With proper agricultural technology, cucumbers are capable of bearing fruit until frost, but often the last crops are harvested much earlier. So that the life of the plant is not interrupted ahead of time, all the rules for its cultivation must be strictly observed, but there are also some tricks that allow you to extend the fruiting by a couple of weeks.
First of all, to create conditions for long-term fruiting, one should not forget about those moments without which cucumbers will not give a normal harvest at all.
To make the cucumbers comfortable, they must be planted in a place protected from the winds. The bed should be well fertilized, and the sowing of seeds or planting of seedlings should be done on time. Cucumbers are planted in open ground only at the onset of real summer, earlier - only under film shelters. In order for the cucumbers to bear fruit until autumn, you can plant them in several stages with an interval of 2 weeks; this applies to both open ground and greenhouses.
Even in open ground, cucumbers are usually planted first under a film.
The earliest varieties are planted from which, most often, long-term fruiting should not be expected. Mid-season cucumbers are suitable for canning and fresh consumption. And planting at a later date of late-ripening varieties, for example Phoenix, will allow harvesting in unprotected soil up to frost.
When choosing late varieties, it is better to focus on self-pollinated hybrids, since the flight of insects decreases in September.
Landings should not be thickened. Every 2 weeks, cucumbers must be fed using diluted infusions of mullein or bird droppings. If cessation of growth and yellowing of the leaves is noticed, foliar feeding with urea is useful. Water the cucumbers only with warm water and only at the root, soaking the soil at least 15 cm, and then mulch.
It is best to grow cucumbers in a vertical culture; most varieties require the obligatory shaping of the bush. Fruits must be removed at least 2 times a week, avoiding overgrown specimens from being left on the lashes.
Cucumbers left on the testes sharply inhibit the growth of new greens and cause the aging of the bush.
When the air temperature drops below 12 aboutThe construction of shelters is mandatory, for which arcs are arranged in advance. It is useful to use warm beds based on vermicompost for cucumbers. Low temperatures are especially dangerous in August-September. They cause fungal diseases such as powdery mildew or downy mildew. Diseases must be fought immediately.
In addition to adhering to agricultural techniques, the following should be considered:
Borago is an interesting plant: the leaves smell like cucumbers, and it grows and blooms for a very long time.
All these measures apply to greenhouse cultivation, but there are fewer problems with a cold snap, and more with diseases. In greenhouses, you should immediately pick off the leaves as they begin to dry out. Withering plants are best eliminated as soon as possible. On healthy ones, thin shoots are cut in August, as well as those that have fruited, which are in the lower part of the bush. Useful prophylactic spraying of the bushes with Fitosporin or infusion of onion husks.
There are no such radical measures that would allow cucumbers to bear fruit twice as long as natural, but it is quite possible to extend the collection of fruits by 2-3 weeks. To do this, you just need to follow all the rules of growing and monitor the plants almost daily.
Why pinching is useful:
Is it possible to harvest cucumbers before the fall? Of course, you can, you just need to plant them correctly and not make mistakes when leaving.
When planting cucumbers, you need to choose a place protected from cold winds. The soil should be well fertilized, and the planting itself should be carried out on time. Sowing cucumbers with seeds, and even more so planting seedlings without shelter, can be carried out only with the arrival of real heat.
To harvest until autumn, you can practice sowing several times both in the greenhouse and outside it: for example, with an interval of 10-15 days. This is true when growing cucumbers both inside and outside the greenhouse.
The earliest varieties are planted first, as a rule, they cannot grow until autumn. Then - mid-season, which will go to salads and jars. For the autumn harvest, choose late-ripening cucumbers, the most resistant to cold weather, for example, Phoenix. At the same time, one should remember about the weakening of the flight of bees in late summer and early autumn, therefore, self-pollinated hybrids should be planted for autumn consumption.
Phoenix variety created for long-term fruiting
Planting should not be thickened, cucumbers should be fed on time. When the growth of the lashes stops and the leaves begin to turn yellow, an urgent feeding with urea is necessary (preferably on the leaves). Watering should be carried out only with water warmed up in the sun. In order for the cucumbers to bear fruit for a long time, you should not leave them crawling on the ground: it is better to grow on trellises, correctly forming the bushes. The crop should be removed as often as possible. With cold snaps below 12 ° C, a shelter is required, at least from a nonwoven fabric stretched over arcs.
In addition to observing elementary standards for caring for cucumbers, the following measures can help prolong fruiting by 2-3 weeks.
The film must not only be pulled on time, but also removed
Foliar dressing is carried out by spraying the leaves
When growing, cucumber plants should not be thickened. If there are no free beds, you can plant young seedlings of medium or late varieties and hybrids, which were grown at a later date, to the aging bushes.
During fruiting, it is better to feed cucumber plants with organic solutions, 2-3 times a month, with low-concentrated solutions, since cucumbers like to accumulate nitrates / nitrites in fruits. Solutions are prepared from chicken droppings or manure, dissolving 12 and 10 times in water, respectively.
Watering cucumbers is always carried out with warm (+ 18 ... + 20 ° C) water under the bush. To prevent water from getting on the leaves, it is better to water it along the furrows in the aisles, soaking the soil up to 15 cm in depth. The soil should be moist, but not flooded with water. Mulching is required.
Cucumbers are more practical to grow vertically and must be shaped. With this kind of cultivation, the environmental conditions for the plants are optimal. If you grow cucumbers horizontally, leave all the shoots on the ground, including stepchildren, the plants will almost halve the fruiting period due to the exorbitant amount of vegetative, not always healthy, biomass.
With vertical cultivation of cucumbers and timely harvesting, the growth of new fruits is faster. You can harvest the fruits every day, every other day or two. The more large fruits remain on the bush, the slower the growth of young cucumbers and the faster the lashes and leaf apparatus age.
Horizontal cultivation of cucumbers
Cucumber seedlings can be grown until mid-summer. Some gardeners sow seeds for seedlings even at the beginning of August and after 25-28 days transfer them to the beds.
Cucumbers bear fruit normally and grow if the temperature does not drop during the day and at night, below + 15 ° C. At a temperature of + 12 ° C, plants begin to get sick and soon die. Experienced gardeners carry out such late planting of cucumbers on pre-prepared warm beds. Fresh manure, vermicompost and other materials that decompose with the release of heat are used.
Arcs or a film house are prepared around the garden bed. During the day, the film is rolled up, and at night the bed is covered. So that the soil on the insulated bed does not overheat and does not damage the roots of plants, the soil is "cooled" by irrigation, preferably drip. In this case, it is necessary to constantly monitor the temperature of the soil, avoiding overheating. If drip irrigation is not possible, then the cucumbers are watered from a watering can under the root with fine-drop water spray. In order not to flood the root system with frequent watering, vermiculite can be added to the soil, which will absorb excess moisture.
In the second half of summer, more and more often cool nights come with damp cool mornings, so if you do not take protective measures, you may not get a harvest. During this period, plants are intensely affected by real and downy mildew and other fungal diseases.
To protect cucumbers from disease, you must:
By the way, watering should be carried out with the addition of the same or other soil biofungicides, which will save the root system from fungal infection in conditions of constant moisture. All treatments with biofungicides are carried out in accordance with the recommendations. They can be processed during the harvesting period, they are harmless to human and animal health.
How can you extend the fruiting of cucumbers in the open field by 2-3 weeks or more?
We waited, waited and finally waited. Let it be a month late, but cucumbers appeared in the beds, even though June and July of this summer did everything to deprive us of the harvest: rain, snow, hail, squally wind blowing everything from the garden, sudden changes in night and day temperatures. We believed, we knew - green and pimples will appear in our garden. Prepare jars for pickling gherkins. Now the main thing is not to relax and to prolong the fruiting of cucumbers to the maximum. According to the life cycle of the plant, the wilting of cucumber lashes begins by mid-August. And gardeners have shrunken bushes of cucumber plants.
It turns out that not only lawns and rose bushes, but also cucumber lashes need timely trimming. The correct formation of the bush throughout the growing season is the key to increasing yields by extending the fruiting period. After all, old, yellowed or diseased leaves in the fruiting parts of the lashes continue to absorb nutrients, while not performing any important functions in the life of plants. Therefore, away from all unnecessary. Pruning cucumber bushes is carried out by removing all the leaves located below the first greenery on the lash. No more than 2-3 leaf plates should remain before it. At the same time, yellowing leaves with signs of damage and lesions are removed, as well as creating excessive shade and thickening plantings.
Behold at the root
Experienced gardeners use the agrotechnical method of rejuvenating cucumber bushes, based on the ability of the culture to develop additional roots on the lashes.
When growing vertically, the lashes of cucumbers are carefully removed and the lower part is placed on soil moistened with a solution of Kornevin, Epin, Ecosil or another drug that promotes the rapid development of roots. The rest of the lash is tied up again. Sprinkle the lash on the ground with moistened soil. The rooted parts of the lashes will improve the nutrition of the plant, and fruiting will last for some time. If the cucumbers are grown horizontally, this technique is not used, since the whips lying on the ground, and so naturally take root.
We do not linger in the garden
Ripe cucumbers should be removed almost daily. Greens hanging on the lashes, which have reached technical maturity, slow down the maturation of young ovaries and reduce the life of the plant. In addition, they pull off large flows of nutrient compounds and prevent the development of new peduncles ready for pollination. It is recommended to harvest the plantation at least once every 2 days.
Probably no vegetable crop loves feeding as much as a cucumber does. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, boron, manganese, iodine, calcium absorbs from the soil like a vacuum cleaner. (True, it accumulates nitrites with nitrates in its fruits perfectly.) With a decrease in temperature, which is already observed in August, the root system of gherkins is much more difficult to assimilate nutrient components.According to scientists, a decrease in temperature by only 1 degree leads to a decrease in the absorbing capacity of the suction roots located in the upper soil layer by 1/7. In order for the deficiency of chemical elements not to lead to premature aging of plants, experts recommend reducing the amount of root dressings by 2-3 times, while increasing the rate of fertilization on the leaves. Foliar irrigation with nutrient compositions provides almost instant assimilation of the necessary substances by their penetration through leaf plates and stems.
In August, for foliar dressing, it is advisable to use fermented infusion of weeds, infusion of mullein, and from mineral fertilizers - a solution of urea (15 g per standard bucket of water), a solution of biostimulants, for example, Zircon or Epin preparations (use according to the instructions on the package). Complex fertilizers ideally balanced for pumpkin crops are also suitable, for example, Rodnichok, Adrianich, Cucumber Ovary, Agricola, etc.
Away the mushrooms from the cucumber garden
In August, cucumbers also sharply increase the risk of disease with powdery mildew and downy mildew. With the first disease, the leaves are covered with a light powdery bloom, which interferes with photosynthesis, as a result of which the fruits ripen slowly, the yield decreases. Downy mildew appears as spots on the back of the leaf, which gradually darken. At the same time, the leaves turn yellow and dry up, the harvest falls.
To prevent the development of bacterial, fungal, viral diseases of cucumbers, which significantly reduce the life of plants, plantings are regularly treated with medicinal solutions. Whether to use synthetic or to prepare biological fungicides is up to every gardener to choose.
Most often, from plant compositions for the prevention of pumpkin diseases, they use: a solution of whey and milk with iodine, water extracts from all parts of garlic, an ash-soap broth or infusion, an infusion of slurry, a solution of baking soda and laundry soap. Plantings can be treated with colloidal sulfur, copper oxychloride solution, Topaz or Topsin fungicides, etc.
By the way, watering can also be carried out with the addition of the same or other soil biofungicides, which will relieve the root system from fungal infection in conditions of constant moisture. All treatments with biofungicides are carried out in accordance with the recommendations. They can be processed during the harvesting period, they are harmless to human and animal health.
Call the bees
If you have pollinated cucumber varieties in your garden, then you need to think about attracting pollinating insects. It is good when borage grows in the garden or next to the dacha - borage grass, medicinal burnet, Siberian buzulnik, medicinal black root, oregano, phacelia, chrysanthemums and other plants blooming in August and September, because in the struggle for the late summer and autumn harvest the best support groups than bees are hard to come up with.
With vertical cultivation of cucumbers and timely harvesting, the growth of new fruits is faster. You can harvest the fruits every day, every other day or two. The more large fruits remain on the bush, the slower the growth of young cucumbers and the faster the whips and leaf apparatus age.
Since the activity of insect pollinators decreases by autumn, it is better to use self-pollinated hybrids and parthenocarpics for growing late varieties of cucumbers, which do not need insect pollinators.
1. If, when picking cucumbers, twist the shoots back and forth, move and hang them on the trellis again, then the leaves will begin to turn yellow, the yield will decline. Therefore, tie up the cucumbers in time so that later you do not correct the fallen whips.
2. Below the fruiting zone, many leaves are not needed at all, anyway they will turn yellow very quickly, three leaves are enough, but healthy green ones.
3. The leaves are large, but pale - it means that there is not enough nitrogen, it is necessary to feed with organic matter.
4. The leaves are small, at first dark green, then quickly dry up - urgently apply phosphorus fertilizers or you can simply sprinkle ash on the garden bed after watering, then gently spill it.
It is clear with mineral fertilizers, we breed in accordance with the instructions, but here is how to prepare organic fertilizers from improvised means.
We fill a large barrel with freshly cut grass, weeds, nettles, tops by 2/3 and fill with water.
Watch the video: Herbal infusion for feeding cucumbers
You can also use an infusion of chicken manure, but dilute the concentrate with water in a ratio of 1:15
Yeast feeding makes the bacteria in the soil work, saturating the soil with oxygen and nitrogen.
Important ! Feeding cucumbers with yeast can be carried out no more than 3 times per season.
Watch the video: When and how to feed cucumbers in a greenhouse