Cilantro: growing from seeds in the open field, properties, harm and benefits, photo


Garden plants

Sowing coriander (Latin Coriandrum sativum), or vegetable coriander - a herbaceous annual of the genus Coriander of the Umbrella family, which is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a flavoring agent in perfumery, soap making and the production of cosmetics. Coriander is a honey plant. The name of the plant comes from the ancient Greek language, and according to one of the versions it is derived from the word meaning "bug": in an immature form, coriander smells like a crushed insect. According to another version, the producing word has a homonym meaning "St. John's wort", so it is difficult to say unequivocally why coriander is named coriander.
For those who still did not know, we inform you that cilantro and coriander are one and the same plant. From what places it comes, it is not known for certain. Perhaps from the Mediterranean. In any case, coriander came to Western and Central Europe, as well as to Great Britain, from Rome, and later from Europe it was brought to America, New Zealand and Australia. Today cilantro is widely grown in Ukraine, the Caucasus, Crimea and Central Asia.

Planting and caring for cilantro

  • Landing: sowing seeds at home for growing on a windowsill - in the first half of March, sowing seeds in the ground - from March to May.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
  • The soil: loamy or sandy loam, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
  • Watering: after sowing - regular and abundant, with the emergence of seedlings, watering is reduced, maintaining the soil on the site in a slightly moist state. As soon as the plant begins to build up its green mass, watering should become abundant again, otherwise the cilantro will turn into color. During the period of fruit ripening, watering is again reduced to scarce.
  • Top dressing: if the site was fertilized before sowing, fertilizing will not be needed.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: seed-eaters, umbrella and striped bugs, winter moths and its caterpillars.
  • Diseases: ramulariasis, rust and powdery mildew.
  • Properties: cilantro greens have diuretic, antiscorbutic, anthelmintic, analgesic and expectorant properties, and the fruit of the plant is a popular spice.

Read more about growing cilantro below.

Cilantro plant - description

Cilantro is a herbaceous annual with a spindle-shaped root, erect, bare stem from 40 to 70 cm in height, branching in the upper part. Basal leaves of cilantro are coarsely dissected, tripartite, on long petioles, with wide lobes, notched-serrate along the edges. The lower stems, twice pinnately-divided leaves sit on short petioles, and the middle and upper ones are vaginal, pinnately dissected into linear lobules. Cilantro flowers are small, pink or white, collected at the ends of the peduncles in 3-5-ray umbellate inflorescences. Coriander fruits are hard, ribbed, globular or ovoid droplets. Cilantro blooms in June-July, and the fruits, depending on the local climate, ripen in July-September. Seeds remain viable for about two years. Fragrant greens are called cilantro and are used fresh and dried, and a spice called coriander is obtained from the seeds.

Growing cilantro at home

How to grow cilantro on a windowsill

If you are a lover of delicious and aromatic food, you can grow coriander greens at home to have them on the table at any time of the year. Cilantro on the windowsill is a constant source of vitamins and other substances useful for the body. Sowing cilantro for seedlings is carried out in the first half of March: coriander seeds are laid out on the surface of a wet substrate at a distance of 7 cm from each other and deepened by about 1-1.5 cm.Then, to create greenhouse conditions, the container is covered with glass or placed under transparent polyethylene and kept in a bright, warm place. If your day is still too short at this time of the year, install a fluorescent lamp or phytolamp above the container at a height of 20-25 cm.

Caring for cilantro seedlings is simple: water the substrate when the need arises, and regularly ventilate the crops to remove condensation from the coating. As soon as cotyledon leaves appear on the seedlings, the cover is removed from the crops. After three weeks, cilantro greens can be eaten.

Growing cilantro outdoors

Planting cilantro in the ground

In the open field, it is advisable to grow cilantro after plants such as zucchini, cucumbers, squash and related crops. To grow cilantro in your garden, you need a well-lit area, closed from drafts. Cilantro grows well in partial shade, but the shadow is contraindicated for it: the bushes grow weak, with a small number of leaves and quickly form flower arrows, and the fruits are small and ripen for a long time. You cannot sow coriander in the lowlands, otherwise it will get wet before ripening. Cilantro grows best on neutral or slightly alkaline loamy or sandy loam soil.

In the photo: How cilantro blooms in the open field

The soil for sowing coriander is dug up with humus (half a bucket per square meter of land), mixed with a small amount of wood ash, which can be replaced with complex mineral fertilizers at the rate of 20-30 g per the same unit of area. Sowing is carried out from March to May: cilantro seeds begin to germinate at a soil temperature of 4-6 ºC, but the more the soil in which you throw the seeds warms up, the faster the seedlings will appear.

Dry (this is important) coriander seeds are laid out in 2-3 pieces in shallow grooves at a distance of 8-10 cm. A distance of 10-15 cm should be kept between the grooves so that developing plants do not obscure each other from sunlight. Seed material is covered to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, after which the bed is watered. Depending on the variety of cilantro, the weather and the storage conditions of the seeds, seedlings appear within one to three weeks.

Caring for cilantro in the garden

Slightly grown seedlings are thinned out so that each seedling has a sufficient nutritional area and the plants, as they say, do not fight for a place in the sun. Of several seedlings grown in one nest, the strongest seedling is left, and the rest are removed. Care for cilantro further consists of watering, loosening the soil and weed control.

In the photo: Growing cilantro in the garden

Watering cilantro

After sowing, the site is regularly and abundantly watered so that the germinating seeds do not lack moisture. When the first shoots appear, watering is reduced, and in the future, the soil on the site is maintained in a slightly moist state. Watering is intensified when the cilantro begins to build up green mass, otherwise the plant will turn into bloom early. When the fruits begin to ripen, watering is reduced to a minimum. After natural or artificial moistening of the site, it is advisable to loosen the soil in the aisles, because on compacted soils, cilantro gives little greenery and forms inflorescences earlier.

Top dressing cilantro

All nutrients are applied to the soil on the site before sowing, and during active growth, cilantro is not fed with fertilizers. In the fall, compost and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied to the site where it is planned to grow coriander next year, and in the spring, before sowing, nitrogen fertilizers.

In the photo: Blooming cilantro in the garden

The green mass is removed as it grows. When the plant begins to form flower stalks, the amount of greenery will decrease significantly, the leaves will become rough and the nutritional quality of the cilantro will deteriorate. If you follow the agricultural techniques of the culture and take care of it correctly, then during the season you will be able to remove three harvests of greenery from each plant. After coriander, it is best to grow eggplants and other nightshade crops on the site.

Pests and diseases of coriander

Coriander disease

With poor care or growing in unsuitable conditions for the plant, cilantro can be affected by ramularia, rust and powdery mildew.

Ramulariasis is a fungal disease that literally destroys cilantro in seasons with cold summers and high humidity, when abundant dew falls in the morning. Brown spots appear on the leaves of cilantro, which are subsequently covered with a grayish bloom, the plant looks like burnt, and soon dies. To destroy the infection, you should pickle coriander seeds before sowing with Fitosporin-M solution and do not grow the crop for two years in a row in the same area.

Rust is also a common and harmful fungal disease. Auburn pustules appear on the leaves of the plant, bursting and scattering spores of the fungus, which are carried by the wind or insects. Coriander rust should be dealt with in the same ways as with ramulariasis, that is, exclusively preventive measures.

Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that can be recognized by a whitish bloom on the aboveground plant organs. This plaque becomes denser over time and darkens to a brown hue. The disease progresses in hot dry weather with sharp fluctuations in humidity and temperature. Sometimes the cause of the development of infection is an excess of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil. Plants affected by dew should be immediately removed from the site and burned. You can fight the disease with non-toxic folk remedies: treat the leaves with curdled milk, a solution of fresh mullein or soda ash, infusion of fermented weeds.

Cilantro pests

Of the pests for coriander, the most dangerous of all is the seed eater, the umbrella and striped bugs and the winter scoop, or rather, its caterpillars. Since it is impossible to treat the plant with insecticides, they fight the seed eater only by dressing the seeds before sowing. In the fall, it is necessary to carry out a thorough cleaning of plant residues on the site and subsequent deep digging of the soil. The caterpillars of the scoop will have to be collected by hand, like the bugs, but if too large an area is sown with cilantro, spray the plants several times with infusion of onion peels, a solution of mustard or ash.

Types and varieties of cilantro

We offer you an introduction to the most famous varieties of cilantro.

  • Caribe - a new hybrid variety of Dutch selection, which is distinguished by a large amount of foliage and a pleasant, strong aroma. It is a cold-resistant annual with delicate leaves, which is used as a seasoning for salads, second and first courses, and the seeds of the plant are used for making marinades and confectionery;
  • Amber - a variety with good foliage, high aromaticity and slow shooting. The plant is rich in essential oils: greens are used for salads, first and second courses, and seeds - for confectionery, sausages and marinades;
  • Borodinsky - mid-season variety intended for the preparation of spices and fresh consumption. The plant has a pleasant taste and delicate aroma;
  • Debut - mid-season, stem-resistant. Used for cooking and pickles;
  • Stimulus - medium late variety with a compact rosette of glossy, dark green leaves 25-30 cm in diameter. Very good in salads, meat dishes and soups;
  • Venus - a late variety of coriander with a half-raised rosette of leaves. The greens of this variety have an exquisite aroma, pleasant taste, they are used for decorating dishes and as an additive to salads, and the seeds are used for flavoring confectionery and bread, as well as for making marinades;
  • Taiga - a spicy variety of late ripening, distinguished by a bright color of leaves, their large number and a peculiar aroma. Greens are used for cooking, and seeds are used as a seasoning;
  • Vanguard - a low-growing mid-season variety with a raised rosette and a strong aroma. Fresh and dried leaves are used to prepare various dishes, and the seeds are used for marinades.

In the photo: Growing healthy and spicy cilantro

The varieties of coriander Alekseevsky, King of the Market, Ranny, Kirovogradsky and Oktyabrsky are also in demand in culture.

Properties of cilantro - harm and benefit

Useful properties of cilantro

The leaves and stems of cilantro contain rutin, carotene, vitamins, trace elements and essential oils, and the fruits of the plant contain steroid compounds, tannins, sucrose, fructose, glucose, polyphenols, fatty oils, pectin, alkaloids, starch and essential oil. The beneficial properties of cilantro are enhanced by seven organic acids contained in it: linoleic, oleic, isooleic, ascorbic, myristic, stearic and palmitic.

Due to its composition, cilantro has a diuretic, antiscorbutic, anthelmintic, analgesic and expectorant effect. It disinfects the gastrointestinal tract, increases appetite, improves intestinal motility, lowers blood pressure, helps to cope with insomnia, relieves nervous tension, edema, improves vision, enhances potency, stimulates kidney function, invigorates and tones.

Cilantro juice strengthens the gums and reduces bleeding, soothes toothaches, and disinfects the oral cavity in case of stomatitis. Greens remove harmful cholesterol from the body and have a beneficial effect on the work of the cardiovascular system. A few cilantro leaves reduce the effects of alcohol and relieve hangovers.

Cilantro - contraindications

Cilantro is contraindicated in diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, after a heart attack and stroke, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Unpleasant consequences can occur in absolutely healthy people after overeating cilantro greens: sleep and menstrual cycle are disturbed, memory weakens. Sometimes from the excessive use of the greens of the plant, allergic reactions appear: an itchy rash on the skin, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and upset stools. At the first signs of allergy, it is necessary to take an antihistamine, otherwise the situation can be sharply complicated by Quincke's edema and anaphylactic shock.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Umbelliferae family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Garden plants Umbrella (Celery) Spicy plants Plants on K Leafy Root crops


Arugula - what is it?

The plant belongs to the annual herbaceous plants of the cabbage family. The homeland of the spicy herb is the Mediterranean countries, although it is now widely used around the world. Arugula came to Russia recently - about fifteen years ago and immediately came to the taste of many.

Of course, a caterpillar can now be bought in any supermarket, and it is relatively expensive. And why not grow it yourself on your site, or in a greenhouse, or even on a windowsill in winter? The plant is quite unpretentious, cold-resistant, so there will be no problems with growing. See what the Indau looks like in the photo.


Site selection and soil preparation

The quality and volume of coriander greens directly depends on the choice of a place for the garden. It is recommended to plant it where the plants get enough sunlight and heat. In partial shade, the culture also feels good, but in the dense shade, cilantro develops much more slowly, the yield decreases.

A lack of sunlight leads to a reduced concentration of essential oils in plants

For the bed on which it is planned to plant coriander, choose a flat place or an area closer to the top of a gentle hill. You can not sow cilantro seeds in open ground where moist cold air and rainwater inevitably stagnate. Dampness is not tolerated by either the roots or the aboveground part of the culture.

The plant does not need a very nutritious soil.More important for him is the looseness, water and air permeability of the soil. It is best to plant coriander in sandy loam or loam. Acid-base balance - neutral or slightly alkaline. In an acidic substrate, the culture will definitely not survive.

Since cilantro is planted early, the garden is prepared in the fall. The site is dug up, at the same time removing any debris, humus is introduced (up to 3-5 l / m²) and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (30-40 g / m²). The latter can be replaced with sifted wood ash (0.5 l / m²). In the spring, just before planting coriander, the soil is thoroughly loosened, watered with a solution of any nitrogen fertilizer.


Composition of coriander seeds and cilantro leaves

Cilantro fruits are used to create culinary dishes and in bakery, they are distinguished by a characteristic aroma and sweetish taste. Dried coriander fruits contain vitamins of the groups:

  • C
  • PP
  • IN 1
  • AT 2
  • beta carotene.

100 grams of ripe seeds contain:

  • 24.8 kcal.
  • from 0.5 to 1.5% of essential oils that are valuable to humans
  • alimentary fiber
  • proteins
  • organic acids
  • carbohydrates
  • mono- and disaccharides.

The plant contains the following trace elements:

  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • sodium
  • phosphorus
  • potassium
  • and also the most beneficial for human health - iodine and iron.

Possessing a large number of useful properties, the plant has practically no contraindications. When eating coriander, you should follow standard precautions, given your own personal intolerance to some components of cilantro and the active substance found in fruits and leaves.

The greens of the plant have fewer calories than the seeds, but they contain much more vitamins, including:

  • BUT
  • TO
  • B1, B2, B3, B6, B9
  • FROM
  • E
  • PP
  • choline.

Trace elements contained in the plant:

  • zinc
  • selenium
  • iron
  • manganese
  • copper
  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • phosphorus
  • sodium
  • potassium.

Coriander is known and popular among people all over the world as this plant is rich in pectins and tannins. The benefit of this plant is also in the fact that it has the ability to resist infections that are dangerous to human health, for example, salmonella.


How to harvest and harvest crops

When more than a third of the shrub is cut, its growth will be completely stopped and stopped. Ensuring the development of the plant over two successive cycles is possible only when harvesting the upper leaf part - the shoots located at the bottom must be left. Having entered the flowering stage after planting cilantro, the herbaceous planting of coriander ceases to provide the ability to grow those shoots that can be used for gastronomic purposes. Seeds that are ripe by the beginning of autumn can be used in cooking and to create canned blanks. The dried fruit can be used as seed for growing coriander for the next horticultural season, if properly processed.

Note! Harvesting for the purpose of obtaining spicy greens and ripe seeds is carried out at different times.

Coriander is used in cooking by many nationalities. Simple agricultural techniques, how to grow cilantro, allowing you to plant this plant even on the windowsill in an ordinary apartment, knowing when to plant cilantro in open ground, and unpretentious care, including compatibility with some other garden crops, will allow you to grow this fragrant herbal plant on any backyard plot, such as a private residential building or summer cottage. Such a bed will yield a harvest of useful medicinal herbs that can have a beneficial effect on the human body and help in the treatment of many ailments - it is this plant that is part of a huge number of medicines. In addition, any number of home remedies can be made from coriander according to numerous folk recipes.


Harvesting and harvesting

If you cut more than a third of the plant at a time, it will no longer grow. To ensure the growth and development of the plant in two or three cycles in a row, it is necessary to remove only the upper leaves, leaving the lower shoots. In the process of flowering, the grass ceases to give shoots suitable for food. In late August - early September, the seeds finally ripen, which are used in conservation and cooking. Dry coriander seeds can be used by gardeners who know how to sow coriander outdoors to grow greens for the next season. If a mature cilantro seed hits the ground, it will sprout in the spring and fall to provide a stable harvest.

For growing coriander for greens and seeds, it is better to allocate two areas. Planting care is the same, but harvesting will take place at different times.

Knowing how to plant coriander seeds in the open field, properly care for it and correctly harvest it, you can provide yourself with healthy and tasty greens for the whole year. Cilantro is used as a seasoning in national cuisines and dishes of different peoples of the world. Agricultural cultivation techniques are simple and understandable, accessible to every summer resident, without exception.



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