Summer residents fell in love with black currants due to its unpretentiousness to the soil and the ability to survive frosts down to -25 degrees without preparation.
But you can count on getting a full harvest only with timely care for the berry bushes.
With proper care, it is capable of producing crops up to 15-20 years.... The first few seasons of active fruiting, summer residents can count on picking large berries without unnecessary labor.
But with time the bush grows, old branches give a scanty harvest and interfere with the access of sunlight to young growth.
Together with that soil depletion occurs, and there is a lack of nutrients necessary for the plant. Branches and roots are damaged by pests and fungal diseases.
And with sharp frosts, you can lose not only a bountiful harvest, but also the bushes themselves.
Comprehensive preparation of black currant for winter carries a number of advantages:
This will require pruning bushes, preparing the soil, applying fertilizers and bending branches to protect them from freezing and damage in strong winds.
Despite the high frost resistance of this garden culture, when the temperature drops below -25 degrees, its shoots freeze and begin to die off... This can lead to a significant decrease in yield or even death of the plant.
To avoid this, you need to bend the branches to the ground. This can be done in several ways.
The easiest way is to press the shoots to the ground with bricks... To do this, the branches need to be grouped in 3-5 pieces, bend the beams one by one to the ground, put a board on them and press it with a brick.
But it's better for this use non-metallic shingles, placing the stems in its furrows... The branches grow in different directions, they need to be bent in this direction, placing no more than 2-3 nearby shoots under one load. Otherwise, they may be excessively kinked.
It is not worth using metal to bend the bush, since it has a high thermal conductivity, which will contribute to the transfer of cold to the plant.
Burying... This method is used by gardeners who are faced with frosts below -35 degrees, when there is no snow layer on the soil. In this case, cover the plants with a 10 cm layer of soil.
But since the bush needs to be able to breathe, icing on this airbag can damage it.
This the procedure is carried out after the leaves fall... The following branches are subject to deletion:
For pruning old and thick branches it may be necessary to use a saw for wood, and to remove young growth, a pruner or garden shears are enough.
The tool must be sharp. This will not only make the cut site beautiful, but also protect the plant from excessive damage. A berry bush will need a lot of energy to "heal" torn, uneven, broken-off fragments.
Need to leave the strongest, fruiting, non-shading stems, and young zero (basal) shoots located near the main trunks.
Excessively thin branches will hardly survive the winter and will not please the gardener with a high yield, but will only load the root system.
Pruning must be carried out at the very ground... When the stumps protrude above the ground by more than 2-3 cm, they often start growing again.
In total, the bush should contain about 14-16 shoots. 3-4 stems at the age of 1 to 3-4 years. Replacing old stems with new shoots in time will help maintain yields for many years.
The tops of zero shoots must be shortened, as well as dying tips on older shoots. This will encourage abundant spring branching.
Pruning is also necessary as a preventive measure in the fight against fungal and other diseases. It is recommended to burn the removed residues.
Pruning black currant bushes in the fall:
First you need to prepare and clean the soil around the bush from old mulch and leaves, which are a breeding ground for pests, fungal and viral diseases.
The leaves will need to be burned or placed in a compost heap away from the berry bushes.
For soil disinfection you can use solutions of the following drugs:
If, before the foliage falls off, the currant bush is abundantly sprayed with a solution of urea (urea), you can get rid of many bacteria and fungi. To prepare it, you will need to dissolve 100 grams of urea in 10 liters of water.
After cleaning the soil from organic debris and disinfecting it you can proceed to digging... If you do this before freezing, you can get rid of many pests that winter in the upper soil layer.
Digging is carried out with a garden pitchfork... It should be combined with the introduction of 10 kg of organic matter. Light soils can be "plowed" with special rippers.
Directly near the base of the bush, soil can be dug to a depth of 5-6 cm, along the perimeter - up to 15 cm. It is important not to damage the roots.
If the soil is dense, the lumps should be crushed with a pitchfork and rake. Further, the soil can be disinfected again by spraying it with one of the solutions described earlier.
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is carried out before digging, together with it, or scatter fertilizer around the bush before precipitation, embedding it in the ground with a ripper or rake. In autumn, only phosphorus and potassium can be added to the soil.
Superphosphate (50-80 grams) can be used as a phosphorus supplement. Potassium sulfate (20-40 grams) is also introduced.
Wood ash contains potassium, phosphorus and many other elements, so it can replace mineral fertilizers or supplement them. During digging, 100 grams (250 ml) of the substance will need to be added under the bush. It can be diluted in water and immediately poured over the soil with liquid.
Ash must be crushed before being introduced into the soil. It cannot be used together with nitrogenous fertilizers: urea, dung, manure. Ash can be stored for many years, but only in a dry state, being, for example, in a closed jar.
Cover the fertilized and loosened soil with fresh mulch.: compost, sunflower husks, rotten sawdust or leaves of barren crops, in which there will be no pests that threaten currants. It will save the bush from frost and prevent the soil from rapidly losing moisture.
The mulch should be scattered before the soil is frozen. Otherwise, the protective layer forms a kind of refrigerator, which will interfere with the heating of the soil during warming.
When snow falls, it is necessary to throw it on the berry bush and around it., and tamp lightly. In its absence, the plant can be sprinkled with forest foliage, needles or covered with agrofibre.
There are a few common mistakes worth highlighting. gardeners that they do in this case:
In the suburbs, in the Urals and in Siberia with the first signs of the onset of spring, it is necessary to free the bush and let its stem develop and bud.
Excessively long-term exposure of the bush under cover will make it impossible for the formation of a sufficient amount of organic matter to obtain a bountiful harvest.
Preparing currant bushes for wintering:
A perennial shrub is called a currant, the height of which can reach two meters (it depends on the variety and growing conditions). The life span of this plant, with proper care, can be up to 20 years. Currants are considered a frost-resistant crop, undemanding to soil conditions, so inexperienced gardeners do not know why they need to prepare currants for winter. We will consider the answer to this question and other similar ones in our article.
The dates for the maintenance work fall at the end of October and the beginning of November. Currant is a shrub that wakes up in early spring.
In order not to harm her, it is necessary to have time to complete all the work in the fall.
Before proceeding with pruning and other procedures, it is important to make sure that the crop has stopped sap flow.
The first on the list of maintenance jobs is trimming. Neglect of this procedure turns into a change in the size of the berries for the gardener. They are getting smaller every year.
Pruning begins by removing old branches containing small fruits. The bush is thinned out from branches, the growth of which is directed towards the very center. It is important to get rid of them, as they thicken the bush.
Broken and weak branches with few shoots are also cut off. As a rule, no more than 6 branches are left on one bush, the minimum amount is 4 pieces. In the next season, pruning is repeated, leaving only 3 branches on the bush. Because currants are a bushy shrub, pruning correctly makes care for the next fall easier.
A young bush needs a lot of moisture. One crop requires 2 to 6 buckets of water. In rainy, cold autumns, watering is not required, provided that the trunk circle is well covered with mulch.
On average, gardeners use up to 6 buckets for watering one bush. You may also need only 3 buckets. It all depends on the composition of the soil and its ability to pass moisture. Water should penetrate 30-55 cm deep.
Black currants are not watered at the root, as this harms the underground part. At a distance of 10-20 cm around the bush, grooves are pulled out to a depth of 13 cm. When watering, water is poured into them.
The following fertilizers are used:
Fertilizers are applied to wet soil. Therefore, feeding is carried out after watering.
After pruning, watering and fertilizing, they proceed to work with the near-stem circle. It needs to be mulched. For this, hay, leaves of trees or shrubs, as well as compost are used. In the latter case, it can serve as a fertilizer. The mulch layer should not exceed 10 cm.
Rotten sawdust is also a good mulch. The grass that remains after cutting the lawn is also used as a protective layer. If a person has chosen leaves and branches of bushes or trees, they should not be fruit. They give preference to decorative types.
The plot of land around the bush is freed from weeds, fallen leaves, various branches and all sorts of "debris". All this is burned, getting wood ash, which in the future may be needed when carrying out garden work. If the surface is clean, the soil is dug to a shallow depth.
Just 6-8 cm is enough. This will not damage the root system of the shrub, but it will turn pests onto the surface, which will freeze in winter and will not be able to spoil the harvest in the next season. Digging enhances water and air exchange of soil. In the fall, the roots continue to absorb moisture and accumulate it in the tissues. In turn, this will help the currants survive the winter and avoid moisture evaporation from the branches that are located on the south side.
Old bushes are transferred to a new place. Regardless of the type of shrub, the procedure takes place exclusively in the fall. Throughout the winter, the soil settles and compresses. Thanks to this, the seedlings will grow quickly in the spring. If the transplant conditions are met, the shrub will develop correctly.
After mulching, the currants are observed. When all the leaves fall off the branches, preventive treatment is carried out. An excellent remedy for fungal diseases is Bordeaux liquid. The dosage of the drug should be within 2-3%.
Processing is carried out only after most of the leaves have fallen - about 85%. The remains are collected by hand. In no case should it be used as mulching. The leaves are burned along with the cut branches.
For maximum effect, each branch and even the trunk circle are sprayed. This approach also helps to clear the soil from pests, since when spraying, part of the substance enters the territory of the trunk circle.
Autumn growth of currant roots depends to a large extent on whether the soil is sufficiently moistened. Therefore, if autumn is dry, currant bushes must be watered after the harvest is harvested.
In addition, you can apply water-charging irrigation, which will help plants to better endure the winter cold. Such watering is carried out from mid-September to early October.
If you paint in detail a plan of how the currants should be prepared for winter, then first you will need to remember what pruning the bushes is, then start loosening the soil, processing the branches and feeding the bush itself. For the latter, urea is perfect, and for both red and black currants. To do this, take a small matchbox with dry granules and dilute with 10 liters of water.
Using a sprayer, apply this mixture to currant branches and leaves. After 48 hours, you can add complex phosphorus-potassium fertilizers to the base of the bush and around it. If you are engaged in loosening the soil, then this should be done very carefully so as not to damage the root system. Use a garden shovel or other tool to dig up the soil, but shallow it. As mulch for the winter for currants, you can use pieces of old newspapers, harvested hay, dry grass or sawdust. This will help the roots of the currant bush not to freeze even in severe frosts.
There is another secret of caring for a bush in the winter months - as soon as the ground begins to cover the ground with a thin crust from frost, the branches are pulled together with a rope.They should be folded in such a way that each shoot is stretched up and runs slightly in a spiral. Just do not tighten it too much with twine. You need to tie the bush with a distance of 15-20 centimeters in a circle. You should start from the bottom, gradually pulling the branches towards the top.
It is most convenient to tie the rope at the top point on a knot or fix it well with a clothespin. This technique allows you to preserve a maximum of fruit buds, since in this way the associated branches simply will not hit each other even in strong winds. Do not forget about the usefulness of not only mulch, but also snow. It is best to close the base of the bush with the first snowfall. The snow layer should be about 10-15 centimeters. However, it is not forbidden to completely cover the bush with a snowdrift if the precipitation is appropriate.
Preparation includes pruning, watering and a little hilling of young plants.
1. Pruning is carried out in late autumn at temperatures below 8 degrees. It can be carried out in the pre-winter period or even in winter in the absence of snow, when there is access to the bushes. With the early onset of cold weather, when the bushes are still green, the leaves are removed, otherwise the currants may freeze out.
2. Watering is required in the fall. This significantly increases the winter hardiness and frost resistance of the crop. It is carried out 2-3 weeks before the onset of cold weather. Even in the case of a rainy autumn, watering is still necessary, since the moisture of the earth under the bushes is insufficient.
3. If there is a need to transplant currants, then this can be done all autumn as long as the growing season continues. The main thing here is that the bush has time to restore the roots damaged during transplantation. First, the shrub is watered abundantly around the perimeter, then it is dug in at a distance slightly larger than the crown, to a depth of 25-30 centimeters. The larger the earthen lump, the less the roots will be damaged. You can transplant young currant bushes in trenches, adults - in planting pits. When transplanting to a new place, the roots should not come into contact with fertilizers.
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Currants grow in almost every garden: black, red, white. Such a love of gardeners for this shrub is explained by the fact that the culture is unpretentious, easily takes root in a temperate climate.
In winter, currants require some care, especially if the thermometer drops below 25 degrees. When growing currants, care in the fall is necessary and preparation for winter is also necessary.
What measures should a gardener take in the fall?
Each gardener, on whose site currants grow, in the autumn period should think about what work to carry out so that the shrub can easily overwinter. How to prepare currants for winter? Mandatory work includes:
Sometimes in the fall, currants are planted in open ground, which needs to be given special attention.
To carry out trimming, you need to prepare tools (all or some):
Important! All tools must be sharply sharpened.
Currant pruning should be done before frost sets in. If the currant leaves have already flown around, but the snow has not yet fallen, it's time to start work. In most regions, this happens at the end of October. Currant bushes will easily tolerate pruning, they will not hurt. The absence of leaves will allow you to see all the shoots, especially the weak and lifeless ones.
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Important! All trimmed material must be removed from the garden and burned.
After pruning, large and healthy shoots will receive more light and the quality of the berries will improve. With regular rejuvenating pruning, currant bushes will delight you with delicious fruits for up to fifteen years.
Important! Autumn is a great time to harvest cuttings.
The remaining branches do not need to be topped if they are healthy. Thickened buds or twisted leaves can tell about the disease.
Many budding gardeners ask if there is a difference between pruning black and red currants. Yes, black currant is always pruned more than fruit crops of other varieties. It is not necessary to remove young shoots from white and red currants, unlike black ones.
Caring for currants in the fall is regular watering. In order for the shoots to lay buds, and then easily overwinter, it is necessary to provide a large amount of moisture. After pruning, the shrub should be shed with warm water. Black currants will need about 4 buckets of water, and white and red currants will need 2 buckets.
It is recommended to loosen the soil in the trunk circle. This will improve oxygen access to the root system. You do not need to loosen the soil too deep, just walk with a hoe or hoe, this will help remove weeds.
In order not to hurt the roots, you need to be careful not to loosen the soil next to the trunk. You can make small grooves to make it easier to feed later.
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During the growing season, currants consume a lot of phosphorus, magnesium and other useful elements from the soil. Therefore, it is recommended to make up for this deficiency in the fall.
When applying top dressing, you need to follow some rules in order to prevent the death of shrubs.
To protect black currants from harmful insects that can hide in the soil in the fall, as well as from infections, bushes need to be treated in the fall. Bordeaux liquid and Karbofos are the most commonly used drugs. You can spray the shrubs with Fundazol or Topaz.
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After harvesting, you need to carefully examine the bushes for infection. If dried leaves and twigs appear, we can talk about a glass case. The branches are removed, and the bush is treated with Fitoverm or Lepidocide.
When currant is infected with ticks, you need to treat the bushes with special agents, which include Kleschevit, Fitovern, Neoron and others. Kinmik and Lepidocid effectively rid the plant of gall midges.
After all the preventive measures have been taken, watering, feeding currants, processing bushes, you need to think about shelter. The branches of the bush are pulled together with a twine upward, in a spiral. This way, the shoots will be able to retain the largest number of buds, since they will not rub against each other. After the snow falls, it must be tamped around the bush, and then completely cover the bush with snow.
You can use another method: the shoots are bent to the soil, the branches are covered with slate on top. Thus, currant bushes for the winter will be reliably protected from winds and frosts.
Black currants must be covered for the winter. A rod, rod or sturdy stick is installed inside the bush. All currant twigs are attached to it with a tourniquet or rope. Then the bush is wrapped with any insulation, for example, agrofiber. This method does not require a lot of time and additional costs.
It is impossible to start sheltering the currants for the winter too early, if the leaves on the shoots still remain, a fungus may develop from high humidity. In early spring, it is necessary to remove the shelter so that the plant can continue its normal development.
If the preparation of currants for winter was carried out correctly, the bushes can easily survive even the most severe frosts.