Every gardener wants to have a variety of fruit trees in his garden, but usually there is not enough land area for everything. The issue of space deficit becomes especially relevant for the happy owners of the notorious six hundred square meters. Columnar apple trees, which take up very little space and give a very good harvest for their size, can be an excellent solution. One of the most winter-hardy and unpretentious varieties of this category is the President hybrid.
The President variety of columnar apple trees was obtained about 40 years ago by the breeder V.V. Kichina at the All-Russian Institute of Selection of Technology for Horticulture and Nursery. Most often, these hybrids can be found in the gardens of the Moscow region. The President apple tree belongs to semi-dwarf trees and reaches a height of 2–2.5 m. The crown is only 20–25 cm wide and is characterized by a rather strong foliage.
Columnar apple and pear trees are dwarf or semi-dwarf trees of compact sizes, convenient for growing in small areas. They look like low columns, as there are no side branches. From this came the name of the group of varieties - "columnar". It is correctly spelled that way, although the second "n" often disappears somewhere ("columnar").
Fruit wood is represented by ringlets and spears located directly on the trunk of the apple tree. They are quite strong, easily withstand the weight of apples, even with abundant harvests.
Column-shaped apple tree President - a small tree, literally strewn with fruits
Even young trees have a dense, well-developed root system, due to which they tolerate transplantation well. Large dark green leaves have a glossy surface. Fruits are evenly distributed along the trunk height starting from a level of 30–40 cm from the ground surface.
The apples are pale yellow in color (similar to those of the White filling), with a faint reddish blush on the side facing the sun. Fruits are round, symmetrical, medium-sized, weighing 140–250 g. The apples are covered with a tight but thin skin with a glossy sheen. Aromatic white pulp has a pleasant sweet and sour taste.
Advantages of the hybrid, which provide it with sustainable popularity among gardeners:
The disadvantage of the President apple tree, like other columnar varieties, is the short lifespan of ringlets - up to 15 years. After that, the yield drops irreversibly and the replacement of trees is required. Another disadvantage is the low self-fertility of the hybrid. It is necessary to have other apple trees on the site that play the role of pollinators.
For planting a columnar apple tree, it is best to buy an annual seedling. To determine the age, check the number of branches - it should not have them. Particular attention should be paid to the condition of the roots and trunk. The bark should be free from damage and growth, the layer under it (if you pick it off with your fingernail) - bright green... Roots are always flexible, moist and free of rot. Do not take a seedling with leaves - most likely, it will not take root.
The columnar apple tree should be planted in early spring, before the buds begin to bloom. You can postpone the procedure until autumn (late September - early October), when they are fully formed. The second option is suitable for gardeners living in areas where winter comes in accordance with the calendar. The first is for residents of regions with a temperate climate.
Since columnar apple trees do not require a lot of space, they can be planted along a path, fence or garden structures, provided that the chosen place is well lit by the sun and sheltered from the cold north wind.
The groundwater level must be at least 1.5 m from the surface of the earth. It is advisable to choose a place on a hill. If you are planting several columnar apple trees (and it is better to do this), arrange them according to the scheme 1 * 1 m or 0.5 * 2 m.It is better to pre-mark.
The President varieties planted in dense rows can significantly save space on the site
The planting hole must be prepared in advance, in the fall (for the spring), or at least 20-25 days before the proposed procedure. It is filled with a mixture of organic matter (3-4 kg of humus or compost), potassium fertilizers (55-80 g) and superphosphate (60-100 g). The mass is poured inside so as to form a slide at the bottom of the pit.
For columnar apple trees, another planting method can be used - in a groove 40 cm wide and 30–40 cm deep.
When the root collar is deepened, development slows down and the frost resistance of the tree decreases.
There is nothing difficult in planting an apple tree, but it is better to get down to business together - it is more convenient this way
For dwarf and semi-dwarf apple trees, you can use a more reliable support of three pegs, which are driven in from different sides of the seedling, allowing you to accurately direct the tree and provide protection from the wind.
The apple tree is deservedly considered one of the most unpretentious fruit trees. But this cannot be said about columnar varieties. Growing them requires adherence to all care recommendations and certain experience. Only in this case, you can regularly get the harvest.
To ensure the correct development of the columnar apple tree, regular watering and loosening of the soil is necessary. The soil should be moistened 4–5 times per season, spending 20–30 liters per adult tree. There is no need to organize frequent watering in small portions - the tree perceives them worse.
If you use a hose, you shouldn't let the water go by gravity, as it washes away part of the fertile layer. It is desirable to form shallow grooves around the trees (15–18 cm deep) or to form earth mounds. They can be made circular or zigzag, at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other. This contributes to an even distribution of water and a good saturation of the soil with moisture. Sprinkler irrigation is also a suitable irrigation method, which is especially recommended for areas with high groundwater levels.
Do-it-yourself sprinkler installation
Sprinkling not only provides trees with moisture, but also allows you to slightly lower the air temperature and increase its humidity, simulating natural precipitation. It should not be carried out too often, so as not to provoke the development of fungal diseases.
After each watering, the soil must be loosened and mulched, and weeds must be removed. In columnar apple trees, the roots are located close to the surface, therefore, if you are afraid to damage them, you can replace loosening with tinning - sowing grass with subsequent mowing.
Columnar apple trees need regular feeding. During the growing season, they are required to be applied quite often. At the beginning of active growth, when the tree intensively grows green mass, it must be watered with a solution of urea, ammonium nitrate or other nitrogen-containing fertilizer (50 g per bucket of water) three times, spending 2 liters per tree. The first portion of nutrients is given immediately after the blooming of the leaves, the subsequent feeding is carried out with an interval of 12-15 days.
Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in mid-summer and autumn. These macronutrients are essential for fruit set and ripening.
Apple tree President will be grateful to the gardener for both natural organic matter and mineral fertilizers
Foliar dressing (spraying the leaves) gives a very good effect. They are also carried out three times, starting from the moment the foliage blooms, with a solution of urea with a concentration of 0.1–0.2% or any complex preparation designed specifically for apple trees or for fruit trees in general. From the middle of summer, all spraying is stopped so that the harvest does not suffer.
In autumn, the soil in the near-trunk circle is loosened, at the same time adding rotted manure or humus (15–20 l) and dolomite flour (200 g / m2). You will also need phosphorus and potash fertilizers - 40-50 g and 25-30 g, respectively. They can be replaced with a complex preparation (ABA, Autumn).
Despite the natural compactness of the crown, columnar apple trees still need pruning to maintain a constant tree shape. It should be carried out in the spring, in April, or in the summer (late July - early August). It is not necessary to "cut" the plant too actively, as in this case it begins to branch strongly.
When shortening a branch, leave 3-5 buds on it, on young trees - 2 buds. Weak branches can simply be pinched on 1-2 leaves.
Columnar apple pruning is carried out according to the following scheme
If after pruning there are too many branches with flower buds, some of them should be removed, otherwise the harvest will be small. In the first year after planting, all buds should be torn off to improve the survival rate of the tree.
To obtain the largest possible fruits, rationing must be done. In each inflorescence, part of the buds is removed, leaving only two.
Sanitary pruning (removal of dried and diseased branches, cutting off the affected areas of the bark) should be done in the fall, after the leaves have fallen off.
The President's apple tree is considered the most suitable for growing in the harsh climate of central Russia. Nevertheless, young seedlings need competent preparation for winter. In November, it is necessary to carry out water-charging irrigation (unless autumn is very rainy), and when frost occurs, insulate the trees with spruce branches or reeds, fill the trunk circle to a height of 25-30 cm with sawdust or peat.
When the snow falls, create a tall snowdrift out of it around the tree. Refresh it periodically, break the tough crust of the infusion on the surface. In the early years, be sure to cover the top of the seedling, which is most susceptible to freezing, with some kind of insulating material that allows air to pass through (spunbond, lutrasil may do).
Since the columnar apple trees do not differ in size, they can be completely wrapped in burlap for the winter or hidden under a cardboard box
When grown in cold climates, it is best to form several stem shoots in the apple tree, one of which can replace it when the trunk freezes. Of the replacement branches, only one, the most developed, is left, the rest are cut into a ring. This shoot grows very quickly and begins to actively bear fruit.
Columnar apple trees can be grown even in the northern regions. In this case, they have to be cultivated in stanza form, to which hybrids of this category are much better adapted than ordinary trees. For such cultivation, the seedling must be planted with a slope, at an angle of 30aboutto be able to bend down to the ground. In September, all leaves should be removed, tied to a peg driven into the ground and covered with spruce branches. For added protection from mice, a sheet metal edge can be made around the tree.
The President variety is very resistant to pests and diseases, but this does not mean that the gardener can not be afraid of anything.
|Disease||Signs of illness||Treatment methods|
|Apple scab||Olive spots, covered with a velvety bloom, appear on the leaves, fruits, young shoots, flowers. Then leaves begin to fall, apples lose keeping quality.|
|Black cancer||Brownish-brown spots are visible on the bark, which are then slightly depressed. On the affected areas, circles appear with black tubercles - fungal pycnidia. The bark cracks, crumbles and falls off, forming wounds with wood of the same color. Small (2-3 mm) triangular dips appear on the fruits, and around them there is a dark brown spot covered with pycnidia, the apples wrinkle and dry out.|
In addition to diseases to which the hybrid is relatively resistant, there are insect pests. Not a single breeder is yet able to protect his creation from them.
|Pest||Signs of defeat||Control measures|
|Apple moth||On apples, entrance holes are noticeable (near the petiole, under the leaves, in the places where fruits come into contact with each other), sealed with a stopper of excrement. Each caterpillar damages 2-3 fruits, causing them to fall off.||Treatment with organophosphate insecticides after each summer of butterflies (Bi-58 Novy, Dursban, Zolon, Sayren, Fufanon). You can use pyrethroids (Decis, Karate, Splender) or combination drugs (Nurell-D, Tsipi Plus). Their use is limited in summer. The last treatment is no later than 25 days before harvest.|
|Apple ermine moth||In winter, shields of hardened secretions of butterflies appear on the trunk, up to 30 caterpillars hibernate under each. In spring, damage to the leaves is noticeable - tissues are gnawed under the skin with the formation of brown "mines", then the caterpillars come out and destroy the leaves, braiding the branches with cobwebs.||Spraying before flowering or immediately after it with organophosphate and pyrethroid drugs (Fufanon, Bi-58 Novy, Zolon, Tsitkor) or biological products (Bicol, Bitoxibacillin).|
Fruit ripening begins in September. Remove them carefully, trying to preserve the stalk and wax deposits. In no case should the fruit be dropped. They are clasped with a palm, touching the top of the stalk with the index finger, then bent up so that it separates from the branch.
The shelf life of President apples is quite long - about 40-50 days, and in the refrigerator they can even last until December. The fruits are good both fresh and for preparing various homemade preparations.
The President variety is ideal for making pickled apples
The President variety is perfect for small areas located in central Russia and even in the northern regions. This apple tree will delight its owner with regular and delicious harvests. You just need to be ready to replace the tree in 12-15 years.
To create an orchard is the dream of many gardeners. Yes, only, alas, the area of the site sometimes does not allow counting on a large number of trees and, accordingly, on a significant harvest. But nature itself seems to be meeting the deprived gardeners - it made it possible for a person to create dwarf species that significantly save space, and delight in fruits no worse than their larger counterparts. We are also talking about columnar apple trees. One of them under the loud name President is in the center of our attention.
Isaev S.I. began breeding work on the development of a new variety, the distinctive feature of which should be precisely frost resistance, in the early 30s of the last century. Thanks to his activities, the catalog of varietal fruit trees has been replenished with more than 40 different varieties that differ not only in winter hardiness, but also in resistance to various fungal diseases. The apple cultivar Medunitsa was bred by crossing the Canadian cultivar Welsey and the Cinnamon striped cultivar.
But this apple tree received the name "Medunitsa" not for the aroma and taste of honey, which its fruits possess. Rather, the breeder gave this name to the apple tree in honor of the flower of the same name, which is among the first to bloom in the spring. In addition, the biologist called his beloved wife "Medunitsya". The apple tree has several other names - "Medovitsa", "Medovka".
For excellent breeding activity and excellent qualities of the Medunitsa apple tree, the professor was awarded the Stalin Prize. But, despite all the merits and the tremendous work done, Medunitsa and many other varieties bred by him were never registered in the State Register.
Columnar apple trees are small trees that differ in their unusual appearance. Despite their small size, they nevertheless give quite impressive yields. Large sweet fruits will be appreciated both fresh and canned.
The columnar apple tree has tangible differences from the culture we are accustomed to. The branches of these plants rise up, with one trunk, a column - hence the name. The fruits cover the plant like a garland, which looks very impressive. In addition to their unusual appearance, such plants are convenient for planting in small garden plots, since they are very compact.
The homeland of the columnar varieties was Canada, when one of the gardeners found a branch that was different from the others on an apple tree in his garden. With an impressive thickness, it was devoid of other shoots, but with many fruits. Its cuttings were grafted onto another apple tree, which gave a plant with an unusual crown. The cultivation of columnar apple trees in our country is associated with the name of the famous breeder V.V. Kichina.
Columnar apple tree with fruits looks like a garland
The President refers to semi-dwarf varieties. The height of the tree reaches 2–2.5 m. The crown width is about 20 cm, branches with abundant glossy dark green foliage. The rings on which the fruits develop are strong and can withstand the mass of even such a large fruit like an apple.
Fruits are light yellow (similar to White filling), with a blush. Round or turnip, symmetrical, their weight is 150–250 g. The skin is glossy, strong, although thin. The taste is sweet and sour, the pulp is juicy. The pleasant aroma is pronounced. The lower fruits are placed on the trunk at a level of 30 cm from the soil.
The President's apples are similar in appearance to the famous White filling.
A feature of columnar apple trees is a very strong viable root, which allows even an adult tree to tolerate transportation and transplantation well.
|Compact tree||Low yield (6 kg)|
|Early maturity (in the 2nd year after planting)||Pollinators needed|
|It takes root well||Seedlings are difficult to get|
|Delicious, sweet, juicy fruits||High price of planting material|
|Frost resistant||The short life span of ringlets (up to 15 years), after which the yield drops|
|Resistant to most apple diseases|
The time to plant an apple tree depends on the climatic conditions of the region in which it will live. For regions of a temperate climate, the optimal time is early spring, until the moment when the buds begin to bloom. Gardeners of the southern regions can choose the end of September - thanks to the warm conditions, the tree will take root well and will already get stronger before winter.
For apple trees, you need to choose a sunny, wind-protected place.
An apple tree requires loamy or sandy loam soil with a groundwater depth of 1.5 m from the earth's surface. The place must be dug up in advance, weeded, fertilized (add 1 bucket of humus per 1 m2).
Columnar apple trees require pollinators. For this, it is worth planting trees of a different type nearby - it is important that they bloom at the same time as the President. Since the side branches occupy a space of 20 cm from the trunk, a sufficient distance between trees will be 40-60 cm, in the row spacing - 1 m.
Columnar apple trees are planted at a short distance from each other
It is important to note that it is not so easy to find a columnar apple tree seedling.
Therefore, a specialized nursery is the only place where you can hope for good luck.
Before buying a tree, you need to make sure that it is 1 year old, without branches, the bark is free from growths and spots, the roots are moist, flexible. The presence of leaves is undesirable.
A planting pit for an apple tree is prepared in advance. Stir the top layer of the removed soil with fertilizers (3 kg of compost, 60 g of potash fertilizers, 70 g of superphosphate). The mixture is poured into a pit, forming a mound out of it.
You need to add fertilizer to the planting hole
Roots need to be carefully spread
To ensure good tree health and a high-quality harvest, the apple tree needs proper care.
The best way to water the President is by drip. You need to water, focusing on the weather and precipitation - the soil under the tree should not dry out. Despite the strong roots, the lack of moisture will affect the life of the plant. Each watering requires 20 to 30 liters of water.
After moistening, the trunk circle is loosened, removing weeds. This must be done very carefully, since the root system is shallow and it is easy to damage nearby roots. The soil at the trunk is mulched again, since a layer of peat or compost will keep moisture in the ground longer.
|Terms of top dressing||Fertilizers|
|During bud break||Manure infusion (1:10) plus 1 tbsp. l. urea per bucket If there is no organic matter: 1 tbsp. l. nitroammophos for 10 liters of water|
|2 weeks after the first|
|2 weeks after the second|
|In August, when the fruit buds of the next year are formed||2 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water|
|In the fall when digging||Overripe manure or humus (15–20 l), dolomite flour (200 g / 1 m2), potash fertilizers (30 g), phosphorus fertilizers (40 g).|
A small and compact crown is not a reason to avoid pruning a columnar apple tree. It is held in April. It is often necessary to undercut the frozen top of the conductor a little.
If you cut the wire too much, then several branches will grow out of it. This will cause the tree to become sprawling. To keep the standard shape, you only need to leave one shoot.
After leaf fall, sanitary pruning is carried out, removing dry, too long, growing branches close to each other. Shoots damaged by pests and diseases can and should be removed during the summer.
Although the frost resistance of the variety is high, it is worth remembering that the root system is superficial, therefore it is important that it be covered during the winter cold. For this purpose, the near-trunk circle is mulched with a layer of 25-30 cm with sawdust, peat, the trunk is whitewashed, the above-ground part is wrapped (with burlap, spruce branches, non-woven synthetics). When the snow falls, you need to paddle it to the tree.
Dwarf apple trees are often bent to the ground and covered for the winter. For the President, this is not suitable due to the strength and hardness of the barrel. Since the tree is small, it can be completely covered - for example, hidden under a cardboard box. In the spring, the protection must be removed in a timely manner, otherwise the kidneys will mate and putrefactive processes will begin.
Columnar apple trees are more resistant to diseases than ordinary ones, but they are affected by pests. Since the tree is small, they can kill the plant very quickly. However, there are pluses of a small size - for spraying, a much smaller amount of preparations is needed, and it is much more convenient to process the plant.
Fruit rot makes apples inedible Scab spreads quickly in warm rainy weather The moth is a moth-like insect Apple moth caterpillars entangle the plant with cobwebs
The president, unlike the usual apple tree, begins to bear fruit already in the second year after planting. Of course, there are still not very many of them, but every year the harvest increases - at the age of 6, the tree reaches its maximum - about 6 kg. Such laterals last for about 7 years. Then the yield declines.
Apples ripen in late August and early September. They should be harvested on a dry day, taking care not to damage the casing. You can store the fruits for 1.5 months (in the refrigerator). The variety is suitable for fresh consumption, and for processing and preservation - for making juices, preserves, compotes, jam.
Apples of the President variety are universal in application
The columnar apple tree President deserves the attention of gardeners due to its many positive characteristics. The tree is quite frost-resistant, does not take up much space, which is appreciated by the owners of small garden plots. True, the cost of a sapling of the variety is higher than that of an ordinary sapling, in addition, you have to take care of decent pollinators.
For more than half a century that have passed since the appearance of columnar apple trees, many varieties of this clone have been bred. Popular varieties included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation can boast of the best qualities (winter hardiness, good immunity, productivity).
The columnar apple tree will delight gardeners with greenish apples with a blurred red blush, which ripen by October and lie well until the New Year. Small fruits weighing 130 g each have a round shape and good taste, rated by tasters at 4.3 points. This is a winter-hardy and early-growing variety - the crop can be harvested in the second year.
Column-shaped apple tree Moscow necklace bears harvest in the second year of life
On a medium-sized autumn apple tree, greenish-yellow fruits with a pale pink blush, weighing up to 130 g, ripen, inside which there is a greenish juicy pulp with a good taste. The variety is also fast-growing and more productive than the Moscow necklace. If from 1 sq. m of the first, you can collect no more than 2 kg of apples, then from the Amber Necklace - 2.5 kg.
Columnar green apples Amber necklace covered with a delicate blush
Medium late variety, apples ripen in autumn. Thin brown shoots with dark green leaves extend from a medium-sized stem. Fruits are round-conical, small, light yellow, weighing up to 70 g. The taste of juicy creamy pulp is sweet, fresh, estimated at 4.8 points.
The fruits of the Malyukha columnar apple tree are small, but there are a lot of them.
This fast growing variety bears fruit in late autumn. Large dark green leaves grow on a gray-green trunk. Light yellow, flattened, with a purple blush, the fruits grow up to 110 g. Their taste is sweet and sour, the flesh is white and juicy. The Ostankino variety tolerates the winters of Central Russia well and is relatively resistant to the frequent disease of apple trees - scab.
The Ostankino columnar apple variety tolerates the winters of Central Russia well
A fast-growing late-ripening variety with a dense crown bears fruit with large apples weighing up to 240 g. Skin color is light yellow with an orange-red blush. Valyuta apples are very aromatic, with white juicy pulp and sour-sweet taste. The tree does not tolerate drought well, but in the conditions of the Central region with a rainy summer, for which the variety is zoned, it grows successfully. Scab resistant. The currency is not hasty - the harvest can be obtained only in the third year.
The apples of the columnar variety Currency reach a weight of 240 g
Another medium-sized, fast-growing variety. By the time of ripening - early winter. Compact, thick shoots extend from a strong gray-green trunk. This is one of the largest-fruited columnar varieties - from a low tree (up to 2 m), you can get fruits weighing up to 300 g.
One of the largest-fruited columnar varieties - President
They are similar in shape to a turnip, whitish in color and sweet and sour taste. The pulp is also white, slightly aromatic, but very juicy. The President cannot stand extreme heat and dryness. Begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting.
The Ostankino variety is a bright representative of domestic columnar apple trees, able to grow in our difficult conditions:
Lovers of short trees will not have to worry about the problems of collecting and caring for an apple tree. Even small people do not need a stool.
After all, the trees of this variety are naturally semi-dwarfs:
You yourself can calculate: on average 6-9 cm... How will you look after (water and feed).
15-16 kg of delicious apples from one such tree. This is a high yield for columnar varieties.
High-quality care makes it possible to double the yield... It is important for farmers.
On an area of one hectare, when 20 thousand trees are planted (this is the norm), the yield of this variety is about 800 centners.
Perhaps it is difficult to find an apple lover who does not know Melba, a summer apple variety. And be sure with pleasure I ate them. Ostankino apples are very similar in taste.
Delicious and beautiful fruits of the Ostankino variety.
Columnar apple grade Ostankino was bred in the suburbs. And for cultivation in the central regions of Russia.
And yet, its winter hardiness is not as high as the varieties of columnar apple trees bred in recent years.
It is very high for scab, as well as for other diseases. There are opinions that it is not necessary to completely treat diseases.
But something else prevails - 2 treatments for prevention will not harm their taste.
Next, you will find out what impression the Ostankino apple tree created from the gardeners' reviews:
The Ostankino apple tree surprises with the size of apples.
I have not yet met the admiring reviews of farmers about columnar apple trees anywhere. Or their press services. We didn't have time to prepare the text. Or they didn't grow decent harvests. Or is productivity not on track?
So we will wait for their positive feedback. Tips and tricks for the many varieties of columnar apple trees. All regions.
I, like every normal (neighbors consider abnormal) gardener, have always wanted to grow in my garden much of what is not in every garden. I have been testing varieties of columnar apple trees for 20 years already. Or are they testing me? You can tell by touch.
Columnar apple-tree Priokskoe
Columnar apple-tree Priokskoe.
(31-27-89) [224-18 (SR 0523 × Vazhak) - free pollination]. Winter columnar a variety of VNIISPK selection for super-intensive gardens with beautiful, marketable fruits. Authors of the variety: E.N. Sedov, Z.M. Serova, S.A. Korneeva.
Trees medium-sized, columnar. The bark on the main branches is brown. Shoots are thick, geniculate, faceted in cross-section, brownish-brown, slightly pubescent. Leaves are of medium size, elongated, long-pointed, green with a yellow tinge, wrinkled, shiny with coarse nerves. The edge of the leaf is serrate-crenate, wavy.
Fruit medium weight (150 g), flattened, conical, wide-ribbed, beveled. The main color of the fruit at the time of ripening is green and greenish-yellow in the state of consumer maturity; the cover color on most of the surface of the fruit is blurred, dark red at the time of picking and crimson at the time of consumption.
Pulp fruits are greenish, medium density, prickly, fine-grained, very juicy, sweet and sour taste, with a weak aroma. At the tastings, the fruits are rated for appearance of 4.5 points, taste - 4.4 points. The fruits contain soluble solids - 13.9%, sugars - 12.6%, titratable acids - 0.62%, ascorbic acid - 4.7 mg / 100 g, P-active substances - 339 mg / 100 g, the ratio sugar to acid - 20.3.
Advantages of the variety: high productivity, immunity to scab, beautiful high-quality fruits of good taste. It is of great interest to amateur gardeners and farmers.
The variety was zoned in 2014 in the Central and Central Black Earth regions.