Motherwort (Latin Leonurus) - a genus of herbaceous perennials or biennials of the Yasnotkovye family, or Labiaceae, whose representatives in the wild grow mainly in Eurasia (the Middle East, Siberia, Central Asia, Europe). Several species of the genus have naturalized in North America.
Motherworts grow in meadows, wastelands, garbage places, railway embankments, in cliffs, quarries, along river banks. Two species - heartwort and motherwort shaggy (five-lobed) - are medicinal plants.
Read more about the cultivation of motherwort below.
The height of motherworts reaches from 30 cm to 2 m. Their root is taproot, the stem is tetrahedral, erect, sometimes branched. Lower leaves of motherwort up to 15 cm long are finger-dissected or palmate-lobed, upper leaves, sometimes whole, the closer to the top, the smaller. All leaves of motherwort are petiolate. Small flowers are collected in intermittent spike-shaped inflorescences that form in the axils of the leaves or at the ends of the stems. Motherwort fruit - coenobium, consisting of four evenly developed parts. Many motherworts are honey plants.
Motherwort is grown in one place for 3-5 years. The culture is distinguished by drought resistance and undemanding to the composition of the soil. Fresh seeds of the plant have a very low germination rate, but if they are ripened within two months after harvesting, then the germination rate increases to 85%: at an optimum moisture content and a soil temperature of 4-6 ºC, the seeds germinate within 4-5 days.
Motherwort is sown before winter or early spring, however, before spring sowing, the seeds are stratified for 1-1.5 months in the lower drawer of the refrigerator by placing them in a plastic bag or plastic container with wet sand (1: 3). Autumn sowing is carried out a week and a half before frost with dry seeds to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, and in the spring Sowing material is deepened by 2 cm. The width between rows remains within 45-60 cm. When sowing seeds in winter, 15-20% more is consumed than in the spring.
After the emergence of seedlings, they are thinned out so that there are 4-6 plants on one meter of a row. In the first season, caring for motherwort consists in weeding the site. Watering will only be needed in case of prolonged drought. Starting from the second season, in addition to weeding, it will be necessary to loosen the soil around the plants, cut off last year's stems and once during the summer add Nitroammofosku to the site.
Motherwort is harvested from the second year of the growing season: the tops of the stems no more than 5 mm thick and lateral cuttings are cut from the plants. This is done in July, when 2/3 of the plants are in bloom, and a third is in the budding process. They start collecting after the dew has come off the grass. The second collection is carried out one and a half months after the first. The collected raw materials are laid out in the shade in a thin layer and dried, from time to time stirring and turning. You can dry motherwort by tying it in bunches and hanging it from the ceiling in a well-ventilated room - in the attic, balcony, veranda. If necessary, use grass dryers, but the temperature in the chambers should not exceed 50 ºC. The raw material is ready, when the leaves are easily rubbed between the fingers into dust, and the stems break with the slightest effort. Dry motherwort has a specific smell and bitter taste.
Motherwort raw materials are stored in cloth bags, in thick paper bags or in cardboard boxes in a dry and cool place, away from direct sunlight. When kept in the described conditions, the shelf life of motherwort herb is 3 years.
The genus Motherwort of the Lamiaceae family includes 24 species, which are divided into 5 subsections. What's interesting: in the folk medicine of European countries, some types of motherwort are used, and in the eastern countries (in Chinese and Korean folk medicine), completely different ones are used. The following types of motherwort are grown in culture:
The plant is gray due to dense pubescence with dense, downwardly pressed hairs. Flowers in plants of this species are light pink.
Plant with long hairs pubescent only in the upper part of the stem and bare, thinly dissected leaves. The corolla of flowers is pink-purple.
Or motherwort cordial - a herbaceous perennial with a short woody rhizome and lateral roots extending from it, located in the soil at a shallow depth. The stems of the plant are tetrahedral, ribbed, hollow, erect, branched in the upper part, covered with long protruding hairs, usually green, but sometimes reddish-purple, from 50 cm to 2 m in height.
Leaves are opposite, petiolate, gradually decreasing towards the top of the stem. The upper side of the leaf plate is dark or bright green, the lower one with a grayish tint. The lower leaves of plants of this species are ovoid or round, five-part; middle - lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, trilobate or tripartite, with wide toothed lobes; the apical leaves are simple, with lateral teeth.
Small pink flowers, sitting in whorls, form apical spike-shaped inflorescences. The fruit consists of dark brown nuts. In European culture, the plant is grown as a medicinal plant.
Or motherwort hairy some scholars consider it a species of motherwort, or common. In any case, their ranges are the same. The five-lobed motherwort differs from the heartwort in that its lower and middle leaves are five-lobed, and the upper three-lobed. The stem of the plant is covered with protruding long hairs.
Motherwort herb contains flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, quinqueloside and others), alkaloids, saponins, essential oil, tannins, organic acids (malic, vanillic, citric, tartaric, ursolic), vitamins A, C and E, potassium, calcium, sulfur and sodium.
Motherwort herb and its healing properties have been known since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, pharmacists and doctors used this plant widely, but over time it was forgotten, and only at the end of the 19th century they remembered the motherwort again, and in the 30s of the 20th century it was scientifically established that the sedative effect of motherwort drugs was one and a half times above the action of Valerian officinalis.
Motherwort stabilizes the heart rate, strengthens the myocardium, enhances its contraction in tachycardia, myocarditis, cardiosclerosis, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris and heart failure of 1-3 degrees. It lowers blood pressure in hypertension, lowers cholesterol, lactic acid and blood glucose, has an anticonvulsant and antispasmodic effect.
The use of motherwort is also effective in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: spasms, gastritis, colitis, flatulence, neuroses, catarrh of the large intestine and other diseases. Motherwort also has anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties, and its sedative effect is used in the treatment of insomnia, psychasthenia, hysteria, thyrotoxicosis and vegetative-vascular dystonia.
In gynecology, motherwort herb is prescribed for unstable and painful regulations, uterine bleeding, as well as for climacteric syndrome.
Motherwort also treats diseases such as chronic cough, epilepsy and Graves' disease, and its seeds are used for glaucoma.
In pharmacies, motherwort is sold in the following preparations: motherwort tincture, sedative collection No. 2, Fitosedan, motherwort herb, Motherwort forte Evalar tablets (with vitamin B6 and sodium carbonate), Motherwort forte, Motherwort P, motherwort extract in tablets.
Motherwort preparations can cause an allergic reaction, and if you have an individual intolerance to this plant, then its preparations are contraindicated for you. Motherwort has a stimulating effect on the smooth muscles of the uterus, so its use is not recommended for pregnant women and those who have had an abortion.
Motherwort is contraindicated for those suffering from stomach ulcers, erosive gastritis and arterial hypotension. In addition, motherwort preparations cause drowsiness, therefore they are not recommended for people whose work requires increased concentration of attention.
Sections: Garden Plants Biennials Perennials Herbaceous Medicinal Weeds Lamb-flowering (Lipoids) Honey plants Plants on P
Motherwort is one of the most famous weeds with medicinal properties and recognized by scientific medicine in most countries. The Latin name Leonurus quinquelobatus (five-lobed motherwort) indicates the characteristic structure of the plant's leaves, dissected into five parts (“lobes”). According to the Linnaean classification, the plant bears the name Leonurus cardiaca, in which there is a clear indication of its healing qualities. Some folk healers call the motherwort the heart daggu - a native of Latin America, known as the “lion's tail” (Latin - Leonotis Leonurus) - which has long been used by shamans in performing magical rituals. It is pertinent to note that all plants of the genus Leonurus have medicinal properties to one degree or another, therefore, different peoples traditionally use different types of motherwort (P. siberian, P. gray), which are not included in the register of medicinal raw materials.
Motherwort "got" into European herbalists already in the 15th century, and after some 4 centuries it received universal recognition, and since 1930 it has been successfully competing with valerian in terms of treating heart diseases.
In the photo of motherwort, you can see its palmate-lobed leaves. It reaches a height of up to 2 meters. There are petioles on the leaves. At the very ends of the shoots, you will find spikelet-shaped inflorescences consisting of small flowers.
The grass can grow in one place for up to 5 years. She is not afraid of drought and does not require a special composition of the land. Fresh seeds do not germinate well. It is necessary to dry them for 60 days, and then germination will be much better. Sow in winter or early spring. If in spring, then you need to store the seeds in the refrigerator for about a month before that. They are mixed with sand. When planting, they are deepened by 20 mm.
About 6 bushes should grow per meter. If there are more of them, then thinning is necessary. And you also need to remove weeds. Watering is carried out only during drought. In the second year, you won't even need to weed and remove unnecessary plants. It is recommended to feed once in the summer. Used Nitroammofosk.
In the second year, you can already collect cuttings. It is advisable to do this in July. Collected in the morning immediately after the dew melts. This is done again in a month or a little later. The grass must be laid out on the surface in the shade, when dried, turn it so that it does not rot. Lay out on the balcony, veranda. Sometimes in the attic. Or in a special dryer with a temperature of 50 degrees, no more.
If you want to propagate Motherwort, then you need to collect the seeds and stratify in advance. To do this, they are placed for 2 months in the lower compartment of the refrigerator or in a cool cellar, the temperature should be from 4 to 6 ° C.
The hardened seeds are planted in moist soil, and after 5 days, friendly shoots should appear. When the seedlings get stronger, the seedlings are seated in different cups.
You can also plant non-stratified seeds directly into the ground. The procedure is carried out at the end of autumn, a week before frost, dry seeds are buried in the ground by 15 mm. This method is simpler, but the germination rate is reduced by about 30%.
When planting seedlings or sowing seeds, it must be borne in mind that there must be a distance of at least 40 centimeters between the plants.
Motherwort is not a whimsical plant. Caring for it is limited to regular weeding and infrequent watering during periods of severe drought.
Also, after watering, it is necessary to gently loosen the soil around the plants without damaging the delicate roots. During active growth, Motherwort can be fertilized with complexes of liquid mineral fertilizers.
Motherwort is almost not susceptible to disease and pest attacks, but as a preventive measure, gardeners plant phytoncidal plants such as garlic nearby.
This will help keep the plant safe from aphids and scoops.
Due to its sweet aroma, the blooming motherwort actively attracts pollinating insects and bees.
Beekeepers plant entire glades of this plant, from which high-quality, transparent, with a white-gold tint, honey is obtained.
Seed fruits formed after flowering are 30% vegetable oils. They have found their application in the manufacture of paints and varnishes.
In some states, the valerian root has been completely replaced by motherwort because the herbaceous part of the plant has a good, calming effect and is economically profitable, since it is possible to harvest medicinal raw materials from plants for four years.
Motherwort has a very rich chemical composition. It contains a large amount of ascorbic acid, saponins, flavonoids, essential oils and other beneficial substances and minerals.
Motherwort has a wide range of uses:
According to reviews, motherwort preparations are more effective in treating heart disease than valerian and hawthorn, but they act much more slowly, therefore, many prefer drugs with a faster medicinal effect.
Pharmaceutical medicinal products include:
The plant is included in many medicinal preparations and herbal remedies
Contraindications for use
Helps to reduce concentration of attention, should not be used during potentially hazardous work and vehicle drivers. Forbidden to use with alcohol
Collection and procurement of medicinal raw materials
The greatest concentration of medicinal properties is gaining in the second year of life. Harvesting is carried out in mid-July during flowering, on a dry, sunny day.
To do this, use sharp sterilized scissors to cut off the upper flowering part of the plant, as well as short side shoots.
The collected material is dried in a shaded room with good ventilation. You can also dry raw materials in electric dryers and ovens at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C.
Shelf life 3 years from the date of collection.
The properties of budra are explained by its complex chemical composition. It contains: about 8% tannin, essential oil, saponin, choline, bitter substances, resin, organic and free amino acids (cysteine, thionine, series), vitamins: ascorbic acid and carotene (provitamin A).
Medicinal budra has long been known to the folk medicine of many nations.
It is considered a slightly poisonous plant, therefore, when using it, you must adhere to the recommended dosages. The healing properties of Budra make it possible to use it as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, wound healing agent. Sometimes anti-sclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-cold effects are mentioned. It is used for diseases of the bladder, kidneys, gastrointestinal, bronchitis, liver diseases. When used externally, the medicinal properties of Budra herb are used for compresses and washings and baths for gout, skin diseases, and wounds.
Ivy and variegated budra is good for old, difficult to pass diseases of the upper respiratory tract, associated with sputum and runny nose.
Fresh grass can be plucked from May to September. In some years, it is actively growing even in October. So it is possible to use it even in this autumn month.
Infusion. Insist one teaspoon of fresh herbs in one glass of boiling water. Drink 1/4 cup of warm infusion 2-4 times a day. Recommended for coughs, asthma, chronic chest catarrh, pain in the bladder, persistent chronic rhinitis, kidney stones, liver disease, various gastrointestinal diseases.
Broth. Boil one tablespoon of the herb in one glass of water and leave to cool. Use to wash off suppurations, skin rashes, boils, dermatoses of various origins.
Expectorant collection. They take in equal shares the grass of the clefthoof, the grass of cocklebur and the leaves of the budra. A tablespoon of the mixture is poured with a glass of hot water, boiled for three minutes, insisted for half an hour. Apply ½ glass 3 times a day after meals.
There are contraindications to taking Budra, it is very important not to exceed the dose in order to avoid toxic effects, especially with internal use.
It is not eaten by livestock on pastures. However, in the case of eating budra, the respiratory system is damaged (pulmonary edema), heart weakness, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, strong perspiration, foam flow from the nose, cyanosis of the mucous membranes.
First aid consists in the appointment of laxatives and symptomatic therapy (the use of stimulants, cardiac and other drugs). A good therapeutic effect is provided by the introduction of calcium chloride.
In Europe, young leaves are used as spicy additions to meat dishes, used in salads along with tomatoes and cucumbers. It is believed that it heals the gastrointestinal microfauna, improves digestion, and stimulates the appetite. The herb is bitter in taste and has a spicy, pleasant smell. Adding to meat dishes improves the absorption of fats by the body, and thus contributes to weight loss.