It is important for every gardener to know the symptoms of diseases of the stored crop of plants, be it cabbage,root vegetables carrots
, bulbsgarlic or onion
, fruits of apples or tomatoes. Thus, he will find out what diseases prevail in his area, and for the next growing season he will be able to prepare to meet them "fully armed" and achieve a decrease in the prevalence of diseases.
A rare gardener does not plant cabbage on his plot, since it is rightfully one of the most beloved vegetables.The value of cabbage
in that it contains the most important mineral nutrients for the human and animal organism.
It is also known that in the heads of cabbage, its most commonly used form, there is a significant amount of water, cabbage also has a high sugar content, there are easily digestible proteins and nitrogenous substances. For this reason, stored cabbage is a favorable breeding ground for the successful development of pathogenic and saprophytic microflora.
During a long period of its cultivation, a long-term process of selection work, cabbage, like any agricultural plant, has lost some of the mechanisms of natural resistance and acquired many pathogenic pathogens as enemies. In order to keep the harvest of this crop fresh in the winter as long as possible, breeders have developed a wide variety of cabbage varieties. Such, for example, varieties as Turkins, Amager 611 and Glory 1305are specially designed for 3-5 month content.
The duration of storage of cabbage heads imposes its own characteristics on its relationship with disease pathogens, which cannot be ignored. Let us dwell on the description of the signs of some of the most harmful and visually recognizable diseases of this culture.
The most common mycosis (fungal disease) stored cabbage is consideredgray rot
(botrytis). The causative agent of the disease, a polyphagous microorganism, is capable of affecting the harvest of many agricultural plants (apple trees, strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, carrots, eggplants and other vegetable crops). Fungal infection in the form of mycelium in excess volume is found in the field on plant residues from agricultural crops of previous years.
The disease begins its development with mechanical damage caused to heads of cabbage by pests, tools of labor during harvesting, transportation and bulkheads. It manifests itself on heads of cabbage by the end of the growing season and during storage in the form mucus (wet rot of a non-bacterial nature) of the surface layers of leaves, which, in whole or in separate areas, are covered with a fluffy bloom of gray. In the future, small sclerotia (often along the veins) up to 6-7 mm in size, when cut they are brown in color.
Sclerotia can be a perennial source of infection both in the field and in storage. The infection often settles on frozen or physiologically weakened tissues, especially on cracked heads of cabbage. Infection is facilitated by the absence of green integumentary leaves. The disease is characterized by a very high harmfulness, since during storage it spreads from an infected head of cabbage to healthy ones not only during their contact, but also through the air, by spores.
White rot (sclerotinosis) is also capable of infecting a large number of cruciferous species and other agricultural plants. The disease manifests itself on the outer leaves of the heads of cabbage closer to the end of the growing season (especially when rainy weather occurs during the harvesting period). Rotting, the leaves become licky, a cotton-like mycelium of white color appears between them. If the external signs of mycosis are not noticeable at the time of harvesting, then in the storage conditions the disease is actively manifested, and the heads of cabbage rot in a matter of weeks, turning into a serious source of infection for healthy plant material. Unlike gray rot, flat black sclerotia in white rot quickly grow to 2-3 cm.
Mucous bacteriosis (wet rot) cabbage is noted by the end of the growing season in the form of slicking of the surface leaves (or even a whole head of cabbage) and rotting of the core of the stump. In its cross section, the tissue there is of a soft consistency, decomposed, with a characteristic unpleasant odor, i.e. already with typical signs of this bacteriosis. The pathogen is capable of attacking plant tissues that are weakened or frostbitten, mechanically injured (by tools and pests), overripe and cracked, affected by other diseases, and also penetrate through the root system into stumps. When a diseased head of cabbage decomposes, a large amount of liquid is formed, which is a distributor of bacterial infection.
This bacteriosis is very harmful during storage, especially if its infectious process is accompanied by the development of fungal pathogens. It should be added that this pathogen is also capable of infecting mechanically damaged root crops of potatoes, carrots, beets and other vegetables in contact with rotting heads of cabbage.
Vascular bacteriosis are also noted in the field, but much less often than the previous bacteriosis, since its pathogen loves dry hot weather. Its characteristic feature is chlorotic coloration and darkening of leaf veins. The pathogen affects the vascular bundles of the leaves of the head of cabbage. With a transverse or longitudinal section through the central vein or leaf petiole, black dots or stripes of the affected vessels are clearly visible. The defeat of the stump is manifested in the form of blackening of the vascular ring. Warm autumn with frequent rains contributes to the active development of this disease.
In dry and cold autumn weather, infected heads of cabbage can be stored from latent bacterial infection... Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to visually distinguish the signs of this disease from similar symptoms in cabbage grown with an excess of nitrogen fertilizers (physiological disorder).
Control measures with the spread of these infectious diseases during storage of cabbage are approximately the same. Before laying heads of cabbage for the autumn-winter maintenance, the storage room is carefully cleaned and disinfected with disinfectants. When harvesting, transporting and sorting, make sure that the heads of cabbage are injured as little as possible.
The cabbage is delivered to the storage location with the covering leaves. They are removed only during the laying of the heads of cabbage. Varieties of different maturity are kept separately from each other. To curb the development of infectious diseases of cabbage in winter, it is imperative to observe the optimal temperature. For storage of most varieties of food cabbage, it is 0 ...- 1 ° C with a humidity of 90-95%. When the temperature rises, the decay process accelerates and the infection spreads in the mass of heads of cabbage. The higher the temperature above the specified optimal level, the more activity of the causative agents of these diseases.
When rot appears in the mass of cabbage, it is necessary to select diseased heads of cabbage, clean them and, if possible, first of all, sell them. If it is planned to get cabbage seeds in the second year of cultivation, then in this case stumps (testicles) are placed in the storage only from healthy heads of cabbage.
In addition to infectious diseases, during storage of cabbage, they also note non-infectious (physiological or non-parasitic), which are mainly associated with unfavorable weather conditions and with unbalanced fertilization during the growing season of cabbage plants.
Layering of cabbage cause unfavorable weather conditions that develop for young plants during the first half of a hot dry summer. During the setting of heads of cabbage, some young leaves turn brown at the edges, but continue to grow. As a result, dry layers are formed inside the heads of cabbage due to such leaves. If the storage conditions of diseased heads of cabbage are respected, the layering does not seriously affect the preservation of such cabbage. However, with the weakening of physiological processes, the tissues of diseased leaves are primarily exposed to pathogenic and saprophytic bacterial and fungal microflora.
Mistiness of heads of cabbage manifests itself in the form of dying off and decay of inner leaves, which is associated with prolonged storage of plant material at low temperatures -2 ...- 3 ° C. This is due to the fact that frozen leaves and ice layers between them prevent the flow of oxygen to the central part of the heads of cabbage and the respiration process. With a denser structure, heads of cabbage (varieties Present, Amager 611) form more such interlayers than with looser ones.
A. Lazarev, candidate of biological sciences
The storage technology for cabbage is quite simple, but it is quite difficult to fulfill the necessary criteria at home, which often leads to loss of yield. Perhaps a few secrets from experienced summer residents and gardeners will help to save and preserve the harvest of white cabbage until spring:
You need to think about storing white cabbage even before planting. First, decide on the varieties according to the ripening period: Rannually, mid-maturing, mid-late or late ripening. We have already talked about how to choose them correctly.
Of the medium-late varieties of white cabbage, the following are especially good:
Not so popular, but no less interesting mid-late varieties: Rusinovka, Slava 1305, Harvest, Stolichnaya, Belorusskaya 455, Final, Braunschweig, Dauzrweiss. Noteworthy and hybrids: Megaton, Creumont F1, Hermes, Menza, Kolobok F1, Rinda, Hannibal and others.
Among the late varieties, the most in demand are:
Loved by summer residents and other late ripening varieties (Turquoise plus, Biryuchekutskaya 138, Langedeiker, Kamenka, Morozko, Snow White, Moscow late, Sugarloaf) and hybrids (Bartolo, Kolobok F1, Atria, Aros, Extra).
In addition to fungal diseases, cabbage can be affected by diseases of a different nature: viral or bacterial
Causative agent: the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. The bacterium can infect plantings at any stage of development. From seedlings to storage in the cellar. During this period, a friend and relative of Xanthomonas often appears - mucous bacteriosis. It threatens to lose up to 50% of the crop.
The sore affects the entire cabbage family, and weeds too (shepherd's purse, common rape), which are subsequently a breeding ground for infection. Favorable conditions - warm days, cool nights.
How does the disease manifest itself?
Vascular bacteriosis on cabbage
How to deal with vascular bacteriosis?
There are many varieties of hybrids F1disease resistant:
Vascular bacteriosis on cabbage
The causative agents of mucous bacteriosis are bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones) Waldee. The disease affects many types of garden and weed plants. Distributed throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
The first signs appear during the period of maturation of the heads of cabbage. Seedlings suffer less often. White cabbage and cauliflower are primarily affected.
Oily spots appear on the affected surface, a characteristic putrid odor. Cauliflower also has problems - rot spots appear on the inflorescences. Gradually, the entire head turns into a rotting mass. Rot can creep out of the soil along the stump, which becomes soft. Cabbage rots on the vine. Often joins in and promotes the development of rot, neighbor and brother - vascular bacteriosis... In storage, these vegetables completely rot.
Slimy bacteriosis on cabbage heads
Contribute to the development of the disease:
Plant protection and crop protection methods:
The disease begins with the Cauliflower mosaic caulivirus, which is brought by various sap-sucking insects (aphids, herbivorous mites). Infected seeds, cruciferous weeds, mechanical damage to the surface of plants also contribute to the defeat of the virus.
From mosaics suffer all types of cabbage: white cabbage, kohlrabi, savoy, colored, leaf. And also cruciferous relatives: turnip, rutabaga, horseradish.
Usually, signs of the disease appear 20-30 days after transplanting. If a fever sets in, the vital activity of the virus temporarily stops.
The methods of fighting the virus are rather preventive:
Another fungal disease that spreads very quickly to healthy cabbage heads.
It is not difficult to calculate it: mucus appears on the leaves, they begin to rot rather quickly, a white mycelium with black sclerotia (from 0.1 to 3 cm) appears between them. An infected head of cabbage is a threat to healthy ones.
White rot spreads especially quickly at elevated temperatures and humidity.
How to deal with white cabbage rot?
Cabbage diseases and pests can destroy a large number of crops. Usually, cabbage diseases are difficult to treat. Or they are not treated at all. But, there is one most effective measure, and that is preventive measures. Which are done in advance, as a result, we get healthy plants without diseases. Thus, prevention plays a key role in cabbage cultivation.
On a note!
Further, in the article, in addition to folk remedies, preparations (fungicides) that are needed to combat various plant diseases will be mentioned. And yet, I would like to remind you that biopreparations are currently especially popular. By the way, you can read more about fungicides in this article.
How to preserve the harvest of vegetables? We have grown a good harvest of vegetables. But the harvest is so large that it cannot be quickly eaten, processed, or sold on the market. A natural question arises - how to preserve the harvest of vegetables.
After all, it can be so offensive when you have to throw away your own labor in the form of spoiled vegetables. Below we will talk about how to reduce losses from storage of vegetable products that a summer cottage gives, and what storage methods are most popular among our gardeners.
The most basic and important rule is not to damage vegetables when harvesting, otherwise they will quickly deteriorate during storage.
Peppers and tomatoes
Green and intact tomato fruits are laid in boxes in one or two layers. The vegetables in the boxes are stored in a cold room. During the entire storage period, ripe fruits are regularly examined and selected. Tomatoes can be stored for about a month. Pepper is also stored. Healthy pepper pods are laid out in boxes in 1-2 layers. Pepper fruits can be wrapped in paper. Fruits subject to spoilage are removed. The shelf life of these vegetables is 1.5 months.
It is kept in complete darkness. When storing potato varieties, it is better not to mix. It is better to store tubers in trellis made of wood or plastic. Potatoes are poured in a layer of 1 m, and the boxes are placed one on top of the other with a total height of about two meters. The optimum storage temperature is plus 2 degrees.
Beetroot, turnip, radish
These root vegetables are usually stored in bulk bins or in wooden boxes. Storing these root vegetables in the sand can increase and improve their preservation.
The bulbs are taken healthy, clean. No mechanical damage. The stems are cut at a distance of 3-4 cm from the bulb, dried and placed in boxes, which are stored in a dry, cold room. Onions are well kept in woven wreaths. The storage temperature of onions is about 0 degrees.
Select heads of cabbage intact. With good air exchange, cabbage is well stored in boxes in basements, on shelves in racks, and also in a suspended state. Indoors, the storage temperature of cabbage is from -1 to +1 degrees.
Pumpkins and zucchini
The fruits are stored in a well-ventilated room at a temperature of plus 3 degrees. They are placed on racks in one row with the stalks upward, and at the same time they should not touch each other. It is permissible to store a small amount of fruits at home, placing them on the floor and protecting them from direct sunlight.
The fruits are placed in wet sand and stored in boxes of 20-30 kilograms. You can dip the carrots in clay diluted to medium density, hold for a few minutes, remove, dry and put in boxes or baskets.
Carrots can be stored until spring by leaving them directly in the beds. In late autumn, the tops of the carrots in the beds are cut off, the bed is covered with fallen leaves or a thick layer of straw, and covered with a film from above from moisture.
Garlic bulbs are checked for safety and disease, dried well. Then they are woven into wreaths and again dried under a canopy. Then they are placed on top of each other on wooden shelves or hung.
Celery, dill, parsley are dried in the oven on baking sheets and kept dry. Also, parsley and dill can be sprinkled with salt and stored in a glass dish. Salt is taken in the amount of 20% of the weight of the greens.
It follows from the above that the answer to the question: “How to preserve the harvest of vegetables? " - the main thing is to comply with storage conditions, and then yield losses will be minimal.
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