Tomatoes often get sick, and, unfortunately, they have plenty of diseases, so those who are engaged in the cultivation of this crop need to know as much as possible not only about diseases, but also about how to deal with them.
We invite you to get acquainted with the most basic problems in growing this crop, as well as with those tools that will help you cope with diseases and prevent tomatoes from getting infected in the garden or in the greenhouse.
Very often, readers contact us with the following questions:
The question is why tomato leaves turn yellow, repeated by readers many times and in different variations. And the reasons for this phenomenon are also many. If yellow spots appear on the leaves of tomatoes in the middle of the plate, this may mean that the plant lacks potassium, and it is necessary to apply potassium fertilizing, for example, in the form of a glass of wood ash dissolved in 10 liters of water. Fertilizer consumption - half a liter for each bush. If the leaves of tomatoes are covered with yellow spots, then this may be due to a lack of nitrogen. And the leaves of the lower tier acquire a pale yellow color when growing tomatoes in peaty soil rich in organic matter, but poor in copper. The light yellow tint of young leaves indicates a lack of iron in the soil, and if old leaves also turn pale, then it is a lack of manganese. Tomato leaves turn yellow even with a deficiency of phosphorus, and only the tips of the leaves change color from its excess.
Tomatoes also turn yellow with age - old leaves just need to be removed. Sometimes tomato leaves turn yellow and dry as a result of poor functioning of the root system, for example, due to hypothermia. A sharp drop in temperature leads to the fact that the roots stop absorbing food, and all the leaves of the plant turn yellow and acquire a barely noticeable bluish tint. The work of the root system also slows down after mechanical damage to the roots during loosening or weeding, and then the lower leaves of the tomatoes turn yellow. The plant usually recovers as soon as it grows new adventitious roots.
The long main root of a tomato, sometimes one and a half meters deep, allows the plant to endure a short drought, but since the main part of the roots is at a depth of 15-25 cm, a lack of moisture can lead to yellowing and curling of the upper leaves. If the tomato suffers from excess water, its leaves also begin to turn yellow, and the fruits crack. Tomatoes turn yellow in the greenhouse and in the open field as a result of infection with fungal diseases.
Sometimes tomato ovaries turn yellow. There are also many reasons for this phenomenon: sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity, insufficient lighting, too dense planting. It's a shame that the yellowed ovaries fall off, and you lose hope for a rich harvest. But if you adhere to the scheme of planting tomatoes calculated by professionals, fulfill the agrotechnical conditions of the crop and properly care for it, you should not have such problems.
As a rule, those tomato bushes that have turned yellow before this dry up, in other words, tomatoes turn yellow and dry often for one reason, and drying is a consequence of yellowing. But sometimes there are other explanations for this phenomenon.
For example, if the leaves of tomatoes curl up during the day, and at night, when it gets cool, they straighten, then this is due to the heat of the day. Cover the plants from the sun, carry out foliar feeding of tomatoes with a solution of 2 tablespoons of urea in 10 liters of water, and after a couple of days spray them with potassium humate. If you are growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, ventilate it.
Tomato leaves wilt, turn yellow and dry if the plants lack moisture. Leaves can curl even when you overdo it with pinching or carried out a radical pinching.
With too frequent and abundant watering, the root system of tomatoes weakens, and first the lower leaves react to this with yellowing, and then those that grow higher, and so on to the very top of the bush. In this case, the flowers also dry and fall off. What to do if tomatoes dry? Stop watering them, let the soil dry out, treat the tomatoes with Epin or Zircon anti-stress medications, and make smart watering changes.
But why do tomatoes dry if you do not make mistakes in care? The cause may be pests - aphids or spider mites. Treat the plants with solutions of Biotlin, Fufanon or Alatar preparations, and, if necessary, repeat the treatment after a week.
Worst of all, when the leaves dry out from a viral infection - there's nothing you can do about it, the plants will have to be destroyed, because drugs against viruses have not yet been invented.
There are seasons when tomatoes rot more often than they ripen. Why is this happening? Tomatoes rot as a result of infection with fungal diseases - late blight, wet, white and apical rot. Usually, the development of the disease is facilitated by weather changes and errors in agricultural technology and care. For example, in the open field, the main problem for gardeners is late blight, or brown rot, which affects both the fruits and leaves of tomatoes. In a greenhouse, tomatoes can also get late blight, however, in closed ground on bushes, you can often find apical rot, which occurs due to salinity or increased acidity of the soil. We will describe in detail the diseases of tomatoes later.
Rot on tomatoes can also appear after harvest, so it is important to observe optimal storage conditions: ripe tomatoes are stored at a temperature of 1-2 ºC, half-ripe, or blange - at a temperature of 4-6 ºC, and green - at 10-12 ºC. From time to time, tomatoes need to be sorted out, removing those that have lost their density - such fruits will soon begin to rot and release microtoxins that infect neighboring tomatoes.
Why there are yellow spots on the leaves of tomatoes, we have already told. When brown spots appear on the leaves of tomatoes, we can talk about serious diseases. Brown leaves on tomatoes are a sign of brown spot, or tomato cladiosporiosis, a dangerous fungal disease that can greatly reduce the yield, and brown spots appearing on the lower leaves of plants are a symptom of Alternaria or advanced septoria. Chlorous and necrotic spots on the lower leaves of tomatoes are formed when tomatoes are affected by verticillosis, and rusty leaves on tomatoes due to small red specks should be of serious concern, since they are a sign of viral mottling, a disease that affects plants mainly in open field. Other types of spots also leave spots on the leaves of tomatoes - white, black bacterial, as well as viral diseases, bronzing and mosaic of leaves. Read about what diseases of tomatoes exist and how to deal with them in the corresponding section.
Like all heat-loving plants, tomatoes require increased attention. Sometimes gardeners complain that the ovaries are crumbling from the bushes, but it can be even worse - the fruits that are already gaining weight fall off. What is the reason for this phenomenon?
Firstly, falling off of fruits occurs due to a lack of phosphorus and potassium in the soil with a simultaneous excess of nitrogen.
Secondly, due to lack of manganese and boron.
Thirdly, due to insufficient and uneven watering - the plant simply drops some fruits in order to save the rest.
Replenish the lack of elements necessary for plants by introducing basic fertilizers into the soil and foliar feeding with microelements on the leaves. Provide adequate moisture to the tomatoes and remove the smallest fruits from the bushes so that the remaining ones have enough nutrition.
Sometimes whole, healthy fruits of tomatoes end up on the ground due to the fact that the caterpillars of the scoop gnaw through their stalks.
There are often complaints that the leaves of tomatoes turn black. This happens when the plant infects late blight, bacterial black spot, or other diseases. Read about how to treat tomatoes for diseases below.
Tomato leaf diseases occur both outdoors and in the greenhouse. One of the most alarming signs of illness is wilting of leaves on bushes. Novice gardeners sin on a lack of moisture and are in a hurry to pour a monthly norm of water under the bushes, but it turns out that this is not the reason at all. So why do tomato leaves wither?
One of the most important reasons is tomato fusarium wilt, which affects greenhouse plants everywhere, and soil only in the southern regions. The fungal disease verticillosis and bacterial cancer lead to wilting of tomato leaves.
A delay in development and loss of leaf turgor is observed in tomatoes and as a result of damage to the root system when transplanting seedlings into the ground. Try to huddle a sluggish plant higher so that new roots form on the lower part of its stem, and then the bush will recover faster.
An imbalance of nutrients in the soil also leads to lethargy of the leaves, so carefully calculate the amount of fertilizer you apply and do not neglect the foliar feeding of tomatoes with microelements.
When young apical leaves of seedlings planted in open ground turn white, it is almost certainly a consequence of sunburn. This usually happens if you have not hardened the seedlings before planting in the open ground. To avoid burns, you need to accustom the seedlings to both sunlight and open air for 10-14 days before planting. To do this, the seedlings are taken out daily or put on the balcony. At first, air and sun baths should last no more than half an hour, but gradually the duration of the hardening procedure is increased until the seedlings can be outdoors around the clock. Only after that they are planted in the garden. When buying seedlings, try to find out if they have been hardened. If you are planting seedlings in a greenhouse, then at first cover them with lutrasil or other covering material, pulling it over arcs dug into the soil.
Burnt seedlings are treated after sunset with Epin's solution - this drug will help plants cope with stress. The treatment is repeated three times at weekly intervals. However, be aware that sun-damaged seedlings will develop more slowly and the whitened leaves will not turn green again.
Tomato leaves turn white and dry at the edges due to the salinity of the soil in the greenhouse. A sign of salinity is a yellowish granular bloom on the surface. Remove the top layer of soil, add fresh soil and then water the tomatoes only with filtered or melted water. If you don't want to wait for the water to wash the salt out of the soil, transplant the tomatoes into fresh soil, and then the new leaves will already grow green.
Leaves on adult tomatoes sometimes turn white as a result of infection with septoria, or white spot, or powdery mildew.
Many gardeners are faced with the fact that tomatoes in greenhouses get sick, therefore, as soon as you notice deviations from the norm, try to correctly diagnose the disease and immediately take measures to stop the development of the disease. What are the most common tomato diseases in the greenhouse? Late blight, cracking of fruits, fusarium, powdery mildew, phomosis, mosaic, leaf mold, bronze, spotting - dry and brown, as well as rot - apical, gray and root.
Late blight is a fungal disease that most often affects tomatoes in the open field, but it also happens in the greenhouse. Late blight manifests itself with a light white bloom on the lower part of the leaf plate and brown spots on the upper side of the leaves and on the stems of tomatoes. Dark brown spots appear and appear under the skin of the fruit. Tomato flowers are also affected. The disease progresses against the background of high humidity and sudden changes in temperature. You should know that hybrid tomato varieties are less susceptible to late blight. The fight against late blight in the greenhouse consists in the preventive treatment of the bushes with the Zaslon preparation three weeks after planting the seedlings in the garden. After another three weeks, repeat the treatment with Zaslon or use the Barrier preparation. When budding begins, spray the tomato bushes with a garlic solution. Preparations for the preventive treatment of tomatoes Pentafag and Mikosan have proven themselves well, and it is better to fight an already developing infection with the fungicides Antrakol and Acrobat. Grow disease-resistant hybrids to minimize the risk of late blight in tomatoes. You can read more about late blight on tomatoes in the article already posted on our website.
Septoriosis, or white leaf spot, is also a fungal disease that causes premature drying and leaf fall and reduces the yield of tomatoes. First, light spots appear on the leaves, almost white in the center, with darker edges, then a black dot appears in the center of the spot. The disease spreads from the leaves to their petioles, then to the stems. Over time, the affected leaves turn brown and fall off. High humidity and high air temperature contribute to the development and spread of the disease. The "flourishing" of the disease is observed in the second half of the summer. Sick bushes are treated with treatment with copper-containing preparations - Tsineb, Horus, copper chloride, and the treatment should be started as early as possible. Remove diseased leaves immediately, even if after that only a growing point remains on the bush.
The fungal disease gray rot affects the terrestrial organs of plants: weeping spots appear on the leaves, flowers, buds, after half a day they are covered with a fluffy gray-ash bloom consisting of fungal spores. Dry brown or gray spots on leaves and stems, which occur most often at the branching of stems or in places of pinching, become slimy. The spores remain viable for two years. The development of the disease usually occurs at the end of summer, when cold rains begin. This is facilitated by poor ventilation against a background of high humidity and temperature disturbances. As soon as you notice the first signs of gray mold, immediately remove the damaged leaves, flowers or fruits so that the infection does not penetrate deep into the stem. It is better to do this in sunny weather, so that the wounds have time to dry out in the evening. Do not irrigate and sprinkle immediately after removal of the affected organs. As a prophylaxis of gray rot, the processing of tomatoes with garlic infusion has proven itself well, for the preparation of which 30 g of chopped garlic and garlic arrows are infused for two days in 10 liters of water.
In addition to gray rot, tomatoes are damaged by apical, dry and root rot.
Top rot affects tomatoes still green: specks appear on the fruits - black dry or, conversely, watery and rotten. As a result, the fruits, instead of turning red, begin to rot. The reason for the appearance of such spots is a lack of calcium, an increased content of nitrogen in the soil or a lack of moisture. Preventive spraying and watering of tomatoes with a solution of calcium nitrate will help to defeat the infection on the site.
Root rot - the most dangerous disease, since only the consequences of damage to the root system become obvious to you. As a result of the disease, tomatoes suddenly wither. As soon as you find signs of lethargy and wilting, disinfect the soil in the garden with a solution of copper sulfate - dissolve 2-3 g of the drug in 10 liters of water. Or replace the soil with fresh soil that is affected by root rot. In this case, tomato bushes should be sprayed with a solution of the Barrier preparation.
Brown rot or phomosis, affects only the fruits of tomatoes - after the appearance of brown spots on them, the fruits immediately fall off. To get rid of phomosis, you need to remove and burn all diseased fruits, decontaminate the soil with Fundazol, moderately consume water when watering, abandon feeding tomatoes with fresh manure and control the level of nitrogen in the soil.
Brown spot or cladosporiosis of tomatoes can be identified by brown spots on the upper side of the leaf plate and by bloom on the bottom. Affected leaves die off. The disease spreads very quickly: with irrigation water, the infection penetrates the soil and infects it. To prevent the development of the disease, the number of irrigations and water consumption are reduced, while the temperature in the greenhouse is increased, and the bushes are treated with Zaslon or Barrier preparations. After picking the tomatoes, it is necessary to disinfect the room, but if during the season you find brown spot on the tomatoes, do not plant them in this greenhouse next year.
Dry spotting, or alternariosis of tomatoes is one of the most common diseases affecting tomatoes at different stages. The massive development of the disease occurs during the period of fruit formation. Alternaria begins from the lower leaves, but gradually spreads to the upper tiers, forming concentric brown spots with a diameter of 4 to 7 mm on the organs of the plant. With the development of the disease, the spots increase to 10-15 mm, their shape becomes oval, and a black plaque appears on the surface. When the spots start to merge with each other, the leaves die off. Often, the disease affects the petioles and stems of tomatoes - oblong depressed brown spots are formed on them. On diseased fruits in the region of the stalk, dark depressed spots with a black-gray bloom also appear, and soon the fruits fall off. Treatment of tomatoes with Acrobat, Ditan, Kuproksat, Metaxil, Skor, Poliram and other fungicides can stop the development of the disease.
Verticillosis is also a fungal disease. The damage from it is small, but it does not add health to the plants. The defeat begins with the lower leaves - chlorosis and necrosis are formed on them, followed by the rejection of the root system, and the plant withers. Since there are no fungicides for the destruction of pathogens of verticillium wilt, the main method of combating it is the implementation of agricultural techniques and the cultivation of varieties and hybrids resistant to infection.
Powdery mildew on tomatoes appears only indoors. The first sign of damage is a whitish bloom on tomato leaves, which over time becomes dense and takes on a brown tint - tissue chlorosis turns into necrosis. If the disease is not dealt with, it can infect not only the leaves, but also the petioles and stems of tomatoes. How to treat tomatoes from powdery mildew? With the appearance of the first signs of the disease, tomatoes are sprayed with solutions of the fungicides Quadris, Strobi, Topaz or Bayleton. If necessary, after 10 days, another treatment is carried out, but it is better to change the drug, since the causative agent of the disease quickly develops resistance. To make the solution tacky, add silicate glue to the solution.
Leaf mold usually affects only greenhouse tomatoes, forming white bloom on the top of the leaves and brown spots on the underside of the plate. With the development of the disease, the leaves dry up, curl up and die. The disease progresses against a background of high humidity at a low air temperature. To defeat leaf mildew, you need to increase the temperature and reduce the frequency of watering. You can prevent the development of infection by treating tomatoes as a prophylaxis with copper oxychloride or Oxychom. If you are going to grow tomatoes in this greenhouse next year, disinfect the soil after the end of the season or replace it completely.
It is a viral disease that affects tomatoes both outdoors and indoors. Ring patterns appear on young fruits, which gradually turn brown. Then the drawings appear on the leaves of tomatoes, and the tops of the shoots begin to die off. There is no cure for this disease. It is transmitted, like many other viral diseases, by sucking insects - aphids, thrips, spider mites.
The nature of tomato fruit cracking is purely physiological. The reason for this phenomenon is a sharp change in soil moisture. When real heat sets in, gardeners tend to saturate the soil with moisture. Large quantities of water enter the fruit, the cell walls are under too much stress, and the tomatoes burst. Green tomatoes are most commonly affected. Then the fruits continue to ripen and turn red, but the cracks remain. Allow the soil to dry out between waterings to avoid cracking. If you are growing tomatoes in a glass greenhouse, treat the glass outside with milk of lime in the heat. But it is best to equip the greenhouse with a drip irrigation system.
The danger of viral diseases is that there are no drugs for their treatment. Most often, tomatoes in a greenhouse are affected by aspermia, mosaics, cercospora, and internal necrosis.
The sick aspermia of the bush, the upper leaves are deformed, shrink, curl and form a variegated terry top. The growth point is inhibited, the fruits develop poorly, the seeds in them are small and underdeveloped, and in some there are no seeds at all. Crop losses can be up to 40%.
Cercosporosis, or black mold affects the upper leaves of tomatoes, which is why they turn yellow. The yellowed areas increase and turn brown with a yellow border. Against the background of increased air humidity, black-gray fungal spores form on the underside of the leaf plate. Affected leaves die off.
Disease of internal necrosis of tomatoes causes the tobacco mosaic virus. It usually affects the first fruits. The disease spreads from the stalk, capturing the pulp of the fruit. The disease progresses against the background of insufficient lighting, poor air circulation, too high humidity and an imbalance of nutrients in the soil.
Tomato mosaic, as a rule, it develops in a greenhouse. The virus infects young leaves, making them speckled. The spots grow, cover the entire plate, the leaves dry and fall off. Black stripes of dying tissue form on the stems.
Bacteria cause diseases that lead to loss of yield, deterioration of fruit quality and death of plants. The most harmful bacterial disease is stolbur. In the affected plants, the leaves curl, the tops of the shoots turn pale, the fruits become woody, deformed and lose their taste. The fight against the disease is carried out in several stages: at the time of planting, the seedlings should be treated with an insecticide, at the beginning of flowering, it is necessary to spray the tomatoes with antibiotics, and their immunity can be strengthened by introducing organic and complex mineral fertilizers into the soil.
Black bacterial spot can infect tomatoes at any stage of development, forming blackening and growing watery spots on the stems, petioles, leaves and fruits. It is possible to protect tomatoes from black spot mainly by preventive measures - disinfection of the greenhouse, destruction of plant debris, treatment of bushes with antibiotics. Spraying tomatoes with Bordeaux liquid or Farmayod's solution is effective.
Causative agent wet rot spread by sucking insects. At the site of the bite, the infected fruit becomes covered with watery spots, the flesh begins to rot, and the skin cracks. They destroy bacteria by treating tomatoes with Alirin, Gaupsin, Binoram or Gamair, which are started at the first signs of the disease. These fungicides contain beneficial microorganisms that release toxins that are harmful to infection, and at the same time, these preparations are harmless to humans and pets.
In open ground, as well as in greenhouse conditions, tomatoes most often affect late blight, fruit apical rot, fusarium, gray, brown and root rot, anthracnose, alternaria, bacterial cancer, stem necrosis, chloratic curl of leaves, septoria, phomosis, mosaic, bacteriosis , cladosporium, fruit cracking, leaf bronzing and threadlike appearance. We will not repeat ourselves, describing those diseases of tomatoes in the open field, which are already described in the section on diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse, since the causes of their occurrence, symptoms and methods of dealing with them are the same for both indoor and open ground. Let us dwell on those diseases that occur mainly in the open field.
This is a widespread disease of tomato and pepper in the open field, sometimes found in greenhouses, in which the soil is not changed for a long time. Anthracnose, if it develops against a background of increased temperature and humidity, can lead to significant crop losses. The infection spreads during transportation and storage of the crop. The disease manifests itself as chaotically located depressed and gradually darkening spots on the fruits. To combat anthracnose, bushes are treated with preparations containing sulfur or copper - Fitosporin-M, Cuproxat, Alpha-copper, colloidal sulfur or copper sulfate.
The symptom of bacteriosis is the wilting of the bush, and abrupt changes in the bush can occur overnight. If you carefully examine the plant, you can find that the stem is empty inside, liquid has accumulated in it, and the inner tissues have darkened. It is impossible to cure the disease, therefore, all diseased plants must be destroyed, and healthy ones, in order to exclude the possibility of their infection, must be treated with a 1% solution of Fitolavin-300.
Stem necrosis is a viral disease, the signs of which appear when the first brushes with fruits are formed. In the lower part of the stem, cracks of a dark green color appear, in which the rudiments of aerial roots seem to be formed. The leaves suddenly begin to wither, the plant lays down and dies, and the fruits do not have time to ripen. The infection comes from the soil. Sick bushes must be destroyed, and the soil must be treated with Fitolavin-300.
Bushes with this disease become light green or yellowish, stunted, the top becomes curly. The disease is caused by the viruses of tobacco necrosis and tobacco mosaic. Diseased plants must be burned.
This harmful disease can affect up to 30% of fruits. At the beginning of the development of the disease, the leaves of plants wither, and brown growths form on the petioles - breeding grounds for bacteria. Withering spreads from bottom to top. The fruits of tomatoes deteriorate both outside and inside: white spots form on the skin, and inside such a fruit are disfigured, underdeveloped seeds of low germination. The disease also negatively affects the taste of the fruit. The danger of cancer is also that seemingly healthy fruits may contain infected seeds.
If this virus appears in your garden, get ready to say goodbye to the entire harvest. As a result of infection, the leaves become threadlike, like fern fringes. They spread the disease of aphids, and it is possible to prevent the development of filamentous leaves only by agrotechnical measures, which will be discussed below.
Proper tomato care and cultivation practices will ensure you have a good harvest of quality fruit, and you may never know what all those painful spots and blooms look like. What do you need to do to keep your tomatoes healthy? Since the risk of diseases affecting tomatoes throughout the growing season, it is necessary to carry out protective measures all year round, and they must be comprehensive, that is, include agrotechnical, biological and chemical methods of protection.
What agrotechnical techniques will help you avoid disease damage to tomatoes? First, the crop rotation: you can grow tomatoes in one place only after 3-4 years. If you plant tomatoes on the site from year to year or alternate them with other nightshade crops, you can lose up to 40% of the yield due to one-sided mineral nutrition and the accumulation of pathogens in the soil. The best precursors for tomatoes include cucumbers, onions, winter wheat, and perennial herbs. An important agrotechnical condition for growing healthy tomatoes is the significant remoteness of planting from other nightshade crops, especially from potatoes.
Pre-sowing soil cultivation is of great importance for plant health. In autumn, it is necessary to dig or plow the site to a depth of at least 25-30 cm, since this contributes to the incorporation and rapid decomposition of weeds and plant debris, as well as pathogens that remain in them for the winter. Acidic soils need to be limed by adding freshly slaked lime in an amount of 0.5-1 kg per 1 m², and on alkaline soils for autumn digging, soil gypsum is carried out - add 100-300 g of gypsum per 1 m² of the plot.
Fertilizers and top dressing increase the resistance of tomatoes to diseases: for example, potassium increases resistance to viruses, and the lack of this element provokes the development of apical rot. Excess nitrogen can make tomatoes susceptible to fungi. In order to achieve the maximum benefit from fertilizers, nitrogen is applied to the soil in spring, and the amount of phosphorus and potassium required for the season is fertilized in two steps: half is applied simultaneously with organic matter during autumn digging, and the rest in spring. Such preparations as sodium humate, biohumate and biohumus, used in the form of solutions, increase the immunity of tomatoes to diseases, improve seed germination and stimulate their development.
The most important agrotechnical condition is the correct watering regime for tomatoes, which affects their health, the intensity of growth and fruiting. In the southern steppe, tomatoes are watered from 7 to 9 times per growing season, in the northern steppe - 5-7 times per season, in the forest-steppe - 4-5 times. Tomatoes should be watered in furrows, soil moisture should be maintained at 60%.The best way to irrigate tomato beds is drip, since water is supplied directly to the roots, which saves three times on water consumption and, thanks to this, grow tomatoes where water resources are limited.
An effective agricultural technique for protecting tomatoes from diseases and pests is mulching the site. Use straw, sawdust, parchment paper and plastic wrap, dark or light, as mulch. Mulch prevents fungi and bacteria from entering the soil from the soil, and also inhibits the growth of weeds.
Chemical methods of protecting tomatoes from diseases include directly fighting infection and preventive treatments designed to prevent this infection from tomatoes.
The preparation of the seed is of great importance. Tomato seeds should be purchased from reputable suppliers so you don't have to fiddle with dressing them. But if you want to grow tomatoes from your own seeds, you need to sort, calibrate and decontaminate them. First, the seeds are immersed for five minutes in a three to five percent saline solution, mixed well and allowed to settle. Water with floating seeds is drained, and those that have sunk to the bottom must be rinsed with running water and dried with good ventilation until flowing. Then the seeds are treated for fungal diseases with Fundazol, and for fungal, viral and bacterial diseases - with a twenty percent solution of hydrochloric acid (250 ml of acid is slowly poured into 1 liter of water). Before dressing, the seeds are placed in a cloth bag and immersed in an acid solution for half an hour, after which they are washed until the specific smell of the chemical disappears. You can disinfect seeds in such solutions:
The seed must be kept in these solutions for a quarter of an hour, and then thoroughly rinsed with clean water and dried.
To enrich seeds with biologically active, nutrient and mineral substances, they are soaked in a solution of trace elements, which may include zinc, cobalt, nickel, magnesium, boron, manganese, chromium and molybdenum.
To protect tomatoes from diseases in the garden or in the greenhouse, plants are treated with fungicides, which are divided into contact, systemic and contact-systemic. Contact drugs, which include, for example, Cuproxat, Ditan and Bordeaux mixture, act on the infection in direct contact with it, without penetrating the plant. They are used for the preventive treatment of tomatoes or during the ripening period, when it is already dangerous to use other drugs. The disadvantage of these drugs is that their action depends on the weather conditions - if the rain washes away the contact fungicide from the leaves, you will have to carry out another treatment. Systemic fungicides, for example, Ridomil, penetrate the plant itself, are included in the metabolism and destroy the pathogen. Their effect is independent of weather changes, but they are quickly addictive. The optimal solution is to use contact-systemic preparations for prophylactic treatments of tomatoes, for example, such as Ridomil Gold or Acrobat MC. Preventive spraying is carried out at the beginning of the growing season, without waiting for the appearance of signs of the disease.
The methods of biological protection of tomatoes from diseases include the use of antibiotics and the attraction of antagonistic microorganisms, for example, soil fungi of the genus Trichoderma, which are active exterminators of pathogens of fungal diseases. That is why it is recommended to pickle the seeds in a solution of Trichodermin and treat the roots of the seedlings before planting on the garden with a mixture of the drug, soil and humus - these measures significantly reduce the susceptibility of seedlings to the black leg. An effective biological way to combat diseases is the use of composts, which increase the microbiological activity of the soil. Compost is made from plant and animal waste, and the addition of a California red earthworm culture speeds up their decomposition and enriches them with stimulants and nutrients.
Of the antibiotics, Arenarin is very effective against bacteria, a solution of one part of which in 1000 parts of water disinfects seeds before sowing.
Another way to protect tomatoes from disease is to grow disease resistant varieties. There are varieties that are not affected, for example, by late blight, but suffer from cladosporia, and there are varieties and hybrids that are able to resist many infections. For example:
The best varieties that are resistant to many diseases are:
Sections: Fruit Garden Plants Diseases Solanaceous Tomatoes
Every gardener-gardener has problems with plant diseases and pests when growing crops. Today I want to give some tips for combating these ailments in a tomato in a greenhouse.
First and foremost, tomatoes need proper care. You can see how to do this in the previous article https://kopilpremudrosti.ru/kak-vyrastit-pomidory-teplicze.html
Brown spot, olive spot, leaf mold, cladosporium are the names of the same common tomato disease. The causative agent of the misfortune is the ancient mushroom Cladosporium fulvum cooke, or otherwise Fulvia fulva.
Further in the photo you can see what the disease looks like on tomatoes:
The development of plants is influenced by the growing conditions. In an artificial climate, crops develop differently than in the open field. Therefore, diseases will manifest themselves in different ways.
Cultivation facilities are characterized by higher humidity and air temperature than outside. When creating acceptable conditions for growing tomatoes, one should not forget that this climate is also suitable for the active reproduction of bacteria.
It is also comfortable to exist in such conditions for pests, which are the main vectors of diseases.
The following factors lead to the emergence and spread of diseases in enclosed spaces:
It is also necessary to take into account the indicators of humidity and temperature, which create risky conditions for the development of certain diseases:
From this list, we can conclude that it is important to maintain all operating parameters in cultivated buildings at optimum in order to protect the garden from infection by fungi, viruses and bacteria.
If in a greenhouse it is realistic to maintain the necessary conditions for growing tomatoes, then in open beds you have to rely only on favorable weather.
Therefore, the main agrotechnical measures are aimed at:
In addition, the state of plants is influenced by sudden temperature changes (day - night), sunlight (the likelihood of burns), strong winds, and rainy summers.
Many factors can cause wilting and drying of tomatoes growing both in the greenhouse and in the garden. So, the reason for this may be improper care. Tomato leaves most often turn yellow and dry out with an insufficient amount of water, and with an excess of water they begin to turn yellow and rot. The lack of iron in the top dressing also manifests itself in the yellowness of the leaves, but their veins will still have a green color. If the plant lacks sulfur, then the veins change their color to red.
Bad soil is another reason for yellowness and wilting of leaves. In this case, the land must be urgently fertilized, otherwise the plants and their immunity will be weakened, which is why they will not be able to fight various diseases and resist the attacks of harmful insects.
Another reason is disease. For example, with mycoplasmosis, the upper shoots of tomatoes begin to suffer first, and their foliage begins to turn yellow, which is supported by a change in the color of the veins to a brown or purple hue. Affects the appearance of yellowness and such a disease as mosaic. It can look differently, depending on its variety, but it is impossible to cure plants from this virus, and therefore you will have to get rid of the affected plantings so that the infection does not spread to healthy plants.
This group includes diseases that cannot be cured. They are caused by various viruses, which are most often carried by insects (thrips, aphids, whiteflies), transmitted by infected seeds. Infection also occurs when caring for tomatoes, for example, when pinching (through tools, hands). Plants in the greenhouse and in the beds are vulnerable.
Among the most common diseases:
In the fight against viruses, prevention is of particular importance, as well as compliance with crop cultivation techniques. Dozens of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, resistant to diseases, little susceptible to pathogens, have been bred and are worth paying attention to.
How to deal with viral infections:
If the greenhouse, soil and working equipment were poorly disinfected or pathogens or viruses got inside during ventilation, then the confinement of space and high humidity will contribute to their very rapid spread. Therefore, it is important to immediately recognize the disease.
Description of the disease
Late blight can rightfully be called the most common disease of tomatoes, wherever they grow. Getting into the greenhouse, the fungus quickly spreads and infects all parts of the tomato bush with brown spots. The fruits also deteriorate from the inside, and the leaves from the inside are covered with a light white bloom.
Late blight treatment
As a preventive measure, three weeks after planting, the seedlings in the greenhouse can be sprayed with a solution of the Zaslon preparation, and then after the same time with a Zaslon solution.At the initial stage of development, spraying tomatoes in a greenhouse with a solution of sodium chloride (10%) will help. "Oxyhom" is used both as a prophylactic and as a therapeutic drug (at the first signs of the disease).
During flowering and fruit setting, it is effective to sprinkle tomatoes with the following composition: a glass of chopped garlic, 1 g of potassium permanganate, a bucket of water. Consumption: 500 mg / 1 sq. m. Every two weeks from the moment the first signs of the disease appear, you can spray tomatoes in the greenhouse with a solution of polychloric or copper oxychloride (20 g / 10 l).
Manifestation of the disease
The cause of the mosaic development on tomatoes is a virus. Its effect is manifested by the deformation of the leaves and the appearance on them of a mosaic pattern of light and dark green spots. As a result, the plant dries up completely, having managed to give, at best, a small amount of edible fruits.
Getting rid of a progressive disease is very difficult. If the lesions are single, then diseased plants should be destroyed, and healthy bushes should be sprayed with a 10% solution of whey and fertilizers. In case of a massive defeat, it is better to transplant the tomatoes to another place, and completely replace the upper 10-15 cm of the soil.
Fungal disease, the development of which is promoted by cold and high humidity. All parts of the plant are covered with rounded rotting spots of various colors. Over time, they grow and develop gray mold.
Gray mold treatment
All diseased parts of the plant should be removed, the rest should be sprayed with the “Zaslon” or “Barrier” preparation. It is also necessary to raise the temperature in the greenhouse and lower the humidity.
Signs of illness
A very common fungal disease in greenhouse tomatoes. The first sign is the appearance of a gray coating on the back of the leaves. Then the leaves dry out and the plant dies completely.
Brown spot treatment
Most often, "Barrier" and "Barrier" are used with an interval of 5 ... 6 days. It is necessary to control that the temperature in the greenhouse does not drop too much, and also to reduce the humidity by airing.
Description of the disease
It manifests itself as dark depressed spots on the tops of the fruit. It is a non-communicable disease. It occurs due to a low calcium content in the soil, a high nitrogen content or a lack of moisture.
Top Rot Treatment
So that the foci of the disease do not spread, you need to establish regular watering of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Affected fruits should be destroyed, and the plants should be sprayed with a solution of calcium nitrate (1 tablespoon / bucket). It is necessary to stop nitrogen feeding, as well as potassium and magnesium, which remove calcium.
Brown rot / fomoz
a brief description of
This fungal disease of tomatoes has a peculiarity - only the fruits are affected. On ripe or green tomatoes, a brown spot forms near the stalk, which penetrates into the fruit. Green fruits usually break off from the stalk before ripening.
Brown rot treatment
The spread of the disease in the greenhouse is very rapid, so you need to act quickly. Effective drugs "Zaslon" and "Fundazol" were provided to help gardeners and farmers. All spoiled fruits must be destroyed without fail. Stop the nitrogen fertilization scheme.
Description of the disease
Caused by several types of mushrooms. Their action leads to decay of the roots, and then the destruction of the entire plant.
Photo of tomato root rot
Root rot treatment
Affected plants can no longer be helped, so they must be completely removed along with the surrounding soil. To stop the spread of fungal spores, you should reduce watering and reduce air humidity.
It should be noted that among tomatoes the most resistant are hybrids, and there is not a single variety that could stand in the same rank in terms of disease resistance.
Due to a lack of magnesium, yellow-green spots will appear on old leaves, which later turn gray or brown. Over time, the leaves will dry out and fall off, and the fruits will be small as a result of premature ripening.
Fugicides and resistant tomato varieties should be used.
In fact, cracking of tomato fruits is a non-infectious disease, rather just a reaction of a tender fruit to a sharp change in soil moisture. And this is not uncommon for a greenhouse. So, the soil under a polycarbonate or film vault in sunny weather quickly warms up and dries, and abundant watering at the same time leads to the fact that too much water is supplied to the tomatoes in a short time, due to which its skin does not withstand such high pressure and breaks.
Home control measures:
Tomato is one of the most popular crops in the post-Soviet space, which accounts for a third of the gross harvest of all vegetables. Due to its high yield, nutritional value, versatility of use and taste, the tomato is widespread in all regions of the country and is grown both outdoors and indoors.
It manifests itself in winter, dots appear on the leaves, which turn white. They darken and cause necrosis. Leaves stretch and curl. Infected plants grow poorly, deform, and their leaves become coarse. The infection is transmitted by aphids, there is no protection from the disease, and agromechanics are used to get rid of the problem.
Old leaves, those that are closer to the ground, are affected. After covering with persistent stains, they turn brown and dry out. The best temperature for the development of mottling can be 15 to 27 degrees with a humidity of 77%. Even in the remains of the plant, spores of the fungus remain. It is impossible to protect a plant from infection even with the help of chemicals. Some hybrid tomato varieties may be immune to spotting.
Tomatoes in a greenhouse are not as susceptible to disease as in the open air, because it protects against adverse conditions.
Violation of the lighting and watering regime.
Unfortunately, the fact that tomatoes crack in the greenhouse leads not only to the loss of their presentation. Due to the violation of the integrity of their surface, all kinds of fungi and bacteria quickly penetrate through cracks in them. Although over time, all the cracks seem to "cork", and the risk of infection is reduced.
It is necessary to destroy thrips and weeds by spraying them with insecticides and herbicides.
This attack appears even on green fruits - in the form of a brown or black top. All this is due to a lack of calcium, or its conflict with potassium, when one blocks access to the plant for the second.
In order to forever stop toil with the question of why tomatoes burst in a greenhouse, first of all, you need to equip a moisture-consuming soil in it. In summer, on especially hot sunny days, the coating of glass or polycarbonate must be watered with milk of lime - only outside, of course. And, if a strong drying out of the soil in the greenhouse was allowed, then watering can only be carried out moderate, repeated, with interruptions.
Under favorable conditions for the occurrence of diseases, tomatoes can be affected:
It is possible to cope with the treatment of plants only by studying possible diseases and methods of dealing with them
The most common tomato disease
in the greenhouse and in the open field. The plant is affected by a fungus that quickly multiplies throughout the bush.
To the signs of phytophthora
The onset of the disease is facilitated by sudden changes in air temperature and dampness. In the soil, spores persist for a long time, therefore, tomatoes are not recommended to be planted after potatoes and nightshades.
In order to prevent polycarbonate greenhouses, it is necessary to regularly ventilate and spray with milk whey once a week. After planting the seedlings in the ground, the bushes after three weeks can be treated with the "Zaslon" preparation, and about a month later - with the "Barrier" preparation solution.
Late blight is treated with the help of "Oxychom", which is preliminarily diluted in water (10 liters - 2 tablets).
The pathogen persists for a long time and is able to overwinter in the weeds remaining in the garden bed and in the soil. Seeds can also be infected with it. The fungus begins to spread and infect plants at an air temperature of 20 degrees and at a humidity of 70%.
The causative agent of the disease settles on wet fruits and wet leaves, which after a while fall off. In a short time, the mushroom is able to spread and destroy the entire crop.
Dry curled leaves indicate illness.
You can also water the bushes with water with the addition of whey (skim milk) in a ratio of 9: 1
- flour appears only on the underside of the sheets
- on the top, oily spots are formed, gradually turning yellow
With significant damage, the plant sheds foliage
Other systemic fungicides are also suitable.
You should not even try to heal the plants - the garden bed is completely destroyed (it is better to burn it). The soil is treated with systemic fungicides, formalin, granosan. Can be supplemented with ferrous sulfate, copper oxychloride or Bordeaux liquid disinfection
The next year it is not recommended to plant crops in this place.
Infusion of leaves of black-haired (marigold) is sprayed with tomato bushes
For prophylaxis, before planting, the roots of the seedlings are disinfected in the infusion for several hours.
To date, all diseases of tomatoes and their treatment are known. It is most often carried out using special antibacterial drugs containing microorganisms.
Environmental friendliness and complete safety for the human body are the advantages of using such funds. Healthy and tasty vegetables are grown without pesticides, insecticides, pesticides and fungicides. It also reduces labor costs, because most often one processing is enough.
Most often, you can hear good reviews of modern gardeners about soil mushrooms (the most common of which are called trichodermines). Natural compost is added to accelerate growth, to it in the complex - "Arenarin".
The drug, created on the basis of soil fungi, will help you forget about how spoiled tomatoes look like diseases and pests. To isolate the culture from harmful microorganisms, the rhizomes of the seedlings are soaked in it before planting and the seeds are thoroughly treated.
Growing tomatoes is not difficult, the main thing is to observe preventive measures against diseases and promptly follow the recommendations proposed by our specialists for their treatment. A good harvest is always the pride of the owner and his merit for the time spent on caring.