Cauliflower: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open field, photo


Garden plants

Cauliflower (Latin Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis) - a common cultivar of the Botrytis group of the type of cabbage. This plant does not occur in the wild. There is an opinion that cauliflower was introduced into the culture by the Syrians, therefore for a long time it was called Syrian cabbage. Ibn Sina recommended it as a winter vitamin product. In the XII century, the Arabs brought cauliflower to Spain, and the Syrians - to the island of Cyprus, and by the XIV century some varieties of cauliflower were grown in Italy, England, Holland and France.
Today, the culture is widely cultivated not only in Europe, but also in Asian countries, as well as in the countries of North and South America.

Planting and caring for cauliflower

  • Landing: sowing seeds of early varieties for seedlings - in late February or early March, transplanting seedlings into the ground - from April 25 to May 15. Sowing seeds of mid-season varieties for seedlings - in the second decade of April, and planting seedlings in beds - from May 20 to June 15. Seeds of late varieties are sown a month after mid-season, and seedlings are planted in open ground a month after sowing.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: podzolic loams and chernozems with a pH of 6.7-7.4.
  • Watering: regular and sufficient: on average once a week, but immediately after planting, the seedlings are watered twice as often. Water consumption is 6-8 liters per square meter, but with the growth of cabbage, the amount of water will increase.
  • Top dressing: 3-4 times per season: 1st - 3 weeks after planting seedlings in the ground, with mullein solution, spending half a liter for each plant. 10 days after the first feeding, the second is carried out, adding a tablespoon of Crystallin to 10 liters of mullein solution and spending a liter of fertilizer for each plant. The third feeding is carried out with mineral fertilizer after another two weeks: 2 tablespoons of Nitrofoski are dissolved in 10 liters of water and 6-8 liters are consumed for each m² of the garden.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: cruciferous fleas, cabbage flies, cabbage aphids, cabbage moths, whiteworms, and scoops.
  • Diseases: Alternaria, keela, downy mildew (downy mildew), ring spot, mucous bacteriosis (wet rot), vascular bacteriosis, fusarium (jaundice), black leg, viral mosaic.

Read more about growing cauliflower below.

Cauliflower - description

Cauliflower is an annual plant with a fibrous root system close to the soil surface. Its stem is cylindrical, from 15 to 70 cm high. Cauliflower leaves are located horizontally or obliquely upwards, often they are curved in a spiral. They can be both whole and sessile, and lyre-separate, on petioles from 5 to 40 cm long. The color of the leaves is different shades of green up to gray from a wax bloom. The organ of cauliflower used for food is the fleshy peduncles, or heads. Cauliflower inflorescences are eaten in their infancy, they can be of different colors - the well-known green cauliflower, snow-white, cream and even purple. Cabbage reaches technical ripeness in an average of 90-120 days.

The fruit of the cauliflower is a polyspermous pod 6 to 8.5 cm long, cylindrical or flattened-cylindrical in shape. Cauliflower is grown by seed method - seedling and non-seedling.

From this article, you will learn when to sow cauliflower for seedlings, how to sow cauliflower for seedlings, how to grow cauliflower seedlings at home, when planting cauliflower outdoors, how to grow cauliflower outdoors. In addition, we will describe for you the most popular varieties of outdoor cauliflower that you can successfully grow in your garden.

Growing cauliflower from seeds

When to sow cauliflower for seedlings

Planting cauliflower for seedlings is done in several stages: seeds of early varieties can be sown at the end of February, 40-50 days before planting the seedlings in the garden, after two weeks varieties of medium ripening are sown, and then, after a month, later varieties of cauliflower are sown.

Growing cauliflower seedlings

Before sowing, the seeds of cauliflower are processed: first, they are placed in a thermos with water at a temperature of 50 ºC for 15 minutes, then they are immersed in cold water for a minute, after which they are soaked in a solution of trace elements for 12 hours, and then they are thoroughly washed and placed in the lower refrigerator drawer. After such treatment, the seeds are dried and sown in several pieces in separate pots, so as not to subsequently subject the seedlings to a pick, which they do not tolerate well.

Drainage is placed at the bottom of the pots, then a neutral soil, which is made up of 4 parts of low-lying peat, 1 part of a mullein and one and a half parts of rotten sawdust. You can also use a substrate of 10 parts of humus, 1 part of sand and 1 part of low-lying peat. Add some ash to the wet substrate and mix thoroughly. Sowing cauliflower into the ground is carried out to a depth of half a centimeter, after which the substrate is compacted.

The conditions for growing cauliflower are as follows: before emergence, the room temperature should be between 18-20 ºC, and when the seeds germinate, it should be lowered to 6-8 ºC by placing the seedlings as close to the light as possible. After 5-7 days, set the temperature during the daytime at 15-18 ºC, and at night - 8-10 ºC. Cauliflower seedlings growing in a room with too high temperatures (over 22 ºC) may not flower at all afterwards.

Growing cauliflower and caring for it during the seedling period consists in moderate watering, regular loosening of the soil and preventive treatment of the substrate with a pink solution of potassium permanganate from black leg and other fungi. When the seedlings develop 2-3 true leaves, they are sprayed with a solution of 2 g of boric acid in 1 liter of water, and when the seedlings add another leaf or two, the seedlings will not be prevented from being treated with a solution of 5 g of ammonium molybdate in a bucket of water.

Cauliflower pick

Growing cauliflower does not involve picking as it is poorly tolerated by seedlings. But if you decide to sow seeds not in separate containers, but in a common box, choose a vessel deeper, and place the seeds less often so as not to damage the root system of seedlings when transplanted into open ground.

For those who believe that it is imperative to dive cauliflower seedlings, we suggest doing this when the seedlings are two weeks old, seating them in separate containers, carefully cutting the root during transplantation. After picking, keep the seedlings at a temperature of 21 ºC until they take root, then set the following temperature mode: 17 ºC during the day and 9 ºC at night.

Planting cauliflower outdoors

When to plant cauliflower outdoors

Seedlings of early cauliflower varieties, sown in late February or early March, are planted in open ground from about April 25 to May 15. Planting of mid-season cauliflower varieties, sown from the second decade of April to the second decade of May, is carried out in a month and a half - from May 20 to June 15. Late varieties of cauliflower, grown through seedlings, are planted in the garden about a month after sowing.

A week before planting in the ground, cauliflower from seeds needs to be fed with a solution of 3 g of superphosphate and 3 g of potassium chloride in one liter of water - this will increase its cold resistance. And, of course, within ten days before planting the seedlings in the ground, they are hardened, gradually accustoming them to the environment in which they will grow.

Soil for cauliflower

Transplanting seedlings into open ground is carried out in warm, cloudy weather. The area for growing cauliflower should be sunny, and the pH of the soil should be close to neutral - in the range of pH 6.7-7.4. It is good if last year carrots, potatoes, onions, garlic, green manures, cereals or legumes grew on this place. But after such garden plants as beets, tomatoes, radishes, radishes and all types of cabbage, cauliflower can only be planted after four years.

The soil on the site is dug to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel since autumn, at the same time liming if the soil has an acidic reaction. In the spring, before planting, a bucket of humus or compost, 2 cups of wood ash, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and a teaspoon of urea are added to each hole. Do not forget to mix all these additives thoroughly with fertile soil.

How to plant cauliflower

The distance between the holes depends on the variety of cabbage, but on average, the gap between plants in a row should be about 35 cm, and the row spacing should not be less than half a meter. The seedlings are buried in the ground along the first true leaves, compacted the soil surface after planting and watered. If planting is carried out in April or early May, then at first it is better to cover the seedlings for a couple of days with plastic wrap or non-woven cloth - the coating will protect the seedlings from possible night frosts and from cruciferous fleas.

Readers ask is it possible to grow cauliflower directly in the open field. Sure you may. In the southern regions of Ukraine and Russia, from mid-April, seeds are sown directly into the soil, since they germinate at a temperature of 2-5 ºC, but in cooler regions it is safer to use the seedling method of growing cauliflower.

How to grow cauliflower

Cauliflower care

Since cauliflower is poorly adapted to the conditions of the middle lane, the quality and quantity of the crop depends entirely on how you care for it. Caring for cauliflower in the open field is not much different from caring for white cabbage - watering, loosening the soil, hilling, weeding, feeding and treating pests and diseases, but all this must be done carefully and scrupulously.

The soil between the plants and between the rows is loosened to a depth of about 8 cm, while removing weeds from the site. This is usually done after watering or rain, while the ground on the site is wet.

Watering cauliflower

Outdoor cauliflower requires regular and sufficient watering. This crop is watered on average once a week, although the first time after planting, the area with seedlings will have to be moistened twice as often. Water consumption for irrigation is about 6-8 liters per m², but with the growth of cabbage, the consumption will increase. In order not to overdo it with moistening the soil and not provoke the development of fungal diseases, be guided by the weather conditions - with regular heavy rainfall, when the soil is saturated with moisture to a decent depth, you can do without watering.

In order for the moisture in the plants to persist longer and the cauliflower inflorescences are not covered with dark spots, cover the heads with their own leaves, folding 2-3 of them up.

Cauliflower dressing

During the growing season, cauliflower is fed 3-4 times, and the first feeding should take place no later than three weeks after planting the seedlings in the garden. The best fertilizer for cauliflower is a mullein solution - half a liter of the composition is diluted in 10 liters of water. Solution consumption - a half-liter jar per plant.

Re-feeding with a mullein is carried out ten days after the first, adding a tablespoon of Kristalin to the solution and spending one liter of the finished composition per copy.

The third feeding can be carried out with mineral fertilizers, for example, by dissolving 2 tablespoons of Nitrofoski in 10 liters of water and spending 6-8 liters for each m² of the plot.

Cauliflower processing

Since cauliflower is often affected by diseases and pests, you will have to protect it from them in every possible way. The advantage of this particular variety of cabbage is that its pests can be dealt with without the use of pesticides. The best way to protect cauliflower from insects and slugs is to dust the plants with wood ash or tobacco. Spraying cauliflower with a solution of infusion of onion peel, burdock or tomato tops may be effective.

As for diseases, it is possible to avoid the use of protective drugs only with meticulous adherence to agricultural practices, but even in this case, success is not guaranteed.

Growing cauliflower in the Moscow region

In the conditions of the Moscow region, it makes sense to grow early and mid-season cauliflower varieties, but late varieties usually do not have time to ripen. Therefore, the most important thing is to choose the right type of plant and not be too lazy to grow seedlings - a seedling method of growing cauliflower in the middle lane is more reliable than a seedless one.

Those who categorically do not want to cultivate seedlings should know that sowing cauliflower seeds in the ground in the Moscow region is not possible until the end of March, because with earlier sowing, the seeds may die in unheated soil, and no later than June - if you are late with sowing , the cauliflower may not mature in time.

Cauliflower pests and diseases

Diseases of cauliflower

Outdoor cauliflower is exposed to all kinds of risks, for example, attack by harmful insects or infection with fungal, bacterial or viral diseases. In your messages, you often hear questions about why cauliflower turns yellow, dries or rots. The reason for everything is the diseases that affect it, of which, like pests, cauliflower has a lot, and we will introduce you to most of them. Of the diseases, cabbage is most often affected by:

Alternaria - a fungal disease, manifested by black or dark brown heels and concentric circles on the leaves of cabbage. Leaves die. In a humid environment at a temperature of 33-35 ºC, fungal spores spread faster.

Control measures: mandatory preliminary disinfection of seeds with Planriz, treatment of plants with copper-containing preparations - Bordeaux liquid, colloidal sulfur, copper sulfate, for example;

Keela - with this disease, growths and swellings are formed on the roots of cauliflower, leading to rotting of the root system. As a result, the plants stop receiving nutrients from the soil, turn yellow and dry out. On too wet and acidic soils, the keel spreads faster.

Control measures: good results are obtained by applying wood ash to the soil throughout the growing season of cauliflower. Do not plant cauliflower in the area where the keel was found, 5-7 years old. When planting seedlings, add a little lime-fluff to the holes. From time to time, water the cabbage under the root with a solution of 1 cup of dolomite flour in 10 liters of water;

Ring spot - a fungal disease, which is manifested by the formation of small black dots on the leaves and stems of cauliflower. With the development of the disease, the points increase to 2.5 cm in diameter, forming concentric circles around them. As a result, the surface of the leaf turns yellow, its edges become uneven. Cool, wet weather promotes the development of ring spot.

Control measures: to combat the disease, cauliflower is treated with fungicides. After harvesting, remove plant residues from the site;

Mucous bacteriosis, or wet rot occurs due to a violation of the water balance: on the heads of cauliflower, small watery dark spots appear, and on the stems - black oblong spots.Then, in these places, plant tissue begins to rot, turn black and emit an unpleasant odor. The disease progresses in wet weather, and mechanical damage to the plant also contributes to infection.

Control measures: the spots that appear must be immediately cut out, capturing healthy tissue. Severely affected specimens must be dug up and destroyed. In the spring, it is desirable to carry out preventive treatment of cabbage with a 0.4% suspension of colloidal sulfur. After harvesting, remove all plant residues from the site;

Vascular bacteriosis manifests itself as scattered chlorotic spots on the terrestrial organs of cauliflower, in the place of which necrosis develops. The leaves wither, and black rot appears in the heads. If the disease affects the plant at an early stage of development, then the cauliflower heads do not form at all. The disease progresses during the long rains.

Control measures: Observe the crop rotation - do not grow cauliflower after crucifers. Disinfect seed material and soil for seedlings, timely prevent cauliflower treatment against fungal diseases. In the fight against vascular bacteriosis, treatment of plants with Trichodermin and Planriz is effective;

Fusarium, or jaundice, is excited by a fungus that penetrates the vascular system of plants, as a result of which the leaves acquire a yellow-green color on one, and sometimes on both sides of the plate. Then a dark speck appears on the leaves, and the veins darken slightly. The leaves fall off and the head of the cabbage is deformed.

Control measures: a disease detected in time can be cured by treating cauliflower with Fundazol (Benomil). If you take rainwater or water from reservoirs for irrigation, add Fitosporin-M to it;

Blackleg - this disease affects cabbage even in the seedling stage. The root collar, against the background of too high soil and air humidity, turns black and becomes soft, from which the seedling dies.

Control measures: seedlings should only be purchased from reputable companies, but if you bought them from a dubious seller, disinfect the seedlings with Previkur. Before sowing the seeds, the soil is sterilized with a formalin solution or steam, the seeds are treated with a solution of potassium permanganate or Pseudo-bacterin-2. Immediately remove and destroy diseased plants;

Peronosporosis, or downy mildew, develops on the ground parts of cauliflower, and often manifestations of the disease can be detected already in the seedling period - slightly depressed spots form on the cotyledons and real leaves of the plant. The leaves of seedlings planted in the ground, if it is infected with peronosporosis, in conditions favorable for the fungus of high humidity, are covered on the underside of the plate with a whitish bloom, which gradually turns gray. In these places, necrosis develops, the growth of seedlings slows down, chlorotic spots form on the leaves, they dry and fall off.

Control measures: at the first signs of damage to cauliflower by peronosporosis, it is necessary to treat the plants with a fungicide, for example, Ridomil Gold (suspension 0.05%). As a preventive protection, it is recommended to pickle seeds and soil before sowing and observe agricultural practices;

Mosaic - growing cauliflower in the open field is often accompanied by this viral disease typical of cruciferous crops, the first signs of which appear a month after planting seedlings in the garden: the veins on the leaves brighten, and a dark border forms around them. Vein growth is stunted, causing the leaves to wrinkle. Gradually, necrotic spots form on the leaf plates, the leaves die off and fall off, the heads are small, highly deformed.

Control measures: as a rule, sucking insects are the carrier of the causative agent of the disease - that is why it is necessary to wage a merciless fight with them. In addition, there is no cure for viral diseases. You can protect cauliflower from mosaics by strictly observing the mandatory agrotechnical measures, including the removal of cruciferous weeds from the site and the treatment of cauliflower from aphids.

Cauliflower pests

Of the persistent and most persistent pests of cauliflower, you can name the following insects:

Cruciferous fleas - small bugs that feed on shoots and leaves of cauliflower. To protect plants from this pest, seedlings are treated with Trichlorometaphos solution twice with an interval of 10 days. Since these insects do not tolerate the smell of garlic and tomatoes, it is recommended to compact the cauliflower plantings with these plants;

Cabbage fly lays eggs in the lower part of cabbage stalks, in clods of earth and cracks in the soil, and after 8-12 days, the larvae that appear fill the cabbage root system, destroying it, which causes young plants to die, and adults are gradually destroyed. In order to scare off the cabbage fly, planting cauliflower is compacted with celery, the smell of which the insect does not tolerate. Water the soil around the cabbage with a 0.2% solution of Karbofos at the rate of a glass and a half for one copy - you will need 2-3 such treatments at intervals of a week;

Cabbage aphid - the most harmful insect that infects cabbage with viral diseases and sucks juices out of it. Aphids overwinter on cruciferous weeds and plant debris not harvested after harvest. It is recommended to compact the cabbage bed with tomato planting, the smell of which repels the pest. In the fight against aphids, an infusion of garlic, onions, hot peppers, decoctions of wormwood, tansy, yarrow, tobacco dust, mustard, potato tops with the addition of grated laundry soap are used. In case of mass occupation of cauliflower by aphids, insecticides will have to be used - Aktar, Tanrek or Biotlin, for example;

Cabbage whiteworm, cabbage scoop and cabbage moth - the caterpillars of these insects feed on cabbage leaves, sometimes leaving only veins from them, mine them, and bite into the heads. It is necessary to destroy the masonry and caterpillars manually, good results are obtained by processing cauliflower with a 0.5% solution of the microbiological preparation Entobacterin-3.

Harvesting and storing cauliflower

They begin to harvest the heads of cauliflower when they reach technical ripeness, which is determined by the following criteria:

  • the heads reach a diameter of 8-12 cm;
  • head weight - from 300 to 1200 g.

Early varieties ripen from 60 to 100 days, medium-ripening varieties can be harvested after 100-135 days, while later varieties ripen for at least 4.5 months.

An overripe vegetable loses not only taste, but also useful qualities. Cut the cabbage very carefully, leaving 2-4 leaves on the head. If the cabbage has side shoots, leave a couple of the strongest ones, and new inflorescences will develop from them. Do not leave cut heads in the sun, or they will turn yellow and become unusable.

The heads of cauliflower are stored in a cellar, in plastic or plywood boxes, covered with a film - the period of such storage is up to two months.

If you do not have a cellar or basement, disassemble and rinse the inflorescences under running water, dry them and freeze them - it can be fresh, it can be slightly boiled (no more than 5 minutes). Shelf life is 1 year.

You can store cauliflower in a suspended state, like white cabbage, but then do not cut off the inflorescences, but dig up the plants from the garden, cut the roots, remove the upper leaves, tie the cabbage by the stump with twine or rope and hang it so that the heads do not touch each other. Shelf life is a month.

Sometimes late varieties of cauliflower do not even have time to ripen to technical ripeness, and they have to be grown at home. Rather, it is better to do it in the cellar - it is stored there and matured. Bring a couple of crates of garden soil into the cellar. Water the cabbage well in the garden, and after two days dig it out, keeping a large clod of earth on the roots. Transplant the dug cabbage into the boxes in the cellar, submerging them in the soil up to the leaves.

The temperature in the room where the cauliflower will ripen should be from 0 to 4 ºC, and the humidity should be 90-95%. Provide good ventilation in the room and enjoy the cauliflower all winter.

Types and varieties of cauliflower

Cauliflower is a popular cultivated variety of the type of garden cabbage. Today there are many varieties and hybrids of this plant, among which everyone can choose samples for their taste and adaptability to certain climatic conditions. We offer you an introduction to the best of these varieties.

Early varieties of cauliflower

Early cauliflower varieties are those that ripen within 100 days or less. For example:

  • Snowdrift - mid-early fruitful variety, ripening in 90-100 days, with compact and dense snow-white heads weighing up to 1,200 kg, which are stored frozen for a long time without losing excellent taste;
  • Snowball 23 - a high-yielding mid-early variety, ripening at about the same time as the previous one, with the same white heads weighing up to 1 kg. A variety of excellent taste that is not lost when frozen;
  • Amethyst - mid-early variety, ripening in 80 days from the moment of planting seedlings in the ground with purple heads, approximately the same size, weighing up to 1 kg;
  • Maliba - an ultra-early and super-productive variety, adapted to areas with different climates, which begins to yield in 55-65 days from the moment the seedlings are planted in the ground. The cabbage heads of this variety are dense, round, milky white, weighing up to 5 kg;
  • Fortados - a productive, stress-resistant variety that ripens a couple of months after planting seedlings in the garden. The heads are round, snow-white, dense, weighing up to 2 kg;

In addition to those described, such varieties as Fremont, Movir-74, Express, Snow Globe, Icing Sugar, Regent, White Castle, Berdegruss, Blue Diamond, Purple and others are popular.

Medium varieties of cauliflower

This group of varieties includes those that ripen for 100-135 days. For example:

  • Purple ball - a high-yielding variety, resistant to autumn frosts, with medium-density lilac heads weighing up to 1.5 kg. The heads of this variety are well kept;
  • Patriotic - a productive variety with small white heads weighing 700-800 g. The growing season is 100-120 days;
  • Asterix F1 - a hybrid variety resistant to powdery mildew and unfavorable climatic conditions with small white heads weighing up to 1 kg, which are reliably covered with leaves;
  • Yako - a high-yielding variety with a short ripening period and a hard head weighing up to 850 g. The variety was bred for summer and autumn cultivation;
  • Flora Blanca - a fruitful, winter-hardy, well-preserved variety of Polish selection with dense white-yellow heads of high taste, weighing up to 1200 g, which ripen already 110 days after germination. The advantage of this variety is that the heads ripen almost simultaneously, so the harvest is quick and easy.

Also in demand are mid-season varieties Belaya Krasavitsa, Moscow Cannery, Rushmore, Emeizing, Parizhanka, Koza-dereza, Goodman and Dachnitsa.

Late varieties of cauliflower

This group of varieties includes those that ripen from 4.5 to 5 months and longer:

  • Cortez F1 - a high-yielding hybrid requiring fertile soil, resistant to frost, due to the "self-covering" of the head with leaves. The inflorescences of this variety are dense, white, weighing up to 3 kg;
  • Amerigo F1 - a high-yielding hybrid variety resistant to heat and frost with snow-white heads weighing up to 2.5 kg;
  • Consist - one of the latest varieties, perfectly tolerating autumn frosts, with large dense heads weighing up to 800 g;
  • Autumn giant - the growing season of this cauliflower variety is from 200 to 220 days. The heads of this cabbage are dense, white, weighing up to 2.5 kg;
  • Regent - the mass of the head of this late variety of cauliflower, resistant to autumn frosts, is from 530 to 800 g.

Late-ripening varieties of cauliflower such as Altamira, Adler winter, Incline, Amsterdam, Sochinskaya and others are also known in culture.

Cauliflower for Siberia

In Siberia, only early varieties of cauliflower have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather, and they are grown exclusively in seedlings. Such varieties are popular in culture as:

  • Baldo - a very early high-yielding variety with medium-sized, round, milky-white heads;
  • Candide charm F1 - a hybrid variety with a snow-white head weighing up to 2 kg, well protected by leaves;
  • Opal - a productive early variety with uniform dense white heads weighing up to 1.5 kg, ripening almost simultaneously;
  • Helsinki - a powerful hybrid variety for open ground with large snow-white heads;
  • Whiteskell - a hybrid variety resistant to diseases and climatic conditions with uniform, dense, snow-white dome-shaped heads weighing up to 3 kg.

Also suitable varieties for the Siberian climate are Movir-74, Snezhniy ball, Lilovy ball and hybrids Amphora F1 and Cheddar F1.

Cauliflower for the Moscow region

Cauliflower varieties for the middle lane should have the following qualities:

  • resistance to sudden changes in temperature and humidity;
  • undemanding to heat and light;
  • ripening period no later than mid-October.

The varieties that meet these requirements include the following:

  • Skorospelka - an early ripe variety, relatively resistant to disease. The heads are round, white, dense and juicy;
  • Gribovskaya early - an early variety that is not affected by slight shading. Cabbage heads of this variety, weighing up to 700 g, are somewhat loose, but of excellent taste;
  • Snowball - mid-early, disease-resistant and cold-resistant variety with snow-white large heads, weighing 1.2 kg;
  • Alpha - an early variety with very large heads weighing up to one and a half kilograms, which, unfortunately, are not stored for long;
  • Guarantee - an early variety, whose dense heads weighing up to 850 g do not disintegrate for a long time.

Such varieties of cauliflower as Express, Moskvichka, Snezhinka, Shirokolistnaya, Round head, Movir 74 and others grow well in the Moscow region.

Properties of cauliflower - harm and benefit

Useful properties of cauliflower

The taste and dietary qualities of cauliflower are more pronounced than that of other varieties of garden cabbage, and it also surpasses them in nutritional value. Ascorbic acid and protein in it is more than, for example, in white cabbage, 2-3 times - 50 g of cauliflower contain the amount of vitamin C sufficient for the human body for a day. In addition, this culture is high in other vitamins - PP, H (biotin), K, D, A and B vitamins.

Cauliflower contains carbohydrates, fats, starches, sugars, fatty acids, macronutrients chlorine, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus and magnesium, as well as trace elements copper, manganese, iron, zinc, cobalt and molybdenum, with iron in it is several times more than in lettuce, zucchini, bell peppers and eggplants. Vitamins and minerals contained in cauliflower strengthen the antioxidant defense of a person, and enzymes actively remove toxins and toxins from the body. Cauliflower is rich in tartronic, malic, citric acids and pectin.

Due to this composition, cauliflower is not only a valuable nutritious product, but is also included in the diet as a remedy for many diseases - for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and urinary tract, and the endocrine system.

Since there is little coarse fiber in cauliflower, it is easier to digest and absorb by the body than white or red cabbage, therefore it is recommended by doctors even for patients with gastritis, as well as for patients with liver and gallbladder diseases. Shown cauliflower patients with diabetes mellitus, as it normalizes the level of cholesterol and glucose in the blood.

In cauliflower, substances have been found that have a beneficial effect on the human nervous system and those that are excellent prevention against cancer: regular consumption of cauliflower reduces the risk of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men.

Cauliflower holds the record for biotin, or vitamin H, which prevents inflammatory skin conditions, including seborrhea, so biotin is often included in skin and hair care products.

Fresh unsalted cauliflower juice, thanks to the presence of vitamin U in it, successfully helps to heal ulcers: acidity is normalized, and this contributes to the regeneration of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum. Freshly squeezed juice, due to the content of tartronic acid in it, helps to get rid of excess weight. Poorly healing wounds or burns are treated with a mixture of raw egg white and cauliflower gruel.

Cauliflower - contraindications

The danger of cauliflower is:

  • for those suffering from high acidity of the stomach, intestinal spasms and acute enterocolitis - it will increase pain and can cause irritation of the mucous membrane of internal organs;
  • for recent abdominal surgery;
  • for patients with renal diseases and high blood pressure;
  • for patients with gout, since cauliflower contains purines, and when they accumulate in the body, the concentration of uric acid increases, which can cause a relapse of the disease;
  • for people with a weakened endocrine system, since abuse provokes the development of goiter;
  • for those with cauliflower allergies.

For those for whom cauliflower does not cause negative reactions, we recommend baking it in the oven, since with this cooking method it almost does not lose its useful qualities.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Plants on C Cabbage Sprouts


How to grow ornamental cabbage on your site

The best varieties of ornamental cabbage

Old varieties of ornamental cabbage have been grown at the Gribovskaya vegetable station since the 1930s. These are improved varieties of kale. They look like palm trees - tall with beautiful leaves hanging down.

Lark tongue - from the group "Green Curly High". Plants are 130 cm high. The leaves grow on long petioles (20 cm), the edge is scalloped, curly. The colors are green with different shades. Palm plant.

Lark Tongue variety

Red curly high - similar to the previous variety. The color of the leaves is gray-violet or purple with blackness.

Variety "Krasnaya Curchavaya high"

Red curly low - by the name it is clear that it is not high, up to 60 cm height of the stem. The leaves are long, spreading. The plant can grow up to a meter in diameter and decorate the entire flower bed.

Kale collard can also be grown as ornamental, but it is better to use it for food.

Kale red variety

The modern representative is the variety "Kai and Gerda" - a mixture of plants with emerald and purple leaves (up to 50 cm high).

Variety "Kai and Gerda"

Japanese breeders have worked on varieties with beautiful loose heads of cabbage. They hold the lead in creating new varieties and hybrids.

Tokyo "Tokyo " - small plants, about 30 cm tall. Very bright middle, contrasting with dark green lower leaves. They are rounded with a slightly wavy edge.

Variety "Tokyo pink"

Osaka «Osaka " - Leaves are often pink or white, similar to the "Tokyo" variety. Large rosette up to 45 cm in diameter, 60 cm high. Sometimes with strongly corrugated leaves or very straight.

The varieties "Osaka red" and "Osaka white"

Nagoya - red or white leaves. A powerful plant with densely fringed unusual leaves. The rosette can be up to 60 cm.

Variety "Nagoya white"

Piglon - the variety has several colors, the most interesting is white and cream. Plants are small, neat, like roses. The leaves are slightly corrugated.

Variety "Piglon"

Coral Queen - interesting leaves of this unusual variety. Very deeply dissected, bright red, coral-like.

Variety "Coral Queen"

Princess - the width and height of the plant is about 40 cm. Small, strongly corrugated leaves. The color of the leaves is different - yellow, white, red.

Variety "Princess"

Growing - useful tips

Grow cabbage through seedlings. Sowing begins from mid-March to April. Happy owners of a heated greenhouse can put boxes with seedlings right in the greenhouse. Everyone else needs to find the coolest and brightest place in the apartment. In the heat, seedlings grow poorly. Take it out to balconies, loggias, verandas.

To grow good seedlings, you need a special temperature regime:

  • For the first week after germination, keep the plants at + 8-10 C
  • Then the seedlings grow at + 14-18C - higher is undesirable.

Sowing is carried out in any containers about 15 cm high. The land needs to be loose, fertile, non-acidic. We mix turf and humus, or garden and peat. The seeds of the cabbage are quite large, we lay them out on wet soil in rows one by one. Distance of about 3 cm between rows and plants. Then we cover it with a layer of earth of 1.5 cm and water it abundantly.

Seedlings appear rather quickly, on the fourth day. When the sprouts have good cotyledons, we plant them less often according to the 6 by 6 cm scheme or in cassettes. So that when landing on the street, a clod of earth remains at each root.

Such a cold-resistant plant can be grown by sowing on the site. As the land will allow you to enter the garden, in April, we sow seeds into the ground. We arrange a little greenhouse. Covering material and film for arcs. Remove shelter on warm days. The method is suitable for those who live permanently on their site. To open in time, close the seedlings.

Ornamental cabbage shows all its beauty in sunny places. In partial shade, the color is dull.

Cabbage is planted in flower beds in mid-May with 4-5 leaves.

The main care for this flower is watering. To reduce this hard work, the land needs to be mulched. Hay, grass, wood chips - all this will help keep moisture in the ground and prevent weeds from growing. Keep the soil loose. In extreme heat, it is better to water the cabbage every day.

The main color of the foliage takes on with the onset of constant cool weather.

Ornamental cabbage flower bed

Pests and diseases

The main pests are cruciferous fleas, slugs, caterpillars. They harm more often young plants, and they are no longer afraid of the stronger ones.

  • Flea beetles are scared away by ash, tobacco, red pepper. Dust with any product or a mixture of them after watering so that it sticks to the leaves.
  • Irrigation by sprinkling washes off flea beetles well, and cabbage likes it.
  • From slugs, sprinkle the ground with finely crumbled shells, needles. But they are rare in flower beds, mainly in rainy years.
  • Butterflies can be scared away by planting marigolds between the cabbage, they will help and decorate the flower bed until the cabbage becomes decorative.
  • With a large invasion of caterpillars and slugs, you will have to pick it by hand (what a horror.) Or use chemicals, because we grow this cabbage for beauty. Although you can eat it.

Let it please with its unusual flowers until the very frost, when the garden is already empty and everything is preparing for winter. You can extend the life of this beauty and transplant the bush in a large pot home in the fall. It will stand until the new year. And in a cool place without freezing temperatures until spring.

Ornamental cabbage looks great in a flowerpot - only smaller flowers

How to grow your ornamental cabbage seeds

You need to save the plants in the winter to plant next year and get your seeds. Naturally, only varietal plants are suitable for this. The rosettes planted in spring produce flower stalks and bloom in June-July. Seeds ripen in autumn in pods.

Birds like them very much, so in summer they need to be covered with a light cloth or gauze for protection. When the pods turn yellow and dry, cut them off, tie them into a bunch and hang them in a dry place. We need to put a newspaper downstairs. After a couple of weeks, they will dry out well and begin to open. Then it is easy to peel them and separate the seeds.


How to grow seedlings

Planting dates depend on the climate and the growing region. You can get two harvests per season.

Interesting! Later harvests are stored better than the first.

It makes sense to plant it 2 times:

  • first harvest - for salads
  • the second is for storage.

  • mid-March - early April,
  • from early August to early September (for the second harvest for storage).

In Central Russia and the Moscow region:

  • mid-April - end of April,
  • end of July - mid-August.

In the Urals and Siberia:

  • end of April - beginning of May,
  • for storage - in the second half of July.

Seed preparation

Purchased seeds do not need to be prepared, they are immediately planted in the ground. Seed material collected by yourself must first germinate in order to determine their germination.

The gauze is folded in several layers and moistened. Seeds are laid on it. The container with the seeds is left in a warm place until they germinate. This will take about 3-5 days.

Important! If the seeds do not germinate and seedlings are rare, you need to take other seeds for sowing.

Seedling soil

For sowing, several options for soil mixtures are used:

  • Option 1 . Sod land and peat in equal parts. For 10 kg of substrate, add 500 g of wood ash and complex mineral fertilizer.
  • Option 2. Humus is mixed with turf soil, river sand and garden soil, taken in equal amounts. For 10 kg of substrate add 500 g of wood ash.
  • Option 3. Take 2 parts of humus and 1 part of coconut substrate.

Sowing seeds

Important! The culture does not tolerate picking and gets sick for a long time after planting on the site, slowly takes root. Therefore, it is better to immediately sow the seeds in peat-humus pots, which are then planted together with the seedlings in a permanent place.

The pots decompose in the soil, so that the root system is not injured, and the seedlings take root faster.

  • The pots are filled with the prepared soil mixture.
  • In order for the seeds to sprout faster, the seeds are pre-soaked for a day in the growth stimulator Epin, Heteroauxin or Zircon.
  • The soil is watered and seeds are buried into it by 1 cm, 2 in each. Next, the pots are left in a room with a room temperature of 20-22 degrees.
  • Pots with crops are laid out the bottom of the box and covered with foil.


Planting seedlings

If you are used to growing white cabbage, then with varieties of brassica there will be no problems - the process is very similar. But if you are just starting gardening, then plant ornamental cabbage - it is unpretentious, does not require special knowledge and skills.

If you focus on seedlings, you must:

  • prepare a container, fill with fertile soil
  • wet the seeds (you can soak them in plastic cups or small dishes, just put them in water for 1-2 days)
  • sow 2 seeds into the ground to a depth of 1 cm, retreating 5-7 cm from each other.

Important: You can buy suitable soil, or you can make it yourself by mixing earth, peat, sand and humus. Add 1.5 cups of ash. Such a mixture will nourish the seeds with the necessary substances for germination, will retain moisture, but will also prevent weak roots from festering.

Growing from seeds is permissible both in a single container and in separate cups. Here, each gardener decides for himself what is more convenient for him.

Seedling cabbage

Sowing time for seedlings and planting in open ground

Brassica likes the coolness, so it is better to sow it in mid-April, under a film in a garden bed or in a greenhouse. After that, plant it in the right place, if required. If you want lush, large outlets, it is better to start growing at home, and plant it on the street by mid-March.

Tips for growing seedlings

To grow ornamental cabbage from strong, strong seedlings, certain rules must be followed.

  1. Before germination, the temperature should be about + 20 ° C.
  2. After the first week, the temperature is lowered to +10 in the daytime, to + 7 ° C at night.
  3. When the seedlings have risen, +15 degrees are needed during the day, + 10 ° C at night.

When the sprouts have become taller, the container is rearranged to the sunny side. If there is little light, then turn on the fluorescent lamp.

Growing from seedlings

The soil must be constantly moistened. While the container is at home, you can already feed 2 times with a complex remedy:

  • 10 days after sprouting
  • on the 22nd day after appearance.

At the end of April, seedlings can be planted in open ground.

Brassica easily transfers the transplant to the beds, so you can first arrange the plants on a separate site, and move them to the flowerbed closer to autumn, leaving a large lump of soil on the roots.


Five varieties of vitamin Kale, care after planting

A garden bed on a personal plot can be decorated not only with flowers, but also with decorative garden crops. Among them, the Kale cabbage stands out, distinguished by its unusual beautiful shape of the leaves. When developed among vegetables, it becomes just a pearl of the garden bed. Below we will talk about the properties, varieties of ornamental cabbage.

Kale cabbage

Vegetable growers of European countries have been growing this type of vegetable crop in their gardens and farms for a long time. The attitude towards the leafy head of cabbage changed in the 17th century. It was then that varieties that give excellent yields began to appear. They had good disease resistance.

In the Russian northern regions, the cabbage variety kale was popularly used by the people even before the onset of the 18th century. The value of a leafy head was in the cold resistance of the cabbage. In such harsh conditions, it is important for people to eat fresh vegetables.

Kale is a herbaceous plant that develops during one summer season. It has a shortened stem, ornamental leaves are attached to the base with petioles, alternating in layers.

Cabbage looks pretty unusual. Curly foliage has a noticeable undulation along the edge line. Due to this property, the cabbage was called "curly". For feeding, leaf plates are selected, peeled from the petiole and stem. If the cabbage is fed to animals, then it does not need to be peeled.

The foliage can be bluish, purple, red or green in color. It all depends on the variety of the plant. Most often, the decorative variety kale decorates flower beds. Among all the plants, it looks unusual.

Characteristics of the variety

The main feature of the kale cabbage variety is the growing of the plant in one place for several years in a row. True, this point applies only to the southern regions of the country. Under favorable growing conditions, winter shelter, cabbage will be able to please gardeners with vitamin foliage in the spring.

Proteins, fats. Cabbage leaves are high in protein. In addition to it, the composition contains up to nine types of essential amino acids, but non-essential - up to 18 units. If you prepare an independent dish from this cabbage, it will completely replace a meat product on the table. Proteins of plant origin are more easily absorbed by the body and have more benefits.

Vitamins. In cabbage, the vitamin A indicator is off scale. In 200 ml of retinol cabbage juice, it is up to 200% of the norm. For the retina, cabbage contains zeaxanthin and lutein, vitamin PP, K, group B.

Minerals. Their number depends on the soil composition and growing conditions. There is much more calcium in cabbage of this variety than in dairy products. It does not contain casein, so it is easier for the body to absorb. As in many green plants, kale is rich in magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc and other chemical elements of the periodic table.

According to research data, kale cabbage is useful in the treatment of oncology and glaucoma. It helps to increase immunity, relieve symptoms of chemical poisoning, improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, and is useful in dietary nutrition.

Kale collard

Cabbage leaves of the kale variety differ in appearance from the usual white cabbage stump. In addition, this variety is not able to form a head of cabbage. The decorative foliage is attached to the base with an edible petiole. You can cook dishes from it, as well as feed to animals.

Kale cabbage subspecies have been known to mankind since the Middle Ages. Wild leaves are a close relative of common cabbage. Today, in Western European countries, cafes and restaurants prepare dishes from the cabbage subspecies Grunkol and Brunkol. In England and the USA it is served as "Russian red cabbage".

Types and varieties

Kale cabbage leaves are divided into five groups.

Green curly

The medium-ripening green cabbage variety is characterized by curly leaves. Some of the subspecies are frost-resistant, therefore, they can please with their decorativeness the next year. The cabbage leaves make delicious soups, salads and other dishes. The diameter of the bush reaches 0.8 m, one unit weighs 05-1.5 kg.

Among the subspecies of this cabbage, the hybrid variety "Reflex F1" can be distinguished. Supporters of a healthy diet, as well as those who follow a diet, love to cook dishes from cabbage foliage.

Red curly

Here the leaf plate is distinguished by the openwork pattern. From the side, the leaf looks like delicate lace. The color of the grade may differ: it can be deep red, maroon or deep purple.

The species is valuable for its vitamin complex. There are especially many calcium and magnesium compounds in it. The red cabbage variety can be used to make cabbage rolls, salads, soups, or vegetable stews.

For landscape decoration of the site, gardeners most often plant a hybrid cabbage variety "Redbor F1". The leaf plate is distinguished by strong curliness, it is painted in a rich purple color. Ripening later.

Italian black

On an elongated, slightly narrowed leaf plate, there are tuberous protuberances. The color of cabbage foliage is so rich in green, and it seems from the outside that it casts black with a bluish tint. The Italian variety contains Omega 3, vitamin C, lutein.

Among all cabbage species, the southern variety "Black Tuscany" can be distinguished. Despite its origin, this variety is frost-resistant, for example, it can withstand temperatures down to -150C. The length of the sheet plate is up to half a meter. Ripening takes up to two months after planting.

Scottish kale

Popularly, the variety has a different name - Siberian cabbage, which is distinguished by good frost resistance. Cabbage vegetation is able to develop normally in the harsh Siberian regions, for example, on the Siberian plain, the Urals. The feces subspecies are colored bright green. The leaf plate only curls slightly.

Gardeners often use the popular Hungry Gap hybrid variety to decorate the garden plot. Plant height reaches one meter. According to the ripening period, Kale cabbage belongs to the early varieties. It tolerates winter well, and in spring it gives abundant build-up of the deciduous part. If the foliage is frozen, then it can be stored for a long time.

Red Russian

This cabbage variety has a long narrow leaf plate with a carved pattern along the edges. The foliage is green, but brightly saturated crimson veins run along the entire length, so the cabbage is seen in red. When the air temperature decreases, the color of the leaves changes, acquiring an eggplant color.

After planting, cabbage leaves are fully ripe in 60 days. The variety does not differ in capriciousness. In winter, it tolerates frosts down to -15-18 C. In many countries, ornamental culture is often used to prepare various dishes.

Growing cabbage

The cabbage plant is not too demanding for the soil composition, therefore, specific measures are not required in caring for it. A culture can develop in any soil, but it is desirable that nutrients predominate in it.

To obtain a leaf plate in cabbage, sandstone, clay soil, and peat substrate are best suited. It is recommended to grow cabbage varieties in loose soil. Caring for cabbage includes the following points:

  • To begin planting seed material 1.5-2 months before the planned transplantation of young seedlings in an open area. Seedlings can be grown in wooden boxes up to 40 cm 2.
  • It is desirable that the soil acidity is 6.8 pH. Its permissible indicator is up to 5.5 pH. To reduce the acidity of the soil, you can add rotted compost, powdered lime. To increase - add sulfur
  • Before planting, organic matter must be added to the soil in order to saturate it with usefulness. This will help the cabbage to actively grow young deciduous mass.
  • Before planting seeds in wooden boxes, you need to hold them in water at a temperature of + 50C for about 20 minutes, and then dip them in cold water for 5 minutes. The hardened seeds are wrapped in wet gauze and kept warm for three days. This is enough time for them to hatch. Seeds can now be sown in the ground
  • Seeds are sown to a depth of 1-1.5 cm.Deep planting is unacceptable, as this will slow down the growth of seedlings or rot
  • Germination of seed material occurs at a temperature of + 5-8 C. Young seedlings grow better at a temperature of + 20-220 C.
  • It is necessary to leave a distance of up to 7-8 cm between young shoots so that they do not interfere with each other during development.

Planting seedlings in the ground

When young plants grow up to 10-12 cm in height, 4-5 full-fledged leaf plates are formed on each of them, the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground. The beds are prepared properly: they dig up, fertilize, remove weeds.

When preparing the soil for planting seedlings, any organic fertilizer is introduced in advance. For example, it can be rotted compost, peat layer or matured humus. From mineral dressings, the choice can be stopped on nitrogen-containing products, for example, nitroammofosk.

  1. Young plants are planted in separate planting holes. The trench planting method for kale cabbage is impractical.
  2. The planting hole is made twice as deep as the size of the earthen ball of seedlings. When planting, the plant is buried in the soil to the lower first leaf plates.
  3. Seedlings are taken out of a wooden box carefully so that an earthen lump does not crumble. Root integrity is important for planting. The plant will be able to quickly adapt to new conditions and will develop normally.
  4. When planting, the root system of young seedlings should be freely located in the hole. Sprinkle it with loose soil and tamp it lightly with your hand.
  5. Between the planting holes, it is necessary to maintain a distance of up to 50-60 cm, so that in the future the plants are not crowded.

Collard greens "Redbor F1"

Hybrid collard greens "Redbor F1" refers to late ripening plants. Curly foliage of dark purple color. The stem reaches a height of 80-100 cm. The leaves are attached to the base and form a vertical lush rosette. The mass of one unit is 300-700 g.

The hybrid can withstand low winter temperatures down to -15-180C. Even covered with a snowy carpet, this kind of kale will look gorgeous. With the first autumn frosts, the leaf plate becomes softer and juicier.

The leaves of the hybrid cabbage variety "Redbor F1" are used in cooking to prepare independent dishes or decorate them. The variety is recommended to be planted in the garden, decorating the cabbage plants with flower plantings.

The external state of the leaves depends on the degree of illumination by the sun's rays, which play an essential role in the photosynthesis of any plant. The moisture content of the soil composition is also an important factor, especially in hot summers. Before planting seedlings, it will not be superfluous to enrich the land with fertilizers.

In cabbage variety "Redbor F1" lacy foliage is not able to form a head of cabbage. Ornamental leaves are often green or purple. Among the domesticated subspecies, this plant is considered closer to wild cabbage. For cooking, only leaves are mainly used, but the stem base is harder.

In European states, until the middle of the medieval years, the cabbage plant was considered one of the most common crops. Even the ancient Greeks enjoyed the curly variety of the variety in the 4th century BC.

Curled cabbage foliage is allowed to be frozen for long-term storage. From exposure to low temperatures, the foliage only becomes more aromatic and sweeter. For example, in the Netherlands, the traditional stampot dish is served, which includes mashed potatoes, kale leaves and sausages.

Collard greens

Kale cabbage is an unpretentious plant that does not require specific care. Although it is advisable to adhere to some recommendations when growing a crop. For example:

  • The landing site should be well lit by the sun
  • Tall trees should not grow nearby, which massively take nutrients from the ground, impoverishing cabbage
  • Drafts are undesirable.

Cabbage seedlings should be planted on a small hill or high beds. Although the culture loves moisture, it does not tolerate soil groundwater. Positive points when growing cabbage kale in a garden:

  1. Leaf plates are a great product for dieters.
  2. The plant contains many useful components, amino acids, which can correspond to a meat product.
  3. Due to the fact that the leaf plates develop quickly, an early vitamin harvest can be obtained.
  4. To protect your eyes from the negative effects of ultraviolet rays, you need to regularly add cabbage kale leaves to dishes. Protection comes from the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin in the foliage.
  5. The foliage of this culture contains many trace elements that take part in cleaning the body from radionuclides, toxic substances, and toxins.
  6. The elements contained in cabbage leaves are easily digestible components that increase vital functions.
  7. Zinc, phosphorus compounds, magnesium help to prevent the development of oncological diseases.

It is undesirable to use cabbage for those who have individual intolerance to the components.


Watch the video: Σπορά Λαχανικών - Καλλιέργεια Φυτών με Σπόρο. The Gardener


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