The corncob, made up of sun-golden grains, has enjoyed an unwavering popularity for centuries. In terms of the amount of vitamins, micro and macro elements, it occupies one of the leading positions among cereals, and in terms of importance it is ranked third after wheat and rice... What is the history of the origin and distribution of this cereal and what is the reason for the love for it all over the world.
The homeland of sweet corn is definitely America. Its first descriptions date back to the II-III millennium BC. The ancient Indians used the culture for food in fried, boiled form, made flour from it for baking flat cakes, made wines and various syrups from the sprouted grains. Suffice it to say that the Indians considered the god of fertility Tlaloc to be the god of corn. Even then, it was a cultivated plant and its wild species are unknown.
Of course, Columbus was the first who brought "maize grains" to Europe after his discovery of America. From Spain and Portugal, the culture spread throughout the Eurasian continent, and began to grow it even in Africa. Ukraine is one of the European leaders in corn cultivation. The Spaniards gave it a sonorous name - "cornucopia", which means "sharp hood".
Proof of how important this cereal is for humans is the high degree of its cultivation: corn has lost its ability to shower grains and reproduce itself, and its seeds for sowing must be carefully stored in dry rooms, otherwise they deteriorate and lose the ability to germinate.
Now corn is one of the main cultivated crops in more than 60 countries of the world. This was due to its ability to perfectly adapt to various climatic conditions and gave rise to an abundance of plant forms and species, as well as its high yield.
Corn (maize) is an annual herb with a powerful root, reaching a height of up to 3 meters. Its stem is hollow inside, very strong, covered with long leaves, from the nests of which cobs grow. Due to its plasticity - the ability to adapt and change - corn performance fluctuates depending on where it grows:
The size and number of kernels on the cob also differ.
In terms of its chemical composition, this cereal is truly unique - 26 elements of the periodic table plus a huge amount of vitamins. Golden grains lead in iron content - 3700 μg, zinc - 1750 μg, manganese - 1100 μg. Potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iodine, gold, selenium, unsaturated fatty acids, mono and disaccharides, ash, a very high content of starch and folic acid (B9), vitamins of group B, PP, C, E - this is not yet a complete list of substances that are not only useful, but simply irreplaceable for the human body.
It has been proven that corn has high nutritional and biological activity, is easily absorbed by the body, therefore it is so useful during diets.
With an average calorie content, the product is able to quickly saturate the body, reduce appetite, therefore it is useful for consumption even with obesity.
It is interesting that canned cereal grains retain all the beneficial properties and qualities. Most useful when cooked. Tip: Always boil the ears without salt, otherwise the beans will become dry and tough. Due to its unique composition centuries-old culture has a beneficial effect on humans:
First of all, it is a boiled ear. Both adults and children eat them with great pleasure. Canned corn is used to prepare salads and dishes. Corn oil is very useful - a strong antioxidant, which is also used for salads, cooking, frying and baking.
By the way, popcorn - fried grains - is even healthier than canned corn when cooked without the addition of salt, sugar, and vegetable oil.
The stems of the plant have found application in the production of artificial fibers, glue, paper, building materials, packaging, and it is even difficult to list where else.
A decoction of corn stigmas - hairs around the cob - is a valuable medicine and effectively helps with cholecystitis, hepatitis, kidney stones, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and also has a diuretic effect. And no matter how many areas of application, you will still forget something.
It is a very popular agricultural crop, as it easily adapts to weather and climatic conditions, has a high yield and a wide range of applications.
Farmers cultivating this crop strive to reap the largest possible yield.
The yield depends on many factors:
Under favorable agrotechnical conditions, the most popular varieties in Russia give high yields:
Domestic varieties give good yields. Corsair, Bemo182, Collective 181, Dokuchaevsky. To achieve high yields, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with organic fertilizers (40 tons of manure per hectare), to apply minerals throughout the growing season. Before planting, be sure to destroy all weeds, otherwise they will not allow the grain to germinate. The predecessors should be potatoes, legumes, pulses, alfalfa, or clover. At the summer cottage, in the garden, regular loosening of the soil and timely watering will be effective.
Undoubtedly, corn is a unique cereal crop, therefore it has been cultivated for several millennia and is still one of the three leaders in cereals on our planet.
Daily consumption of 100-150g of sun seeds will bring you pleasure and benefits for the whole body.
Using celandine, you can easily get rid of corns, including old ones, acne, various skin rashes, fungus and even herpes. But celandine was especially famous for its ability to easily and very quickly remove warts, for which it received another name among the people - warthog, and for its bright yellow juice it is called golden grass.
True, not all of the many names of this plant are so flattering. Along with them, celandine is known as witch's herb or damn milk. And I must say that it is not in vain. Possessing a powerful cleansing effect, the juice of this plant causes severe poisoning due to the content of poisonous components in it. Therefore, celandine must be used with caution.
But first you need to find out what celandine looks like and where it grows. This is also important because the plant is widespread even in urban environments. Adults and especially children, not knowing what celandine looks like, can be poisoned by it.
Regardless of the method of growing, you can prepare seeds for planting for the next season. To do this, the corn cobs are left to ripen until the end of summer.
If the crop is grown on an industrial scale, a solid area is allocated to obtain seed.
But when grown in private gardens, it is recommended to leave the most developed ears for seeds. They should be located on a sturdy above-ground portion of the corn.
Harvesting is carried out when the outer wrapper of the cob is dry, yellow and tough. By this time, the grains should acquire a rich yellow color and a dense, hard structure.
After the cob is put into a dry place with good ventilation. In such conditions, they are kept for 3-4 weeks. Grains are removed from the cob at the end of September or in the first decade of October.
Gardeners carry out this procedure manually, and industrial farmers use special installations. This helps to maintain the integrity of the grain. Well-dried seeds become glassy and easily detach from the base of the ear.
If the harvesting of corn seeds is done manually. It is recommended to pick large seeds from the middle of the ear. From the edges, especially from the top, the grains are not always fully ripe, so their germination is low.
After separation, the seeds are calibrated and dried in vivo for a week. All damaged grains and seeds of irregular shape are selected. Darkened grains are also excluded. Then they are packaged in bags. If several varieties are harvested, it is imperative to label each package.
Such planting material is stored in ventilated, dry rooms. Subject to the necessary storage conditions, the seeds retain their growth capacity for five years after harvesting.
According to the shape and size of the grain, rice is divided into three types:
The cultivation technology for different species is the same.
When growing rice, seedlings are sown first.... After 30-50 days, it is planted in soil filled with water. After the grains are ripe, the water is drained and the plant is allowed to dry out.
Then the crop is harvested and additionally dried, after which the grains are threshed. Then the husks are removed from them and, if necessary, the top layer - to obtain white rice.
In the swamp, cranberries can be found in the brightest, but most humid place. Shoots of shrubs spread, intertwine and form a kind of glades. The length of one cranberry place can be more than 1 km.
The plant prefers peat and sphagnum bogs, it is not demanding on the soil, but the availability of clean water is necessary for it. It is noticed that the bush grows well where the soil is acidic. It gets its food from the roots, entering into symbiosis with mushrooms.
Cranberry forests in Russia are found in Siberia, Sakhalin and Kamchatka. The shrub grows in marshy lowlands, on old peat bogs, where the soil is fertile, and in moist coniferous thickets. Most often, these are small-fruited and common cranberries, which are common in the forest-tundra zone (northern border of the Arctic Circle). In the southern regions, the berry is found only in swamps, which are limited to the 62nd parallel.
Picking berries is not easy, and sometimes life-threatening, because under the thickets there may well be a quagmire.
Many thought about planting cranberries in the country, so that in the fall they did not have to go far to the swamps. However, it is difficult to grow forest shrubs in the garden; it is difficult to recreate suitable conditions. In nature, the plant grows on sphagnum peat, the thickness of which is not less than half a meter. The fertile soil layer consists of sand, leaf humus and decayed coniferous litter. In addition, wild seedlings do not take root in central Russia, and cultivated plants from the nursery are not resistant to diseases, pests and do not tolerate the harsh climate.
However, work is underway to develop new varieties of cranberries. Indeed, from year to year, the ecological situation is deteriorating, the swamps are drying up. The new varieties are based on the North American large-fruited cranberry shrub, but it does not take root well in the Russian climate. In the spring, the ends of the shoots freeze from recurrent frosts, flower buds are preserved, but the flowering is weak. The yield is unstable.
In the process of caring for boxwood, you should be careful, use personal protective equipment. The evergreen shrub is poisonous. The maximum concentration of harmful substances is concentrated in the leaves. The composition contains 70 flavonoids, there are also coumarins, tannins. The green mass and bark contain 3% alkaloids. Among the most dangerous substances is cyclobuxin D. After contact with the plant, wash your hands and change clothes. Restrict the access of children and animals.
There are many interesting things associated with basil. Where the bushes of the plant grew, pests of the garden and vegetable garden do not appear. Therefore, it is worth starting growing herbs on your site, since basil will attract with its smell and beneficial insects that will pollinate garden and vegetable crops. The plant attracts bees, bumblebees in the greenhouse, so you can plant spicy grass there too.
Indians consider the aromatic plant to be divine. It protects the home from evil spells, cleans the human aura. And the Egyptians used aromatic powder in mixtures for mummification. A rosary was made from the stems of the plant, which could protect from evil forces, the evil eye.
In the countries of southern Europe, the Reagan is considered a plant indicating loyalty and love. If a young man takes a stalk of grass from a girl's hands, then he becomes her fiancé. Considered a powerful aphrodisiac, the herb will help increase sex drive. It is advised to take the herb before love joys for both men and women.
The taste of basil is considered incomparable, regal. After all, earlier dishes with spices were served only in wealthy houses. Now everyone can enjoy the aroma by adding fresh leaves to summer salads. Without them, you can't make a real Italian pesto sauce.