellis, the most suitable tall and medium-sized species.
The structure is installed simultaneously with the planting of the bush. Metal pipes or wooden poles up to two meters are used. Parallel to the ground, a wire is stretched in three levels at a distance of 50 cm between each other. Gooseberry shoots are planted in the fall at an interval of 50 cm between the bushes. After disembarkation, all branches are cut off. Each has 3 buds.
In the spring, the strongest shoots are selected, the rest are removed at ground level. Other stems are fanned out on the trellis, tied to the lower wire and the tops are cut off. The buds that are higher than 30 cm from the ground are removed. Next year, the stems grow and are tied at the next level of the trellis. Regrown shoots are removed, lateral growths of the second year are shortened by 5 leaves. The circumcision procedure is performed in the middle of summer. Such processing is feasible for five years, which gives an excellent harvest. In subsequent years, the bush must be rejuvenated.
It is important that the trellis - a structure made of wood or wire - is reliable, firmly anchored in the ground, capable of supporting the weight of the plant. Think about how you will repair it, because fruit trees live a long time. Pruning to shape the trees in the right shape, although it requires certain skills, does not require too much effort, if you choose the right species and varieties for this.
The trellis wire is easily deformed, therefore, before tying up the shoots, it must be additionally tightened.
Willow rods are a natural strapping material. Over time, their binding strength weakens, so there is no danger that the twigs will grow into the bark of the growing branches.
Horizontal two-armed cordon - two branches are directed horizontally in different directions and tied to a tightly stretched wire. The lateral shoots that appear then are shortened.
Fan palmette - lateral shoots are directed horizontally to the right and left of the trunk or diagonally upward.
Vertical palmette - the minimum distance between the individual "floors" must be 30 cm.
Most suitable shape trellis for apricots, peaches, as well as cherries and cherries are fan palmette.
1. To flat peaches the variety belongs 'Nikitsky flat'. So they are called because of the characteristic shape of the fruit. The juicy pulp is easily separated from the stone and almost does not lose juice when biting the fruit.
2. 'Triumph of the North' - one of the most reliable apricot varieties for the Non-Black Earth Region: winter-hardy, resistant to spring frosts and various diseases, and even self-pollinated. In spring, the tree blooms beautifully, and by the end of summer, juicy and fragrant fruits ripen on it, which firmly hold on to the branches even in strong winds).
3. Sweet cherry 'Ovstuzhenka' refers to conditionally self-fertile varieties. The flowers are resistant to spring frost.
4. Maroon fruits cherry ‘Chocolate girl’ sweet, with a slight sourness, in appearance and taste they resemble southern cherries.
All classic and modern artificial crowns developed mainly for apple and pear. On fan palmette, you can also grow stone fruits - apricots, cherries, peaches and some berry bushes, such as currants. But not all varieties fruit trees are suitable for forming:
1. 'Desirable' - apple variety with late summer ripening, winter-hardy and scab resistant. Suitable for growing on dwarf rootstocks.
2. Variety 'Gala Shniga' originally from South Tyrol. Brightly colored fruits of sweet and sour taste ripen in September. Trees of this variety lend themselves to the most modern types of shaping and are ideal for growing on trellises.
3. 'Christmas' - variety with fruits of early winter ripening period, absolutely resistant to scab. Attractive, dessert-flavored apples can be stored until the New Year and longer.
4. American cultivar 'Welsey' well known in Russia since the end of the 19th century. It is valued for its high yield and excellent taste of large, beautiful fruits of winter consumption. By the nature of the growth of the main branches, it is suitable for fan-type trellises.
1. Pear of the ‘Chizhovskaya’ variety- the most popular among gardeners near Moscow, it was bred at the Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy. The pear fruits of this summer and very winter-hardy variety are sweet and sour, with a delicate aroma, they can hang on the tree for a long time without crumbling.
2. 'Cathedral' - also a summer winter-hardy variety, created in Timiryazevka and intended for central Russia. The fruits ripen in the second half of August and are suitable for drying.
3. At the ‘Otradnenskaya’ albeit not the most delicious fruits, but very bright, not crumbling for a long time and very shelf life - up to 120 days (at 0 ° C). And the plants themselves are resistant to extreme environmental conditions and diseases.
4. ‘Smart Efimova’ - an early autumn pear variety, bred back in 1936. The fruits, however, should be picked a little unripe for food and allowed to lie down for 2-3 weeks.
The dignity of fruit trees with artificially formed crowns is not only decorative:
As for the varieties, preference should be given zoned for the area and also grafted onto a low-growing, better dwarf stock.