This garden tree can be found today in almost every household plot. Sweet cherries are popular for their sweet and delicious berries. It is only natural that any gardener wants to grow only the best crops, and cherries are no exception. In the article, we will talk about the large-fruited variety Bull's Heart and give its characteristics.
The number of fans of this culture is increasing every year. Gardeners of the southern regions and gardeners of central Russia want to grow it. Everyone strives to get the sweet fruits of this variety, which is considered the largest among the others, bred by specialists in domestic breeding.
The plant owes its name to the rich dark red color of the berries and the external resemblance to the heart of a strong animal.
Back in the days of the Soviet Union, this sweet cherry variety was recommended for cultivation in Georgia, Azerbaijan, and the south of the country. And today the boundaries of its cultivation expanded significantly... Even gardeners of the Black Earth Region and the central regions of the country receive good harvests.
Like other varieties, the plant shows good growth at the initial stage, turning, according to the description, into a strong tree with a crown of medium thickening by the age of five. Then the annual growth decreases, the tree reaches a height of three to five meters.
The degree of branching is low, the foliage covers the shoots sparsely. This allows the crown to be well ventilated.
Cherry foliage is distinguished by the following features:
The appearance of foliage occurs almost simultaneously with the opening of inflorescences, and this period falls in mid-May. Most flower buds are laid on short bouquet branches. Flowers are collected in two - four pieces.
Cherry variety matures gradually... It all depends on climatic conditions and weather. Most often, the first harvests can be obtained late June - early July.
The berries are large, weigh from 7 to 10 grams each one. Outwardly, they look attractive, the skin is dark, almost black, the pulp is juicy, red in color.
Although the peel is dense, it is not able to protect the berries from damage and dents during transportation.
Fruits are even, kept on short stalks. If the crop is harvested gradually, then ripe berries calmly hang on the branches for another month, almost without changing their quality.
Berries are used fresh, canned... The sugar and acid content in them depends on the weather conditions and the care provided for the tree.
the obvious advantages include the following signs:
But culture has its drawbacks:
Since cherries tolerate severe frosts well, they can be planted not only in spring, but also in autumn. But gardeners recommend doing this after winter, so that the tree has time to take root well in a new place.
When choosing a place for planting, it is necessary to take into account that the plant needs a lot of heat and sunlight... Best suited for this is the southern side of the site, well protected from drafts.
The soil composition must be different good fertility and moisture permeability... Groundwater should be located at a depth of more than one and a half meters from the surface of the earth. It is best if the land is loamy or sandy loam. Swampy areas are not suitable for planting seedlings.
Landing is carried out with an interval of 3-3.5 meters... The spacing between rows should be not less than five meters.
The landing pit is prepared in a few weeks. Its depth should be at least sixty centimeters. The topsoil is mixed with several buckets of organic fertilizer and used for planting.
It is recommended to bury the seedling gradually, shake it periodically so that the soil fills well the voids between the roots. The root collar should remain on the surface. A garter stake is installed at the same time as landing.
Everything ends with watering, for which it is used at least three buckets of water... The trunk circle is mulched with humus or peat.
The tree loves moisture, so watering should be abundant, but not frequent - once a month... It is necessary to take into account weather conditions and monitor the condition of the soil. Up to three buckets are poured under a young tree, but twice as many under an adult cherry. The procedure is performed from the moment the foliage appears until it completely falls off.
In the first year of growth, the tree does not need additional feeding. But then you will need to make fertilizers containing nitrogen. It is allowed to feed with organic compounds in the form of rotted manure diluted with water.
Mineral compositions are suitable superphosphates and saltpeter... They are introduced periodically, in small quantities. If the acidity of the soil is high, it can be reduced with lime.
The tree requires almost no care, but certain rules must be observed:
To prevent the young tree from being attacked by rodents, the trunk must be wrapped with sacking for the winter.
In addition, it perfectly protects against frost. Some gardeners scatter poison near the tree, wrap the trunk with roofing material.
With the onset of spring, until the tree begins to bloom, it should treat with copper sulfate, urea or chemical composition "30"... The same procedure must be carried out when the flowering is completely completed. These measures will help keep the tree from diseases and attacks of harmful parasites.
The plant is popular, unpretentious, does not need special care. The tree always yields tasty yields if you pay a little attention to it and, if necessary, plant pollinators nearby.
The first step is to find a good seedling, which in the future will become a healthy and large tree. The main characteristic of an ideal seedling is a branched root system, the presence of grafting on the trunk.
Planting cherries Bull heart has nothing complicated. Since the tree of this variety is of medium height, we make holes twice as large as the roots, about 0.5 meters, the width is assumed to be the same. The distance between the pits is about 3 meters.
When digging, divide the top and bottom layers into piles. Add 2-3 buckets of organic fertilizer to the top layer and pour the mixture into the hole in the form of a mound. Insert the stake to which in the future we will tie our tree to it.
We bring our seedling into the hole and carefully spreading the roots, we bury the cherries up to the root collar. Only water the planted tree well. Add mulch to the peri-stem circle.
Sweet cherry Bull heart (Bull's eye) is one of the largest. The average weight of one berry reaches eight grams. This is a very high result for such a tree, both among domestic and foreign gardeners. The round-flattened shape visually makes the fruit look like a heart, hence the name. The shiny and firm skin turns almost black when ripe. The pulp is firm, juicy and very sweet.
The trees are not too tall, the length is from 3 to 5 meters. The crown has a dense pyramidal shape, straight brown shoots. Egg-shaped kidneys. The leaves are large, dark green in color. Fruit ovaries are formed mostly on bouquet branches, in inflorescences from two to three flowers. Plants need pollinators, so it is recommended to plant several trees nearby.
Cherry begins to bear fruit in the fifth year, the flowering period falls in mid-May, and the first harvest can be harvested in the second half of June.
Gardeners fell in love with not only the large sweet berries of this variety, but also the relative frost resistance of the tree. In addition, the plant does not require constant care and close attention. An important advantage is its high resistance to diseases, in particular, to fungus and coccomycosis.
The variety also has disadvantages - if rainy weather alternates with hot and windy, ripe cherries can crack. Despite the dense skin, the berry does not tolerate transportation and is not stored for long. Therefore, the crop must be harvested as early as possible and immediately eaten in its natural form or processed.
The climatic conditions and specificity of the soil in different regions requires the selection of the appropriate varieties of sweet cherry. In order for the culture to bear fruit abundantly and develop correctly, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the territory where it is planned to plant cherries.
A moderately warm climate is optimal for the growth of sweet cherries. When planted in the southern regions, trees grow freely in open soil conditions and do not require specific maintenance. In winter, the plantings do not need shelter, since the ambient temperature does not drop to extremely low values. Especially for the southern regions, breeders have bred several varieties of semi-herb cherries.
For the central regions of the country, breeders have developed a number of cherry varieties that are adapted to the harsh conditions of winter. Popular varieties are:
When planting cherries in Siberia, you need to take into account the sharply continental climate, and when planting crops in the Far East, you will need to choose varieties that are not afraid of ocean winds. Siberia and the Far East are regions where conditions for the growth of culture are harsh.
Skeletal branches, cambium and buds freeze on trees, which creates many problems with care. Suitable varieties of cherries for these regions are: Rechitsa, Tyutchevka, Bryanskaya rozovaya and Revna. The listed species have increased winter hardiness of flower buds.
In Ukraine, it is possible to grow thermophilic varieties of sweet cherries. Over the past few years, breeders have discovered new varieties of trees with high adaptability, which bear fruits weighing up to 14 g. Popular types of cherries include: Donchanka, Yaroslavna, Donetsk coal, Priusadebnaya, Tenderness.
When choosing a cherry variety for planting in Belarus, you need to take into account the zoning zones. For example, the varieties Gastsinets, Iput, Syubarovskaya and Narodnaya can be grown in any region. Cherry variety Krasavitsa is suitable only for Grodno and Brest regions. Winter-hardy types of cherries for Belarus are: Vityaz, Medunitsa, Fatezh, Ovstuzhenka.
We will find out what strengths and weaknesses this fruit variety has.
The main disadvantage of the variety is its low transportability, keeping quality and an extremely short fresh storage period because of this.
The berries crack very quickly, so harvesting is fraught with some difficulties. Fruits can burst due to mechanical damage, temperature changes, active sunlight, as well as in some other cases.
Perhaps you will also be interested in learning about the Iput cherry variety, and for this it is worth reading the description.
To obtain a consistently large harvest, the gardener must know the characteristics of the Bull's Heart cherry variety, the subtleties of carrying out agrotechnical work to care for the crop.
Young trees are watered more often - monthly in the amount of 20-30 liters, adults as needed, depending on the frequency of rain. On average - 3-5 times per season. The need for moisture increases in the heat of the summer. Excessive watering leads to cracking of the peel of the berries, rotting of the roots.
The next day after the soil is moistened, loosening is carried out to a depth of 5–10 cm, opening up oxygen access to the roots.
Young sweet cherries of the Bull Heart variety are enough for three buckets of water, a tall culture needs up to 10 buckets, depending on the size.
The most abundant watering is in the fall before wintering. If the earth is moistened to a depth of up to a meter, the frost resistance of fruit trees will increase, the soil will freeze less.
Watering is desirable with warm, settled water, and not cold water from a hose.
When feeding, moderation is observed, since the Bull Heart cherry variety is not picky about fertilizers, in contrast to moisture.
Organic matter is enough for the first 3 years after planting, if the pit was prepared according to the rules. Foliar fertilizers are applied using a sprayer, starting from the second year, in the evening or in cloudy weather.
After the introduction of dry compositions or solutions by the root method into the periosteal circle, the sweet cherry is watered.
Fertilizers are used from spring to mid-summer.
Before bud break, Bordeaux liquid is used, before budding - urea (30 g per 10 l), ammonium nitrate (20 g per 1 sq. M.). Cherries over four years old are required during flowering a bucket of infusion made from 1 kg of mullein, 1 tbsp. ash and 10 liters of water.
After harvesting, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied under the tree. Add 3 tbsp to a bucket of water. l. superphosphate or 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate.
It is recommended to prune the branches of the sweet cherry Bull heart for the formation of the crown the first three years after planting. Later, pruning is needed twice a year in order to get rid of rotten, diseased shoots, and the growth of new branches.
For stable fruiting, up to nine branches in the lower tier of the crown are enough, three shoots in the upper tier.
The procedure for pruning skeletal branches begins in the spring after the end of the frost, with the beginning of the movement of juices. During this period, the wounds heal faster, the crown is clearly visible. When the cherry blossoms, remove the upper parts of the young shoots if their rapid growth interferes with the correct formation of the crown.
After harvesting the fruits, a second summer pruning is carried out. They get rid of unnecessary branches, shorten the regrown shoots by 10 cm.
Autumn sanitary pruning is carried out no later than September. Otherwise, before the onset of cold weather, the sweet cherry Bull heart will not have time to recover, and the wounds will heal.
In the first year, it is recommended to shorten the central trunk at a height of 50–70 cm, counting at least six buds from the bottom. The stem is formed exclusively in the spring.
In the second year, branches of the lower tier of the crown are formed, at the same time the trunk is cut, leaving 3 buds for the growth of lateral branches.
In the third year, the upper tier is formed and the trunk is shortened. Excess growth is removed.
A variety of medium ripening. Flowering takes place in mid-May, and fruiting in the second half of June. The variety is partially self-fertile. The trees are medium-sized, the crown is compressed, pyramidal, of medium density and medium leafiness. Shoots are straight, light brown in color. The kidneys are ovoid. The leaves are large, dark green. Fruit ovaries are formed mainly on bouquet branches.
Fruit cherries Bull heart of large size (average weight of a berry - 8 g, the largest specimens reach 11 g), flattened, flat-round shape, outwardly similar to a heart. The skin is smooth, very dense, in ripe berries it is painted in a rich dark red (almost black) color. The stone is separated from the pulp medium. The peduncle is of medium length. Separation of the berry from the stalk dry
Pulp dark red in color, dense consistency, very juicy, the taste is very pleasant and varies from sweet with a slight tinge of acid to very sweet. The juice is dark red. The tasting assessment of the taste of the variety is the highest - 5 points. The use of berries is universal. It is noted that after boiling, compotes and preserves acquire a very beautiful rich dark red color.
Winter hardiness the varieties are quite high, in comparison with most varieties of cherries: in winter, at temperatures slightly below minus 29 ° C, trees are not damaged. Resistance to fungal diseases is high. Almost complete immunity to coccomycosis is observed.
A cherry tree can live in one place for up to hundreds of years (with good care, of course). So - plant it boldly. A delicious and unusually healing berry will delight both your children and grandchildren))