To get a good harvest from beets and tasty root crops suitable for storage over a long winter, you need to choose the right beet varieties. Moreover, it is better to give preference to domestic varieties - despite the successes of American breeders, beautiful and even root crops - "foreigners" are still inferior to our beet varieties in taste, yield and adaptability to growing in Russian climatic conditions.
But before listing the best varieties of beets, let's see what types of beets exist: what are table beets, leaf beets, sugar beets, fodder beets and wild beets? What variety should you plant on your site and for what?
The cultivated beet variety also includes biennial leaf beet varieties
The beets that we add to borscht and vinaigrette belong to the cultivated species and scientifically are called table beets. It has a fleshy thick root, predominantly dark red in color. The cultivated beet variety also includes biennial beet varieties known abroad as chard, and subspecies of common root beet:
Video about beets
In addition to cultivated species, several wild-growing annual varieties of beets with a thin root are known: spreading, large-rooted, seaside, creeping, three-columnar, intermediate, rim-fruited, etc.
Let us dwell separately on those types of beets that are most often found in the fields and in private gardens.
Fodder beets appeared in Russia since the 18th century and since then have been cultivated everywhere, since the inclusion of their root crops in the diet of farm animals brings many benefits. Fodder beet is considered a valuable milk-producing crop, it is indispensable for increasing the milk yield in cows, improves the productivity of animals and the quality of offspring, and also allows you to use concentrates more economically in the winter.
Sometimes fodder beets can be passed off as table beets, they can be distinguished, first of all, by the large size of root crops. Although fodder beets have more fiber, the table variety is still tastier and better suited for human consumption.
Sometimes fodder beets can be passed off as a dining room
Fodder beets can be cylindrical, conical, round and elongated-oval, color is white, raspberry, red, pink, orange and yellow. The most popular varieties: Ekkendorf yellow, Titan, Timiryazevskaya single-seeded, Northern orange, Pervenets, Semi-sugar pink, hybrid Timiryazevsky 12, Marshal, Kiev pink beet, etc.
This elongated white beet is primarily cultivated for the purpose of obtaining sugar (in modern varieties, the sugar content reaches 20%), but can also be cultivated for animal feed. The highest productivity of sugar beet can be achieved on chernozem soils, so it is not surprising that Ukraine ranks first in the cultivation of this variety, while Russia is in second place (mainly in the southern regions), followed by Belarus. However, mainly imported varieties of sugar beets are used for cultivation, and the main share is made by hybrids of German selection.
The highest productivity of sugar beet can be achieved on chernozem soils.
In European countries, Swiss chard is widespread as an incredibly useful plant, the leaves of which are very rich in carotene, valuable acids and important trace elements, as well as vitamins, sugars and proteins. In appearance, beetroot resembles spinach. Its varieties differ in the color of the stems (from dark green to yellow and whitish) and in the color of the petioles (from white to pinkish and crimson), large shiny leaves can be either even or curly.
Chard varieties popular in Europe: Bright Lights, Rhubarb Chard, Lucullus, Pink Passion, White Silver. It is not difficult to grow leaf beets, they tolerate cold well, they like sunlit beds and abundant watering. Several crops can be harvested per season.
Beetroot looks like spinach
Bright, dark red beetroot has been known to us since childhood, and everyone knows that this root vegetable is very healthy. Moreover, you can use not only raw or boiled beets - freshly squeezed beet juice, as well as beet tops, are well suited for health promotion. An additional advantage of table beets is that they are excellently stored until next season, if you create suitable storage conditions for them and, most importantly, choose the right variety.
In the conditions of the Russian climate, they are recommended for growing medium-ripening table beet varieties, which combine excellent taste, good keeping quality, yield and disease resistance. Early-maturing varieties are good because they give a harvest already three months after planting (and the ultra-early-maturing variety Cold-resistant - even after 60 days), but they are not intended for long-term storage. Late varieties of table beets are best stored, but they need a lot of time to ripen, not all root crops have time to ripen before frost.
Video about beet varieties
The best varieties of beets in terms of ripening:
Of the new hybrids, the early-ripening Kestrel beets with intense dark red roots, very sweet, with a good presentation, deserve special attention. This hybrid tolerates transportation well, keeps well until spring, and is suitable for direct consumption, processing and bunching.
Hello dear friends, gardeners and gardeners. Let's talk today about one of the most beloved crops - about beets and how to plant beets with seeds in the ground and how to grow them large, beautiful and sweet.
Beets are a rather whimsical vegetable that does not forgive flaws in agricultural technology. Thanks to this article, we will learn how to determine the optimal conditions in order to grow a wonderful, strong and tasty vegetable.
These varieties are especially good in salads and vinaigrettes, even children love to feast on delicious beets. The best, sweetest varieties that grow well both in the Moscow region and in most of Russia:
The most popular beetroot today is a hybrid of the Dutch selection Pablo F1. Its secret is in the optimal combination of a small shape, almost complete absence of white rings, sweet taste with unpretentious cultivation. It belongs to medium early, it is resistant to unfavorable weather conditions (cold, moisture deficit) and, which is very important, to the quality of the soil. Therefore, it can be grown in the northern regions of Russia.
The root crop is stored without losing its shape and taste for several months, it is not prone to cracking, shooting and flowering, it is resistant to many dangerous diseases (scab, cercospora, corneed). Have beets Pablo F1 straight medium-sized rosette, round-shaped fruits, weighing 100-150 grams (sometimes up to 200-250 grams), 10-15 cm in diameter, average yield - up to 7 kg per "square". The color of the pulp is burgundy-purple, the skin of the root crops is burgundy, smooth, rather thin. The growing season is 100-110 days.
Another very popular, time-tested beet variety is Cylinder. Gardeners fell in love with it for a rather long shelf life (more than 4 months), sweet juicy pulp without the notorious rings, very tasty, as well as resistance to major diseases of root crops.
Cylinder beet variety belongs to medium late (ripening period - from 120 to 130 days). The shape of the fruit is elongated, cylindrical, diameter - 5-8 cm, length - 10-15 cm. Fruits are medium-sized, with dark skin, weighing 150-250 grams (sometimes more). Cylinder beets are often grown for sales because the roots grow neat, even, and even. Productivity - more than 7 kg per "square".
This is a mid-season beet variety (110-120 days), which appeared on store shelves not so long ago, but is already loved by gardeners. The mulatto beet variety is not very rich in color of the pulp (not burgundy or ruby, namely dark red), but this in no way affects the richness of the taste - it is juicy, sweet, very tasty.
After heat treatment, it does not change color, which is important for borscht lovers. Root crops are round, not too large (150-300 grams), smooth. 4-5 kg of mulatto beets are harvested from one "square" of the garden. This variety is suitable for winter storage, resistant to temperature fluctuations, unpretentious to the soil, immune to flower beds. Among the disadvantages of beetroot Mulatto is increased demand for lighting; in the shade, the root crop will grow savory and small.
Bred almost 80 years ago, this beet variety is still popular today, which says a lot. Of course, Egyptian flat beets are not as sweet and tasty as some new varieties (in other words, they taste as usual), they will not last until summer (although 70-80% of root crops will survive the winter), and even to Cercospora, the main enemy of beets, this variety weakly stable. But the Egyptian flat beet also has advantages, thanks to which it still remains among the leaders in the preferences of summer residents: unpretentiousness to soils, the ability to tolerate long periods of drought without damage, and resistance to flowering.
Ripening time - 90-100 days (mid-early), the root crop grows flattened, small, neat, average weight - 200-350 grams, but there are specimens up to 500 grams, 4-8 kg of root crops are harvested from the "square" of the garden, the flesh color is burgundy -violet, without pronounced rings.
Another time-tested, reliable, and for many summer residents - Rounded, neat root vegetables with rich burgundy juicy sweet pulp are not too large, so they are convenient to process, bake, Bordov 237 is well suited for salads. The variety is famous for its stable yield, good germination, heat and drought resistance and the ability to store well - until spring, or even until the new season, will lie in the cellar without frowning or shrinking.
Bordeaux 237 beets are medium early (ripening period - 70-110 days), root crops grow weighing from 200 to 500 grams, with a diameter of 10-15 cm, the shape is round or slightly flattened. The variety is considered resistant to diseases, but in some years it is affected by peronosporosis and cercosporosis. From the "square" of the garden, you can collect from 4 to 8 kg of beets.
Perhaps the most popular of the early-growing beet varieties today. Still - during the season Detroit can be sown twice, since the ripening period of the root crop is only 650-100 days. Taste qualities are excellent - it is juicy, dark red, has a pleasant sweet taste. Root crops grow small (from 100 to 200 grams), but aligned, round, smooth, with a very small axial root - in general, very marketable. Among other advantages of Detroit beets - resistance to bloom, to cold.
As for early beets, Detroit is stored well, but for laying for long winter storage, nevertheless, it is better to choose another variety, mid or late ripening. Another unpleasant bonus of this early maturing beet is its weak resistance to diseases, increased demand for watering and light.
It is an early variety with a ripening period of 65-100 days, which is famous for its very juicy, dark red, almost purple sweet flesh, practically without rings on the cut. It is recommended for use in dietary and baby food, and, of course, in cooking (it is cooked quickly and does not have an unpleasant "beetroot" taste)
Beet variety Red ball is resistant to cold weather, flowering, stemming, drought and disease resistance - medium. Root crops grow round, weighing 200-500 grams. Productivity of beets Red ball is high, up to 6 kg of root crops are harvested from the "square" of the garden. Stored without problems until spring.
The medium late representative of the beet is cylindrical, so in the middle lane it may not have time to ripen. The variety is single-sprout (not 3-5 sprouts grow from one seed, but only one), so thinning is not required. As a result, root crops form quickly, grow even and delight with a stable yield.
Despite its elongated shape, this beet is easily pulled out of the ground, as it will plunge into the soil only a third of its length. The average weight of Mona beets is 200-350 grams, length is 10-20 cm, diameter is about 5 cm, the pulp is tender, juicy, dark red, rings are almost invisible. The yield is high - 6-7 kg of root crops from the "square" of the garden.
This beet got its name for its excellent taste - its pulp is juicy, very sweet, dark red with almost black rings. Beet variety Incomparable belongs to the early maturing (70-96 days). Root crops grow round or slightly flattened, weighing 150-400 grams, are stored, despite early maturity, well - until spring.
Of the features - incomparable beets do not like heavy soils, are weakly resistant to cercosporosis, resistant to flowering, stemming and cold weather.
An early maturing variety (70-100 days), which, due to its cold resistance, can be sown very early in the open field. Roots beetroot boltardi grow small (150-350 grams), but very even, smooth, neat rounded shape.
The pulp deserves special attention: it is completely ringless, burgundy-purple, very sugary and juicy. Suitable for bookmarking for long-term storage. Boltardi beets are considered resistant to diseases and flowering, but demanding on watering and feeding. From the "square" of the garden, you can collect 3-8 kg of root crops.
This beet variety is for lovers of large root crops: the weight of one specimen can exceed 600 grams. The variety is medium late (110-120), distinguished by resistance to cold weather, flowering and excellent keeping quality.
The flesh of beets is dark red, with slightly pronounced rings, but without hard veins; after cooking, the color does not change.In the characteristics of the beet variety, it is indicated that the weight of root crops is 150-240 grams, but in fact, gardeners note that the real weight of Bovine blood is 2 or even three times higher.
From the name it is obvious that this is one of the best varieties of beets for winter sowing. In general, beetroot Podzimnyaya A 474 is a mid-season variety (95-105 days), and is suitable not only for winter sowing, but also for early spring. Differs in dark red flat-rounded roots, growing up to 200-300 grams.
Beet pulp is sweet, juicy, with a good taste and dark red color. Equally important features of the variety are cold resistance and suitability for long-term storage.
One of the main canteen beetroot hybrids for Europe and the USA. Moreover: abroad Kestrel F1 is one of the quality standards and high yield. It is used in baby food and juices, since the rich red color does not "fade" after heat treatment. Also, a hybrid of beets has excellent commercial qualities - uniformity of root crops, good transportability, high sugar content, keeping quality.
Beet Kestrel F1 belongs to mid-season hybrids (90-100 days) with a small root process, a smooth surface, a small leaf rosette. The average fruit weight is from 300 to 400 grams.
Sowing seeds in spring can be done with dry and more practical germinated seeds. Seeds are sown in furrows on a flat field surface. Sprouted seeds are sown in moist soil. In dry soil, almost all shoots die.
Furrows are cut every 15-30 cm. Sowing on heavy soils is carried out to a depth of 2 cm, on light soils - 4 cm. It is impossible to deepen the crops. The distance in a row is 2-3 cm, which, when thinning, is increased to 7-10 cm, which ensures the production of standard (10 cm in diameter) root crops. On single-seeded crops, thinning is combined with harvesting a bunch crop, and when sowing with seed crops, 2 thinning is performed.
Beets begin to germinate at a soil temperature of +8 .. + 10 ° C and +5 .. + 7 ° C of the environment. However, seedlings at this temperature appear late and very unevenly. The optimum air temperature is +19 .. + 22 ° С. Seedlings appear on the 5-8th day and by the 10-12th day the culture enters the forks phase. In the next 10 days, there is a powerful development of the aboveground part of the culture (leaf apparatus), and then the development of the root crop begins.
The first loosening is carried out 4-5 days after germination. Loosening is performed very carefully, gradually deepening the cultivated layer from 2-4 to 6-8 cm. The soil is loosened in the aisles, in the furrows of the ridge, on the sides of the ridges after irrigation and rains. Timely destruction of young weeds slightly injures beet plants and provides the crop with optimal conditions for growth and development. Loosening is stopped after the leaves close.
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The first time a breakthrough is carried out with the development of 1-2 leaves, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. A gap of 3-4 cm is left between the plants. The beet is negatively related to the greater sparseness of beets. When thinning multi-seeded crops, 1-2 seedlings are left in place. In this case, thinning is carried out in the phase of 2-3 leaves. Plugged plants are used as seedlings, planting plants at the edges or in the sides of high ridges.
The second thinning is performed with the development of 4-5 leaves. In this phase, the culture has already formed a 3-5 cm root crop. In the second thinning, the tallest, most developed plants are removed. They reach bunch ripeness and are used for food. At the same time, the condition of plants is monitored and diseased and crooked plants are removed along the way. The distance in the row for the normal development of the root crop is 6-8-10 cm.
During the growing season, at least two dressings of medium and late beet varieties are carried out. Early beets, with good autumn fertilization, are usually not fed. For gardeners, especially for beginners, it is difficult to calculate the required amount of fertilizers. The culture is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determine the carcinogenicity of the culture and nitrates.
The first feeding is carried out after the first thinning or rooting of seedlings. You can feed with nitroammophos - 30 g sq. m or a mixture of mineral fertilizers at the rate of 5-7 g / sq. m, respectively, sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
On depleted soils, it is better to carry out the first feeding with a solution of mullein or bird droppings in a ratio of 1 part mullein to 10 parts, and bird droppings to 12 parts of water. 5 g of urea can be added to the solution. The solution is introduced at a distance of 6-10 cm from the beet row in a 3-4 cm furrow. Use a 10 running meter bucket of mortar. Watering is carried out from a watering can close to the soil so as not to burn the leaves. After adding the solution, it is covered with a layer of soil, watered and mulched. Top dressing with liquid organic matter is carried out only in the initial period of beet development. Later, without having time to process the mineral form into an organic one, plants accumulate nitrates in roots. The first sign of the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in the root crop when overfeeding with nitrogen is the appearance of voids in the root crop.
The second feeding is carried out after 15-20 days or after the second thinning. For feeding, superphosphate and potassium magnesium or potassium chloride are used in a dose of 8-10 g / sq. m (1 teaspoon with top). Mineral fat can be replaced with wood ash, spending 200 g per sq. m of area, followed by embedding in a 5-8 cm layer of soil.
Thinning is carried out when sowing table beets with stems (glomeruli). 3-5 seedlings develop from seedlings. Single-seeded varieties generally do not need to be thinned unless bunch harvesting is envisaged. Thinning is performed in cloudy weather after preliminary watering. It is easier to pull the plant out of the moistened soil without damaging the neighboring one. Thinning of beets is carried out twice.
Juicy roots with tender pulp are obtained with regular watering, especially in arid regions. The first watering is carried out with mass shoots. Water the culture 3-4 times a month. During the period of intensive development of root crops, watering is increased. The first sign of a delay in watering is the wilting of beet leaves. Beets are very fond of watering over the leaves. The culture does not tolerate rising soil temperatures. From overheating, constant mulching is necessary until the leaves close. Watering is stopped 3-4 weeks before harvest.
Beetroot harvesting begins at the end of September - mid-October, before the onset of frost, depending on the region of Ukraine, since the roots protrude above the soil surface and can be damaged by frost, which will worsen their keeping quality. The dug beets are trimmed from the tops to prevent wilting. The tops should be removed from the apical and lateral buds. For storage, healthy, non-lethargic, undamaged and non-frozen root crops with a diameter of about 5-14 cm are taken. Vegetables are stored in cellars, trenches, pits with sand at a temperature of + 2-3 ° C. Indoors, you can keep root crops in boxes and baskets with a capacity of up to 30 kg at a temperature of + 5–6 ° C and a relative humidity of 90–95%. Beets are stored very well, so they can be consumed fresh all year round.
The most suitable varieties for the Siberian climate are: Siberian flat, Podzimnyaya, Red ice, Mashenka, Krasny bogatyr, Odnorostkovaya, Incomparable, Bordeaux 327, Cold-resistant, Pablo, Cylinder.
An early variety, ripens in 98-100 days. The shape is flat. Beets are dark and reddish-purple in color. Weight 200-400 grams. The taste is excellent. The variety is cold-resistant, disease-resistant.
Medium early variety. The shape is round. Weight 200-400 grams. The color of the pulp is burgundy. The variety is cold-resistant, resistant to most diseases.
Ripens in 100 days. The pulp is bright, with small rings. The weight of root crops is 200–300 grams. 4-5.5 kilograms of beets are harvested from a square meter.
High-yielding variety. The shape is cylindrical. The skin is thin, dark red. Pulp without rings. Weight 200-550 grams. Productivity from a square 8-10 kilograms.
Mid-season and high-yielding variety. Dark red variety without light rings. The shape is cylindrical, smooth. Up to 9 kilograms of fruits are harvested from a meter. Fruit weight 310-600 grams. The fruits are delicious. The plant is not susceptible to disease.
Growing beetroot seedlings can increase the likelihood of a good harvest. The best option for planting is the cassette method. With this planting, 1 plant grows in a separate cell and planting and thinning is not required.
Under favorable conditions, an excellent harvest can be harvested by September - early October.
Sweet varieties for central Russia, Moscow region, Siberia: a hybrid of Pablo, Detroit round, Incomparable, Cylinder.
Some of the most widely used and loved by gardeners varieties of the Urals and Siberia are: Red Ice, Bikores, Siberian flat, Mulatka, Krasny Bogatyr, Mondoro F1, Mashenka, Vital cylinder.
Dark varieties of beets are in great demand, suitable for the preparation of various snacks, juices, first and second courses, salads, preparations.
All these varieties, with proper agrotechnical work, give an excellent yield of high-quality fruits.
Beets are a very healthy root vegetable. They use it in various fields. For example, some are used for cooking, others for feeding animals, and still others for sugar production. The assortment is wide enough today. And often novice summer residents have problems regarding the choice of a certain variety of this vegetable. The article will tell you which varieties of beets are the best.
Beetroot is widely used in cooking. It is used in the preparation of borscht, herring "under a fur coat", vinaigrette, salad with prunes. Spicy food lovers marinate beets with horseradish and black pepper. The dish will decorate any table, be it a family lunch or a festive dinner. Beets go well with other vegetables, spices and even nuts.
Interesting! In ancient Russia, beets were baked and served with tea as a dessert. This delicacy was especially loved by fabulous heroes. And women used the pulp of beets as a blush.
In addition to cooking, beetroot is used in folk medicine. For angina, it is recommended to gargle with beet juice, and in case of inflammation of the lymph nodes, apply grated fresh beets to the neck. Red beet tincture lowers blood pressure, raises hemoglobin levels.