We plant parthenocarpic Dutch cucumber hybrids in the spring greenhouse. Parthenocarpic, or in Russian speaking "self-fertile" plants, form ovaries without fertilization at all, in contrast to self-pollinated (idiogamous) plants. Possessing a lot of advantages, they are not suitable for obtaining seed material, since their seeds are not viable
It is worth making a few general remarks about the life of the cucumber plant in our hobby greenhouses. With a decrease in air temperature (19 ... 22 ° C), with high humidity (85-90%) and soil (80-85%), especially in the zone of the root collar of a cucumber plant, the pressure in the cells increases, they partially rupture.
In connection with this biological feature, it is very important, if possible, to prevent the temperature of the soil from dropping. Keep in mind that in film greenhouses, at low night temperatures and good insolation during the day, shoots grow quickly, and fruits are poured slowly. If the temperature in the root zone is high (25 ... 28 ° C), then short-term drops in air temperature to 15 ° C are easier for plants.
In the daytime, overheating negatively affects the intensity of photosynthesis: the higher the temperature, the greater the daytime depression. In greenhouses, plants with high solar radiation can overheat due to weak air movement near the surface of the leaves. Therefore, on clear sunny days, there should be good ventilation in the greenhouses, by the way, to increase the availability of CO2, since the hairs on the cucumber leaves prevent evaporation and reduce the intensity of air mixing at the border with the epidermis. The greatest accumulation of crops occurs in the months of the highest solstice. In the light, the surface of the leaves acquires a waxy coating, especially in intense light. Wax education is a kind of protection against diseases.
The most important thing to note is that the total concentration of salts exceeding 1.8-2% negatively affects the development and growth of plants, causing them a stressful state. It is necessary to fertilize more often, but with weak concentrations of fertilizers with irrigation water. Filling the soil is the same as in the open field, but in closed ground when using mineral fertilizers, you need to remember that nitrogen must be applied in the nitrate form (NO3), this is potassium nitrate, and in the ammonium form (NH4 +) - no more than 20% of total nitrogen input in mineral form. In addition, there is evidence that NH4 + ions increase the susceptibility of plants to bacterial diseases. According to our data, a good fertilizer for cucumbers is potassium nitrate from Chile. Fertilizers are best applied in dissolved form with irrigation water.
The nutritional sufficiency can be corrected visually, by the appearance of the plant. The lack of nutrients is reflected in the color of the leaves. Its lightening to a pale green indicates a lack of nitrogen. On the contrary, with an excess of this element, the leaf becomes dark green with a corrugated surface of the parenchyma between the veins. With a lack of potassium, a dark green color appears near the veins and a pale border along the periphery of the leaf. At the same time, young ovaries rot from the top. With a lack of phosphorus, and this is especially noticeable during the flowering period, the flowers are small, the corolla is pale and short, the leaves become grayish. Seedlings grown on such soil do not have generative organs. In parthenocarpic varieties, with a lack of calcium, an abnormal filling of fruits is noticed, and if there are a lot of them, then the growth stops.
Lack of magnesium - it is indicated by spots (2-2.5 mm) located in groups among parenchymal cells between leaf veins - can reduce yield by 30%. Boron deficiency leads to malformed fruit. Lack of copper, zinc and iron is manifested in the same way on young shoots and the tops of plants in the form of chlorosis and whitening of leaves and their rudiments. In our practice, a stable positive effect on bunch hybrids was from foliar feeding with Mg. Apparently, leaf feeding overcomes the competition from other ions in the root zone.
Even when the soil is well fertilized, during critical periods of plant development, such feeding is very effective, for example, at the very beginning of fruiting, spraying with a 0.1% solution of magnesium sulfate or nitrate increases the abundance of fruiting. Cucumber roots at low temperatures (below 12 ° C) poorly absorb nutrients. In this case, it is advisable to feed the plants by leaves with a weak solution of complex fertilizers with microelements of 0.1%.
We try to select the most disease-resistant hybrids for the greenhouse, since various pesticides used against plant diseases cause disturbances in the structure of the leaves. Obviously, in a small-volume greenhouse, it is difficult to find the right concentration. Sometimes cucumbers can be attacked spider mites (Tetrany-chus urticae)... Ticks are passively carried by humans and animals, by air currents on the cobweb. Ticks prefer cucumber eggplant, melons and gourds, tomato... Mites multiply in dry and hot weather.
In autumn, when cultivated plants become inaccessible for nutrition, mites migrate to weeds. It is recommended to use Vertimek KE - 0.05% or Pegasus KS - 0.10-0.12% solutions against them, but it is better not to allow such guests into the garden and fight weeds. When spraying plants insecticides only 70-80% of pests perish. The remaining individuals are capable of increasing their numbers thousands of times.
To the greenhouse cucumbers we plant with 22-25-day seedlings (3-4 leaves) in mid-April, if there are no "surprises" in nature. In case of a sudden cold snap, there is a small air heater, usually there is also enough additional shelter inside the greenhouse. If you run the risk of planting cucumbers before the optimal time, you need to provide appropriate protection: cucumbers do not grow in the cold, no matter how you acclimate and acclimatize them. Remember, in our forest-tundra, repeated cold weather occurs in May or before June 10.
For growing seedlings, it is better to use a peat-sawdil mixture in a ratio of 2: 1. The main thing is that there is no excess of fertilizers in it, since the main root, sprouting from the seed, is immediately damaged due to the high concentration of salts, and the lateral roots are kept mainly on the surface. Before sowing, the soil moisture in the pots should be 85%, and the temperature should be 25 ° C. In a pot, in a previously made depression (0.5-1 cm) or just on the surface, we plant one seed, then sprinkle (1 cm) with a substrate of the same composition as the potting mixture.
The sprouts are free to orient themselves in space and emerge from any position, but the most convenient one is horizontal, with the direction of the spout to the north. After sowing, it is recommended not to water the pots, but to cover them loosely with foil. Instead of pots, you can use special tablets Gumitar or Gumitab, if I am not mistaken, of Finnish production. They are easy to use, contain macro- and microelements necessary for plants, biologically active substances.
After sowing, until the emergence of shoots, the temperature is maintained within 25 ... 28 ° C, with the appearance of shoots we lower it, during the day - up to 18 ... 20 ° C, at night - up to 14 ... 15 ° C; we carry out moderate watering. Top dressing with liquid fertilizers, including organic ones, on dry soil leads to root burns. If you decide to additionally feed the seedlings, you first need to moisten the soil with water, and then feed it, carry out timely ventilation.
A sharp decrease in air and soil temperature at night can lead to lodging of seedlings and, conversely, overheating of the air at night - to stretching of seedlings and a decrease in their quality. Seedlings before planting in unheated film greenhouses should be well hardened, but within the parameters permissible for a cucumber. Caring for it - moderate watering, but not with cold water, from it cucumbers can get sick with root rot; if necessary - watering with the addition of fertilizers in small doses (no more than 0.3% salts in solution).
Dutch parthenocarpic hybrids in amateur greenhouses for three months of growing season do not require special formation at the planting density recommended for the variety. If we remove some of the lateral shoots, it is only for "cosmetic" reasons, so that there is no thickening.
Usually, the authors of a particular variety, in order to obtain the maximum yield, give a method for the formation of a particular variety. There are so-called single-stem hydrides. Generative hybrids form the bulk of the crop on the central stem, i.e. forming in one stem, if possible, leave stepchildren for 1-3 leaves, depending on the density of planting and the strength of plant development.
With extended cultivation, plants in greenhouses are formed into one stem with side stepchildren. When the cucumbers have 6-7 nodes, the lower part of the stem is blinded: at the first 5 nodes, the fruits and stepsons are completely removed, leaving the main stem, at the next 3-4 nodes, the stepsons pinch, but leave one fruit at each node. This technique allows you to strengthen young plants and get a higher early harvest. After that, at 4-5 nodes, leave all the fruits and pinch the stepsons over the first leaf. Then the stepsons are shortened over 2-3 sheets, depending on the thickening.
After the central stem reaches the top of the trellis, it is guided along the row and released downward at a distance of 0.7-1 m. The central stem is pinched at a distance of 0.9-1.0 m from the ground. As they age, the lower leaves are removed, which have begun to turn yellow or strongly thicken the planting. This technique allows you to improve the ventilation of greenhouses and thereby prevent plant diseases.
Amateur greenhouse it is recommended to plant several different hybrids. You can jointly plant well-branched hybrids with the longest fruiting period, with limited branching - there will be a rather long yield; with weak branching, lateral shoots are very short, the fruiting period lasts no more than one month.
The method of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse on a trellis has shown itself well, in this case it will be more convenient to care for the plants. Instead of a garter, we use pieces of nylon Chinese fishing net with a 70 mm mesh, stretched along the rows of planted plants. In this case, there are no problems with the garter of plants, it is convenient to collect the zelents. We have tested the following parthenocarpic hybrids on the farm: Claudia F1, Marinda F1, Marcella F1, Matilda F1, Masha F1, Vilma F1, Karina F1, Morin F1, Mila F1, Herman F1, Amber F1, Nadine F1, Colet F1, Merengue F1, Clementheim F1, Bianca F1, Adam F1, Aztec F1, Aymur F1, AlexF1, Pasadena F1, Ekol F1, Profi F1, Crispina F1, Delpina F1, Karpa F1, Dolomite F1.
These varieties had no problems with diseases, these are fruitful gherkin-type hybrids, each of them has its own special advantages, in terms of early maturity, duration of fruiting, taste, tuberosity, thickness of the skin, size of greenery, preservation, quality of salting, canning, degree of resistance to diseases , slower growth (do not outgrow). It should be remembered that cucumbers should return to the previous garden no earlier than after 4-5 years.
I began this article by mentioning the famous room cucumber by M. V. Rytov, which can withstand a lack of light. Unfortunately, the real Rytov varieties have not survived to this day. Therefore, finishing the article, I want to dwell a little on the modern hybrid of Asker F1 cucumber, such as a slicer (American salad cucumber), and Passandra F1. They can easily withstand dimming. If we compare the illumination by months, then in June the arrival of solar radiation averages 296 mJ / m2 (100%), in July - 302 mJ / m2 (102%), since August there has been a sharp decrease in the arrival of solar radiation - it is 225 mJ / m2 (76%), in September - 145 mJ / m2 (49%), in October - 64 mJ / m2 (22%), and in November - 28 mJ / m2 (9%) - according to NIIHZG. So in September-October, some more cucumbers can grow, and then they need backlighting.
Amateur vegetable growers can grow Asker F1 and Passandra F1 hybrid in the summer-autumn turnover, they work well in indoor conditions, do not require pollination. We grew a Passandra F1 hybrid in a room using a simplified technology. We took two standard packages of earthen mixture "For cucumbers", made two cross-shaped cuts in each of them, saturated the mixture with water. One seed of cucumber was planted in the cuts. There was a pallet on the farm (from an old electric stove). A layer of expanded clay was poured onto the pallet.
Several cuts were made in the bags on the opposite side of the cruciform incisions with a razor. Packages with planted cucumbers were placed on a pallet with expanded clay. During the growing season of cucumber plants, a nutrient solution of good complex fertilizers with microelements in a concentration of 0.1% was poured into the pan. Having sown in February, cucumbers were grown on the windowsill, the whips were guided along the twine. Seedlings were not highlighted. In April, they began to harvest, fruiting then proceeded until the end of November.
Vladimir Stepanov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, head of the farm "Elita"
Many gardeners believe that in relation to cucumbers in the country, you only need to sow seeds, and then water the seedlings and fight weeds during the summer, without affecting the growth and branching of the shoot. However, this is a deep misconception. The formation of cucumbers in the open field must be performed without fail.
This agricultural technique is of great importance, since the vines are given the desired direction of growth and all the nutrition received by the plant is spent on the formation of the cucumber crop. In this article, we will look at how traditional varieties, modern varieties and hybrids grown in summer cottages should be formed.
Parthenocarpic. Early ripening. Maximum 10–12 flowers per axil. Zelentsy weighing 90–100 g, often lumpy, white-spiked, without bitterness, dark green color with light stripes. The hybrid is characterized by early, abundant and long-term fruiting, resistant to real and downy mildew, root rot. Designed for growing in open and protected ground.
Early ripening. In each knot, 3-5 short tuberous cucumbers are tied, without voids and bitterness. Smooth, always sweet and crunchy, gherkins are convenient for pickling in small jars and preparing mouth-watering fresh salads.
The quality of the crop largely depends on the quality of the selected seeds. Therefore, you need to choose seeds for seedlings very carefully so that your subsequent hard work does not go down the drain.
We will tell you about the new varieties of cucumbers, as well as the best cucumber seeds of the past.
Cucumbers for greenhouses. There are a large number of new varieties and hybrids of cucumbers, let's try to figure them out. For greenhouses, hybrids with shortened lateral lashes are best suited, which do not require formation, that is, there is no need to pinch the ends of the lashes. This is usually done in order to prevent thickening, which does not contribute to yield at all, but only causes the appearance of stem rot and powdery mildew on cucumbers.
The sprinter among them is the self-pollinating hybrid "Bouquet", which gives off the harvest in the very first month of fruiting. The hybrid "Temp" possesses similar properties.
Early triple hybrids "Suomi", "Valaamskiy" and "Sarovskiy" are also distinguished by a quick return of the harvest, and they have bouquet-bearing fruit, that is, several cucumbers from each leaf axil at once. They also have shortened lateral shoots that end with a bouquet of flowers, and then, of course, cucumbers. These hybrids are especially interesting for residents of the Northwest, as they set fruits at low temperatures and insufficient lighting.
Hybrids are distinguished by long fruiting "Okhotny Ryad", "By the Pike's Command", as well as "At My Will", "Shik", "Uglich", "Bully" and "Zadavaka". Most of them also have bundle fruiting.
In parthenocarpic (usually incorrectly called self-pollinating) hybrids listed below, the ends of the lateral shoots should be cut off after the second leaf to avoid thickening. Here we can note the "Spring Caprice", resistant to low temperatures, "Emerald Stream", characterized by early and friendly fruiting, cold-resistant and shade-tolerant, "Quartet", "Orlik". All of the above cucumbers are universal, that is, they are suitable for salads, since they have a thin skin, they can be salted, pickled and canned. All, as a rule, bear fruit in a bunch.
For gherkin lovers you can recommend the hybrids "Alex", "Alekseich", "Druzhnaya family", "Merry company", "Konrad", "Pyzhik", "Sorcerer" and "Shchedrik".
From new bee-pollinated varieties for greenhouses there are "Nina" and "Mikron", hybrids "Everest" and "Eurydice", as well as excellent pickled cucumbers "Tereshechka", "Solnechny" and "Stream". Varieties and hybrids suitable for both open and closed ground - "Bobrik", "Borovichok", "Kliss", "Quadrille" and "Twixi".
F1 hybrids of Biotekhnika: Blizzard and Metelitsa (single-stemmed), Geisha (salad, that is, not suitable for pickling, bouquet fruiting, recovers after frost), Robber (universal, suitable for consumption not only fresh, but also for salting and canning, long-term fruiting, bouquet type - up to 5-7 ovaries from the leaf axils), "Samurai" (universal, early ripe, with dark green fruits with a bright white stripe), "Eskimo »(Salting hybrid, parthenocarpic, ie, with predominant female flowers, resistant to temperatures down to 5-7 ° C, low-leafed, ie with shortened lateral shoots).
Firm "Poisk": "Hector" (Dutch hybrid of universal purpose, bush form, with shortened lateral shoots), "Profi" (Dutch parthenocarpic hybrid), "Captain" (salting early variety). Cucumbers of the company "Aelita": "Do not be sad - crunch" (bunch fruiting, early, not suitable for pickling), "Phoenix". F1 cucumbers from Gavrish: Mamen's Favorite (pickles, that is, small fruits, early, universal, bundle fruiting), Fujiyama (universal, parthenocarpic hybrid), Brownie, Harmonist (small-bumpy, bundle fruiting), "Cappuccino" (bundle fruiting), "Red mullet" (7 cm pickles, bundle fruiting), "Lilliput" (bundle fruiting pickles, sweet).
Novelties from Sortssem-Vegetable: Kuzmich F1 (universal, bunch fruiting), Mikhalych F1 (universal, bunch), Tarapunka F1 (early ripening, bunch gherkin, not suitable for pickling).
For covering soil (cover at night, take off shelter during the day) Vyatsky, Valdai, Understudy, Stuntman, Kosinsky will do.
And hybrids are good for open ground "Eliseevsky" (bee-pollinated), "Novgorodets" and "Arkhangelsky". There is also a good cucumber "Kai", as well as "Leader", "Well done", "Pososhok", "Razgulyay", "Twiksi", "Paratunka", "Ukhazher", "Gypsy" and "Mikhalych", "Passat", "DF Svyatoslav".
For open ground there is also a new bee-pollinated cucumber "Advance", but it is not suitable for pickling. Salted hybrid "Svyatoslav" appeared.
So there is plenty to choose from. But here's what you must pay attention to - is the chosen variety or hybrid suitable for growing in open, sheltered (protected) ground or in greenhouses. Many do not take this into account and lose a lot in yield. Indeed, sometimes cucumbers intended for cultivation in greenhouses are sown by them in open ground, of course, such gardeners do not get any harvest and scold the variety and its creators.
The concept of "second turnover" in our country, due to our climatic and geographical features, is mainly associated with the cultivation of cucumbers and tomatoes.
Other crops, such as sweet peppers or eggplants, due to the fact that they already have longer vegetative periods, are not grown in Russia in two turns.
1. Technology of growing cucumbers in the second turn
2. Planting cucumbers in the greenhouse for the second turn
3. Selection of varieties and hybrids of cucumbers for the second turn
4. Growing cucumber seedlings for the second turn
5. Conditions for growing cucumbers of the second turn in the greenhouse
6. Video: Growing cucumbers. Greenhouse cucumber care
How to extend the turnover from August to October: planting cucumbers in the greenhouse for the second turn. What varieties and hybrids to choose, when to sow seedlings and plant them in a permanent place, advice on agricultural technology, planting in a greenhouse and formation, video.
The selection of varieties and hybrids that can create good fruiting with a decrease in the level of natural light due to a decrease in daylight hours during the growing season of the crop is considered the most important condition for obtaining a decent harvest of cucumbers in the second turn.
At this time of the year, not all varieties and hybrids are able to actively grow and bear fruit.
The timing of planting and the type of fruit should be taken into account without fail. By type of fruit, cucumbers are divided into 3 groups:
Therefore, we offer new hybrids with improved qualities for autumn cultivation:
Seedlings of cucumbers are grown in August 15-17 days before the planned planting; during this time, 2-3 true leaves and a well-developed root system should form on the seedlings of cucumbers.
Seedlings are planted in the greenhouse at the end of August. The planting density should be lower than in the spring turnover, because plants have to grow and bear fruit in conditions of lack of light.
The optimal planting pattern for this time of year:
- for bee-pollinated varieties - 60x40 cm
- parthenocarpic - 150x50 cm.
- in September - 22-24 in sunny and 20-22 in cloudy weather, at night - 18-19 degrees
- in October - 20-22 in sunny and 18-19 in cloudy weather, at night - 15-16 degrees
- soil temperature - about 20-21 degrees.
- in November-December with the use of additional lighting - 17-18 ° C during the day and 12-13 ° C at night.
The scheme for the formation of cucumbers in the greenhouse:
Watering cucumbers in a greenhouse is usually combined with plant feeding:
The peculiarity of the second turn is a high degree of early damage to the culture by diseases and pests that are transferred from summer culture.
By adhering to these recommendations, you can stretch the period of eating fresh cucumbers until December. Or you can turn this simple hobby into a home business.
It is possible to grow cucumbers in the fall. The main thing is to navigate the sowing dates in your region. The second turn of a cucumber in the open field should be oriented towards harvesting from August 15 to September 10 in the north, and from August 25 to September 20 in the south.If you plan to grow it in an unheated greenhouse, you can harvest it from October 10-15 until mid-November (but in heated greenhouses).
Cucumber hybrids that bear fruit until late autumn should have good, strong branches that are resistant to lack of light. Shade resistance is especially important, because in the fall, daylight hours are actively reduced, and the fruits grow more slowly.
Note that long-fruited cucumbers are more resistant to lack of sunlight, medium-fruited cucumbers show moderate resistance. Gherkins are the least resistant, but recently breeders have created a number of shade-resistant hybrids.
Thanks to selection, cucumbers with a bundle type of ovary formation appeared on the gardeners' beds. In such plants, in contrast to traditional varieties, from 3 to 12 or more ovaries are formed in the axils. But this does not mean that each will turn into a cucumber, since such hybrids require good nutrition, taking into account all the characteristics and requirements.
The group of bunch type is diverse, includes both early and mid-season, late varieties. Gardeners appreciate such cucumbers for their yield, excellent taste, and versatility of use.
Bouquet-type cucumbers (Holland):
There are a lot of methods and associated formation schemes, and new ones are constantly being developed. Let's consider the most popular techniques.
Photo. Variants of ways of keeping bushes