No one is immune from the appearance of pests or diseases on fruit trees. therefore it is important to know preventive measures and how to deal with various ailments... In this article, we will talk about the causes of the appearance of wormy apples and how to deal with this disease.
It often happens that an apple tree gives a good harvest, but among tens of kilograms, a healthy fruit is rarely found. Why? Most of them show wormholes. Such a sign indicates the appearance of pests, the most dangerous of which is the codling moth, which leaves behind such unpleasant traces.
The apple moth is a butterfly, no more than 20 millimeters long, the main danger is the caterpillars of such insects... Butterfly years begin in mid-June and lasts a little over a month. During this period, they lay green eggs on the leaves and fruits of the tree, securely attaching them to the support.
During the season, one moth damages up to 5 apples, and if the fruit falls, then the insect returns to the tree.
The worm gets inside the apple through the petiole fossa or mechanical damage on the peel.
There are many ways to deal with apple worms. Many products are used as prophylaxis and to combat insects that have already appeared.
For the best effectiveness in the fight against apple worminess or for prevention, it is better to use several methods at the same time. This approach will help protect the tree from pest infestation.
Black cancer - one of the most dangerous diseases of fungal plants, because if you find it at a late stage, then it is almost impossible to save the tree. Most often, symptoms appear on the trunk of a tree and on its skeletal branches, but there are cases when black cancer appears on leaves, flowers, fruits. There are the following signs to detect the disease:
The disease gradually spreads throughout the tree, and within 3-4 years it will die.
Pycnidia (fungal formations) are arranged in concentric circles.
The most dangerous period is considered the season that came after abundant fruiting, when the apple trees are strong.
The apple variety must be climatically adapted to the region so that the temperature and humidity level do not bring discomfort to the trees.
Healthy parts of trees can be used as compost or mulch, but diseased ones are immediately burned.
If obvious signs of a disease are found, the affected apple trees must be uprooted and burned in order to avoid contamination of healthy trees.
Most often it happens that the affected trees can no longer be restored and they have to be removed, but there is a way through which you can try to cure the apple tree.
It will be effective to carry out this operation if a small spot is found on the bark of a tree. The diseased area is carefully scraped off with a garden knife., in this case, 1-2 centimeters of healthy tissue is captured, then this place is treated with 3 percent copper sulfate or 5 percent iron sulfate. When the resulting wound dries up, it must be covered with garden varnish in order to avoid the appearance of new fungi in it.
Affected branches, fruits and leaves are removed immediately after detectionotherwise the disease will spread to healthy parts.
One of the most significant damage to the garden can be the codling moth or black crayfish. Both of these ailments will significantly reduce the amount of harvest or even lead to the death of the tree. The main measure for the treatment and prevention of lesions will be the removal of the infected areas. and their immediate destruction.
If you properly care for the apple tree and follow all the recommendations, then the appearance of pests and diseases can be avoided.
The drying up of your favorite apple tree in the garden is truly a sad phenomenon. Whether only the leaves are drying up or the branches, albeit small for now, are all alarming signals that cannot be ignored.
But before you take action it is important to figure out what is the reason such negative manifestations.
A dangerous disease is not easy to recognize at the initial stage, when treatment is still possible. In the spring, immediately after the snow melts, carefully examine the apple orchard in search of black crayfish:
The disease can cause complete loss of leaves in the middle of summer. This leaf fall multiplies the probability for a tree to die when cold weather sets in, without waiting for the black cancer to completely destroy it.
More often, infection with an infection occurs in early spring, when the air warms up to positive temperatures.
Fungal spores begin to actively spread at an ambient temperature of 22 ° C and above. The average germination time under favorable conditions is 6 hours.
More often, black cancer appears in an old apple tree. But there are also completely different reasons:
Favorable factors for maintaining the normal life of the fungus are mosses and lichens that have settled on apple trunks, maintaining a warm and humid microclimate, and an excess of nutrients in the soil, creating a comfortable environment for the development of fungal conidia.
Modern means and techniques, which are used in combination, help to fight the disease and completely cure it.
If you notice signs of a disease on your apple tree, immediately start treatment.
To prevent the appearance of diseases, you need to whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches of the apple tree
Three types of cancer are dangerous for the apple tree - ordinary or European, bacterial root and black. The fungus affects all parts of the plant indiscriminately.
Before treating an apple tree for black cancer, you need to remove the bark and branches affected by the fungus, and lubricate the wounds. To do this, use drying oil or oil paint based on it, garden var, pharmacy brilliant green.
After stripping the affected fragments, the intact part of the tree is treated:
As a folk remedy, the tree is treated after stripping with putty from a mixture of clay and mullein (1: 1) and in the fall, the trunks and main branches around them are covered with a mixture consisting of the following components:
Treatment of black cancer on the trunk of an apple tree, after stripping the affected fragments, provides for the treatment of wounds with modern preparations:
BlagoGad - putty on natural fat
Robin Green - Biomask with Silver
If the disease develops, unusual symptoms may appear on different parts of the apple tree. The tree begins to wilt and shed its leaves.
What to do if a problem is found? You should immediately start looking for an effective way to fight. There are a number of steps to take to deal with cancer.
It will be possible to completely cure the apple tree from cancer in a few years. The timing largely depends on the stage of the disease and the degree of spread.
Apple tree cancer is a disease of the trunk and branches (rarely - flowers, leaves, fruits and roots). It is accompanied by the appearance of deep ulcers and darkening, decay of the bark and wood. Cancer is caused by various types of fungi or bacteria. It develops with mechanical damage to the bark and the formation of wounds on the trunk. Cancer can be triggered by sudden changes in temperature, cool or rainy weather.
The spores of parasitic fungi often penetrate into the wounds, which is why the sores do not overgrow. Branches are covered with brown spots or black bloom. The tree bark dies off and falls off. Cancer tumors (sagging) or deep cracks appear at the site of the wounds. Infected branches dry up and break, after 2-3 years the fungus can destroy the entire tree.
Old apple trees are more likely to get cancer than young seedlings. Fungal spores penetrate into cracks in the bark, into wounds after pruning. The tree can become infected through frostbites and sunburn of the bark. Most often, weakened apple trees suffer from cancer, which lack nutrients for normal development. Insect pests can also bring fungal spores into the wounds.
The disease can be identified visually. The diseased tree is covered with brownish spots. Subsequently, the bark at the site of the lesion turns black, swells, and then disappears. The wood darkens and rots. Deep cracks are visible on the trunk and branches.
Black apple cancer is a fungal disease. A distinctive feature of this type of fungus is that it grows equally well on both live and dead trunks. The infection can affect any fruit tree in the garden, but especially often it destroys the planting of apple trees.
Symptoms of the onset of the disease are difficult to recognize. Only when the disease has already developed and affected all the tissues of the apple tree, it is easy to determine:
They grow and tighten the entire leaf with a gray bloom, which makes it quickly dry out.
According to some characteristics, black cancer can be confused with ordinary cancer, cytosporosis, moniliosis. But only this disease stains all damaged structures of the tree in a deep black color.
The disease becomes more active at the end of summer, when the fruits begin to ripen. At first, small specks of brown color appear on them, which grow relatively quickly and cover the entire apple. It becomes soft and inedible.
Among all diseases of the apple tree and methods of combating them, fruit rot is considered the most problematic. It is practically impossible to identify it at the initial stage, it manifests itself already during the fruiting period and rapidly covers the entire crop. It is impossible to fight the disease at the active stage of development, but preventive measures are effective - spraying the tree with "Hom" or the like. It is diluted in proportions of 40 g per bucket of water and sprayed in the spring when young leaves appear. The second time to carry out this procedure is necessary after the apple tree has faded. It is necessary to spray at the rate of 5-6 liters per adult tree and 2 liters per young one.
For preventive treatments of apple trees, fungicides, insecticides and folk remedies are used.
|Processing time||A drug||Against whom the action is directed||Dosage||Treatment intervals|
|Early spring||DNOC||All known fungal diseases and pests||50 grams per 10 liters||Once every three years|
|Nitrafen||Concentration 3%||In other years|
|Copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid||Fungal diseases||Annually|
|Before flowering||Decis, Fufanon, Commander||Insect pests||According to instructions|
|After flowering||Spark, Spark Bio||Annually during the season at intervals of 2-3 weeks|
|Horus, Skor, Abiga Peak||Fungal diseases|
|Late fall||Copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid||Concentration 3%||Annually|
The word "cancer" in the name of the apple tree disease scares gardeners. Therefore, the question of whether this fungal infection can be contagious to humans arises quite often.
Apple cancer is so named because by infecting a tree, the fungus affects the genetics of the plant, causes active cell division and tissue death.
Otherwise, the nature of plant and human cancers is different. A person cannot get sick with plant cancer.
Eating apples from infected trees will not do any harm. If the fruit is clean, not rotten.
Advice. Rotten apples should not be eaten. They can cause poisoning in humans and animals.
Drying of leaves and branches of an apple tree is a very common problem among owners of a summer cottage.
And before looking for a solution to this problem, you should know all the nuances and features of your climatic zone.
Based on this, it is already necessary to select a plant variety.
Planting an apple tree will also differ in terms of the type of climate.
Although the apple tree is a rather unpretentious and resistant plant, in especially cold regions, it is recommended to plant semi-cultivated varieties.
For cold climates, the ideal option would be the “Ranetka” variety.
Planting time for apple trees is spring and autumn. Some gardeners plant an apple tree in the summer, but this is rather an exception to the rule. Summer planting has many disadvantages, before the autumn and even more so the spring planting.
When to plant an apple tree?
Spring planting, apple trees generally tolerate better. Planting in the spring gives you the best chance for a large garden. In addition, closer to winter, your trees will already be formed and strong, which will allow them to safely survive the winter cold. But the autumn planting is useful in that the tree, if it takes root, will be stronger and more stable.
There are several ways to plant apple trees. Let's consider the most popular one.
1. Planting pit, prepared at least a week in advance. Depth, the hole should be at least - 60 cm, diameter, about the same. The ground from the upper layer should be placed separately from the lower one and not mixed.
2. A peg is driven into the bottom of the pit to support the seedling. Consider its length, the peg should rise 35 cm above the ground.
3. Next, you need to fill the pit with compost, fertilizer or manure of your choice.
4. After a week, you can plant an apple tree. Remember to tie it to a peg.
There can be many reasons for drying. But first, eliminate the simplest options. Make sure that the planting of the apple tree has been done - correctly. Also, the reason that the apple tree has dried up may be other large plants that grow too close to the root system of the apple tree. These plants can take up a large amount of moisture and spoil the roots of the apple tree, which leads to its drying out and diseases. Therefore, the solution to the problem may be getting rid of closely growing plants or replanting the apple tree to a new place.
Also, the cause of the shrunken tree may be high-standing groundwater. Oddly enough at first glance, but precisely because of the abundance of water in the soil, the apple tree begins to dry out. This happens because excess water begins to displace air from the soil, so necessary for the root system. Therefore, the apple tree begins to "suffocate" and may soon die. The solution is to transplant an apple tree, loosen the soil or replace the soil for the root system. In addition, for greater efficiency, special drainage ditches can be dug, which will divert excess groundwater from the roots.
But the most important thing is that the soil must “breathe”. Therefore, it is not allowed to find layers of sand, heavy clay, crushed stone and gravel in the planting zone. Young apple trees will probably be able to survive this, because their roots are high and have not yet sprouted deep enough, and there is always a lot of air in the upper layers of the soil. But for mature trees, this is extremely harmful, because their root system goes deep into the depths. And the older the tree, the more chances the apple tree will dry up.
Even on loose and level soil, there can be “surprises” in the form of clayey layers.
The planting site may be disadvantageous, due to the depressions in which rainwater will drain and moisture accumulate, thereby, again displacing oxygen from the soil. So, apple trees standing on the same soil may differ, due to the deep landscapes. Therefore, it is important, before planting, to study the place and make sure it is safe for the tree, this will save you time and effort.
If everything is in order with the place and method of planting, then the reason why the leaves of the apple tree have dried up may be weather and climatic conditions. This is especially noticeable in the southern hot regions, where the temperature can easily reach +40 degrees. The scorching rays of the sun will dry out the leaves, evaporating moisture from them. The sun's rays practically do not affect the branches of an apple tree in this way.
Too dry air, even in not too hot weather, can also contribute to this phenomenon. Although apple trees are unpretentious and highly resistant to dryness, nevertheless, the minimum level of humidity must be maintained both in the air, so that the leaves of the apple tree do not dry out, and in the soil itself, for the root system. Exit: regular spraying and sprinkling.
Drying of branches is a more serious problem than just shriveled leaves. Here, most likely, the matter is in the disease. One of the most common options is cytosporosis. The bark of the tree, at the same time, dries up in certain areas, the branches of the apple tree dry, in some places dark tubercles and dry growths appear. Cytosporosis is quite difficult to detect on young plants, on the bark and branches that have not yet formed.
The problem can be solved only by removing the affected areas of the tree. So you can protect the tree from further infection. If the infection penetrates too far into the tree, then it can no longer be saved.
Most often, drying out of a tree causes disease-causing infections and various small pests. Let's take a look at the most common diseases and how to treat them.
1 black cancer
... A very serious illness that requires immediate attention. You can recognize it by such signs as: black spots on the foliage, the branches of the apple tree dry, black ulcers and rot on the bark appear. There is only one way out - so that the apple tree does not dry out completely, you need to cut off the infected branches and remove the ulcerative areas, this is the only way to save the tree.
... This infection damages the leaves, slows down the growth of fruits and spoils them. It is easy to recognize it - these are brown spots on the foliage, which subsequently dry out the leaf.
The solution is the treatment of foliage with "Topaz" or "Hom".
3. Powdery mildew
... A fairly common disease that infects tree buds, bark, shoots and foliage. Powdery mildew signs: White, gray and brown bloom on the leaves and buds, sometimes dark spots appear, there are no fruits, the tree dries up. After establishing this diagnosis, treatment consists of treatment with special solutions. For these purposes, "Skor" or "Topaz" is perfect.
With pests, everything is also not easy.
1. Aphids and ants
... If ants have settled in your garden, then there will be aphids. Therefore, you need to destroy the first. For this, there are special poisons and ant traps. Aphids are destroyed with special solutions.
... There are a huge number of types. It is easy to fight - the cobweb on the branches is destroyed, preferably by fire, and then, the apple tree is treated with a solution of karbofos.
3. Mite, leafworm, moth
... The cobweb on the leaves and branches can tell you about the presence of ticks, the other two “comrades” are more difficult to recognize if you do not see small caterpillars. To destroy these pests, spraying with a solution of nitrophene, chlorophos or karbofos is suitable. Larvae and eggs, if found, are destroyed by fire.
If you cannot establish the reason why the leaves of the apple tree have dried up or the branches of the apple tree are drying up, then we advise you to contact experienced gardeners and ask questions on gardening forums by posting photos of your problem.
Do not sit back when the apple tree dries up, be sure to find the reason!