How to deal with worms and black cancer in apple trees?

No one is immune from the appearance of pests or diseases on fruit trees. therefore it is important to know preventive measures and how to deal with various ailments... In this article, we will talk about the causes of the appearance of wormy apples and how to deal with this disease.

Why do wormy apples appear, what should I do?

It often happens that an apple tree gives a good harvest, but among tens of kilograms, a healthy fruit is rarely found. Why? Most of them show wormholes. Such a sign indicates the appearance of pests, the most dangerous of which is the codling moth, which leaves behind such unpleasant traces.

The apple moth is a butterfly, no more than 20 millimeters long, the main danger is the caterpillars of such insects... Butterfly years begin in mid-June and lasts a little over a month. During this period, they lay green eggs on the leaves and fruits of the tree, securely attaching them to the support.

During the season, one moth damages up to 5 apples, and if the fruit falls, then the insect returns to the tree.

The worm gets inside the apple through the petiole fossa or mechanical damage on the peel.

How to get rid of worms in apples, how to treat a tree?

There are many ways to deal with apple worms. Many products are used as prophylaxis and to combat insects that have already appeared.

  1. Chemicals - organophosphates have proven themselves in the best way. An effective time to use is the period when the caterpillars emerge from the eggs. It is important to respect the proportions, usually all measurements are indicated on the labels, otherwise the tree will be damaged. Examples of such funds are Calypso, Tod, Zolon, Atom, Binom, Coragen. There are the following precautions:
  • This method of struggle is not suitable for the flowering and fruiting times of trees.
  • If several treatments are planned in one season, they are carried out with the help of various drugs.
  • We must not forget that the work takes place with poisonous substances, therefore gloves, a respirator and other personal protective equipment must be used.
  1. Biological agents - in addition to chemicals, there are often recommendations for the use of organic substances. There are several types of such processing agents:
  • Fitoverm is the most popular among experienced gardeners, it can be used at any time and it will not harm people and the crop.
  • Lepidocide - effective during periods of mass filling of apple trees with caterpillars.
  • Bitoxibacillin - use is permitted only during the growing season.
  1. Removing old bark from the trunk - very often insects overwinter in the exfoliated bark of a tree, therefore, in order to avoid their reproduction, they do these actions in the spring.
  1. Digging the ground around the apple tree also serves as an insect control method.
  2. Creation of peculiar traps on tree trunksthat will prevent the moth to return to the crown. For this, a bag is taken, about 20-30 centimeters wide and fixed with twine on the trunk, at a height of 40-50 centimeters from the ground.
  1. Late November and early April the tree must be whitewashed.
  2. All damaged apples are best removed, the same rule applies to collecting volunteers.
  3. Given the peculiarity of butterflies, which do not like to wet their paws, during the summer of insects in the evening foliage needs to be sprayed with water.

For the best effectiveness in the fight against apple worminess or for prevention, it is better to use several methods at the same time. This approach will help protect the tree from pest infestation.

What is black cancer on an apple tree, how to fight?

Black cancer - one of the most dangerous diseases of fungal plants, because if you find it at a late stage, then it is almost impossible to save the tree. Most often, symptoms appear on the trunk of a tree and on its skeletal branches, but there are cases when black cancer appears on leaves, flowers, fruits. There are the following signs to detect the disease:

  • The last and most dangerous stage will be the blackening of the wood.... First, brown-purple spots will appear on the bark, which over time will begin to crack, and then fall off altogether. If such symptoms are found, the apple tree cannot be cured.

The disease gradually spreads throughout the tree, and within 3-4 years it will die.

  • Spots on the leaves - they initially appear immediately after the leaves have opened and look like small purple specks at the top of the leaf. Over time, they grow, and the middle turns brown, then after a few weeks the bodies of the fungus begin to form.

Pycnidia (fungal formations) are arranged in concentric circles.

  • The tree begins to shed infected leaves until the fruit ripens, therefore, the yield is significantly reduced even in the first years of the manifestation of black cancer.
  • The fruit of the affected tree is first covered with brown spots., which in the future can completely turn black, as well as black dots and fungal formations appear on the leaves.
  • Affected apples remain hanging on the branches even after falling leaves... They are painted black or brown and have a rough surface.

Reasons for the appearance

  1. Old garden - the disease rarely affects young trees with good bark. Weakened apple trees give in to the development of fungal formations on them faster.
  2. Poor care - trees need to be watered abundantly and fed with various fertilizers, otherwise they will not have enough nutrients to protect themselves from the disease.

The most dangerous period is considered the season that came after abundant fruiting, when the apple trees are strong.

  1. Sunburn - occur in early spring. If the trunk is not whitened, then until the entire snow cover disappears, on days when the morning is clear and sunny and the night temperature is rather low. And during the day, the difference reaches a difference of 30 degrees, the bark of the trees is burned, which contributes to the multiplication of the fungus in the damaged part.
  1. Incorrect or untimely pruning.
  2. Apple tree pests are carriers of various diseases, including black cancer, so it is necessary to timely prevent their occurrence.

The apple variety must be climatically adapted to the region so that the temperature and humidity level do not bring discomfort to the trees.

Prevention measures

  1. Correct pruning - in order to avoid the development of fungal diseases, it is necessary to ensure good ventilation of the crown by removing unnecessary branches. Also, this procedure inhibits the aging of the tree and stimulates fruiting. It must be carried out in a timely manner so that you do not have to remove thick branches. The appearance of large wounds that take a long time to heal can also trigger the onset of the development of black cancer.
  2. Disinfection of garden tools - in order not to become a carrier of a dangerous disease, knives and secateurs are wiped with a special alcohol-containing composition after each use.
  3. To exclude the possibility of excessive moisture or, on the contrary, sunburn on a tree trunk, it it is necessary to whitewash in early spring (April) and late autumn (November).
  1. While preparing the garden for wintering all remaining leaves and fruits are removedthat can become sources of infection.

Healthy parts of trees can be used as compost or mulch, but diseased ones are immediately burned.

  1. After falling leaves trees need to be treated with fugnicides... They are applied to the trunk and branches of the apple tree, as well as to the trunk circles. The drug Hom, Brodsky liquid or copper sulfate have proven themselves best.
  2. Regular application of complex fertilizers makes the bark more firm and mature.

If obvious signs of a disease are found, the affected apple trees must be uprooted and burned in order to avoid contamination of healthy trees.

Fighting Black Cancer

Most often it happens that the affected trees can no longer be restored and they have to be removed, but there is a way through which you can try to cure the apple tree.

It will be effective to carry out this operation if a small spot is found on the bark of a tree. The diseased area is carefully scraped off with a garden knife., in this case, 1-2 centimeters of healthy tissue is captured, then this place is treated with 3 percent copper sulfate or 5 percent iron sulfate. When the resulting wound dries up, it must be covered with garden varnish in order to avoid the appearance of new fungi in it.

Affected branches, fruits and leaves are removed immediately after detectionotherwise the disease will spread to healthy parts.

One of the most significant damage to the garden can be the codling moth or black crayfish. Both of these ailments will significantly reduce the amount of harvest or even lead to the death of the tree. The main measure for the treatment and prevention of lesions will be the removal of the infected areas. and their immediate destruction.

If you properly care for the apple tree and follow all the recommendations, then the appearance of pests and diseases can be avoided.

Analysis of the reasons why the apple tree has dried up. Expert opinion

The drying up of your favorite apple tree in the garden is truly a sad phenomenon. Whether only the leaves are drying up or the branches, albeit small for now, are all alarming signals that cannot be ignored.

But before you take action it is important to figure out what is the reason such negative manifestations.

Signs of the disease

A dangerous disease is not easy to recognize at the initial stage, when treatment is still possible. In the spring, immediately after the snow melts, carefully examine the apple orchard in search of black crayfish:

  1. Bark. While the buds have not yet hatched, examine the bark, paying special attention to wounds and cracks. Many gardeners use magnifying glasses to examine them for signs of fungus. If dots in circles are visible around the bark lesions, then the apple tree is infected. In later stages, the trunk and branches will be covered with black spots with a purple or brown tint. The spots grow quickly, the bark cracks, exposing the wood, which also turns black.
  2. Flowers. Brown specks are visible on the inflorescences. Then the flower loses its shape and becomes black from the inside.
  3. Fruit. The fungus does not manifest itself on apples until they are medium in size. After that, black dots appear on the fruits, which quickly increase and occupy the entire surface of the apple. A smooth, absolutely black apple is the result of black cancer.
  4. Leaves . On apple leaves, the fungus appears as red or dark brown spots. Circles affected by spores grow rapidly and soon the entire leaf is affected by cancer. It dries up and falls off.

The disease can cause complete loss of leaves in the middle of summer. This leaf fall multiplies the probability for a tree to die when cold weather sets in, without waiting for the black cancer to completely destroy it.

More often, infection with an infection occurs in early spring, when the air warms up to positive temperatures.

Fungal spores begin to actively spread at an ambient temperature of 22 ° C and above. The average germination time under favorable conditions is 6 hours.

More often, black cancer appears in an old apple tree. But there are also completely different reasons:

  • weakening of the garden culture due to concomitant bacterial, viral or other fungal infections (for example, scab, powdery mildew and others)
  • low immunity and weak regenerative function of trees due to their age
  • excessive thickening of the tree crown and poor organized circulation of air flows
  • irregular pruning of old and damaged branches
  • intoxication of the garden culture with fresh organic fertilizers applied too close to the root system by digging
  • preference for an intensive garden with a compacted planting when the recommended distance between trees is not observed
  • planting apple trees near the location of compost pits, in which organic matter is actively decomposing.

Favorable factors for maintaining the normal life of the fungus are mosses and lichens that have settled on apple trunks, maintaining a warm and humid microclimate, and an excess of nutrients in the soil, creating a comfortable environment for the development of fungal conidia.

Modern means and techniques, which are used in combination, help to fight the disease and completely cure it.

If you notice signs of a disease on your apple tree, immediately start treatment.

  1. Cut off all affected branches, remove diseased bark. Fold this over a plastic wrap to prevent fungus from entering the soil. Only heavily affected parts of the apple tree need to be completely cut off. If the branch or section of the trunk is mostly healthy, then scrape the sore spots with a sharp knife, grabbing the healthy bark by 1.5–2 cm. All cut material must be collected and burned.
  2. Rinse healthy areas of the tree. The following solutions are suitable for this procedure:
    • Bordeaux liquid. Preparation: in a container (it should not be aluminum), mix 300 g of copper sulfate and 2-3 liters of hot water, and then add another 2-3 liters of cold water (you should get 5 liters of the mixture). In another container of 2-3 liters of hot water, dilute 300 g of lime, add 2-3 liters of cold water (you should also get 5 liters of the mixture), strain. Pour the copper sulfate solution into the strained lime solution in a thin stream and mix. You should have 10 liters of Bordeaux liquid.
    • Potassium permanganate solution. To be effective, it should be a deep pink color.
    • Special preparations. In the treatment of black cancer, gardeners often use Hom, Vitaros, Horus, Fitosporin.
  3. Wash all wounds and cracks on the apple tree well with the prepared solution and cover with garden varnish, oil paint based on linseed oil or brilliant green. For cleaned wounds, a 1: 1 mixture of mullein and clay, applied over putty, is also suitable. If necessary, re-prune and grout the wood. This is usually done in the spring (in the second half of April) of the next year, until the buds have blossomed (pruning a little earlier, at the end of March). If it was not enough, then spray the apple tree again in the period after flowering and the appearance of the fruit ovary.
  4. Whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches. To do this, prepare the following composition: slaked lime (2 kg) copper sulfate (300 g) wood glue (100 g) 10 liters of water. After treating a diseased apple tree, if possible, treat other trees on your site with 1% Bordeaux liquid (it is prepared in the same way as 3%, but you need to take 100 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of lime) to avoid the spread of the fungus. This treatment must be done 3 times every 10 days.

To prevent the appearance of diseases, you need to whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches of the apple tree

Three types of cancer are dangerous for the apple tree - ordinary or European, bacterial root and black. The fungus affects all parts of the plant indiscriminately.

Before treating an apple tree for black cancer, you need to remove the bark and branches affected by the fungus, and lubricate the wounds. To do this, use drying oil or oil paint based on it, garden var, pharmacy brilliant green.

After stripping the affected fragments, the intact part of the tree is treated:

    disinfected with copper sulfate in solution or other preparations with the presence of copper

  • wash the trunk and branches with folk remedies: a strong solution of potassium permanganate, table salt with a few drops of iodine or a solution of water and washing powder
  • pollinate the leaves with a sprayer with Bordeaux liquid

  • all affected and peeled off parts of the tree, including branches and leaves, are burned.
  • As a folk remedy, the tree is treated after stripping with putty from a mixture of clay and mullein (1: 1) and in the fall, the trunks and main branches around them are covered with a mixture consisting of the following components:

    • 2 kg of slaked lime (fluff)
    • 1 l of white water-based paint
    • 300-500 g of copper sulfate
    • 5-6 cloves of minced garlic
    • 10 liters of water.

    Treatment of black cancer on the trunk of an apple tree, after stripping the affected fragments, provides for the treatment of wounds with modern preparations:

      RanNet - a pasty mass with gutamate, copper sulfate and adhesive

    BlagoGad - putty on natural fat

    Robin Green - Biomask with Silver

  • ZSP - anti-cancer garden putty with the presence of biological additives that suppress fungi and pests, eliminating cracks and burns.
  • If the disease develops, unusual symptoms may appear on different parts of the apple tree. The tree begins to wilt and shed its leaves.

    What to do if a problem is found? You should immediately start looking for an effective way to fight. There are a number of steps to take to deal with cancer.

    It will be possible to completely cure the apple tree from cancer in a few years. The timing largely depends on the stage of the disease and the degree of spread.

    Apple tree cancer is a disease of the trunk and branches (rarely - flowers, leaves, fruits and roots). It is accompanied by the appearance of deep ulcers and darkening, decay of the bark and wood. Cancer is caused by various types of fungi or bacteria. It develops with mechanical damage to the bark and the formation of wounds on the trunk. Cancer can be triggered by sudden changes in temperature, cool or rainy weather.

    The spores of parasitic fungi often penetrate into the wounds, which is why the sores do not overgrow. Branches are covered with brown spots or black bloom. The tree bark dies off and falls off. Cancer tumors (sagging) or deep cracks appear at the site of the wounds. Infected branches dry up and break, after 2-3 years the fungus can destroy the entire tree.

    Old apple trees are more likely to get cancer than young seedlings. Fungal spores penetrate into cracks in the bark, into wounds after pruning. The tree can become infected through frostbites and sunburn of the bark. Most often, weakened apple trees suffer from cancer, which lack nutrients for normal development. Insect pests can also bring fungal spores into the wounds.

    The disease can be identified visually. The diseased tree is covered with brownish spots. Subsequently, the bark at the site of the lesion turns black, swells, and then disappears. The wood darkens and rots. Deep cracks are visible on the trunk and branches.

    Black apple cancer is a fungal disease. A distinctive feature of this type of fungus is that it grows equally well on both live and dead trunks. The infection can affect any fruit tree in the garden, but especially often it destroys the planting of apple trees.

    Symptoms of the onset of the disease are difficult to recognize. Only when the disease has already developed and affected all the tissues of the apple tree, it is easy to determine:

    1. The bark becomes covered with black spots, similar to a burn, swells up and gradually falls off. At this point, the tree cracks and turns inside out.
    2. The flowers are deformed, the petals turn brown, the pistils and stamens turn black from the inside.
    3. On almost ripe fruits, black putrefactive spots appear, which quickly grow and completely cover the apple with a black bloom.
    4. Leaves wrinkle and become covered with dark brown or red spores with black dots inside.

    They grow and tighten the entire leaf with a gray bloom, which makes it quickly dry out.

    According to some characteristics, black cancer can be confused with ordinary cancer, cytosporosis, moniliosis. But only this disease stains all damaged structures of the tree in a deep black color.

    How to cure an apple tree from fruit rot (moniliosis)

    The disease becomes more active at the end of summer, when the fruits begin to ripen. At first, small specks of brown color appear on them, which grow relatively quickly and cover the entire apple. It becomes soft and inedible.

    Among all diseases of the apple tree and methods of combating them, fruit rot is considered the most problematic. It is practically impossible to identify it at the initial stage, it manifests itself already during the fruiting period and rapidly covers the entire crop. It is impossible to fight the disease at the active stage of development, but preventive measures are effective - spraying the tree with "Hom" or the like. It is diluted in proportions of 40 g per bucket of water and sprayed in the spring when young leaves appear. The second time to carry out this procedure is necessary after the apple tree has faded. It is necessary to spray at the rate of 5-6 liters per adult tree and 2 liters per young one.

    Apple tree treatment for diseases and pests

    For preventive treatments of apple trees, fungicides, insecticides and folk remedies are used.

    Table: apple treatment for diseases and pests

    Processing time A drug Against whom the action is directed Dosage Treatment intervals
    Early spring DNOC All known fungal diseases and pests 50 grams per 10 liters Once every three years
    Nitrafen Concentration 3% In other years
    Copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid Fungal diseases Annually
    Before flowering Decis, Fufanon, Commander Insect pests According to instructions
    After flowering Spark, Spark Bio Annually during the season at intervals of 2-3 weeks
    Horus, Skor, Abiga Peak Fungal diseases
    Late fall Copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid Concentration 3% Annually

    Is the disease dangerous for humans?

    The word "cancer" in the name of the apple tree disease scares gardeners. Therefore, the question of whether this fungal infection can be contagious to humans arises quite often.

    Apple cancer is so named because by infecting a tree, the fungus affects the genetics of the plant, causes active cell division and tissue death.

    Otherwise, the nature of plant and human cancers is different. A person cannot get sick with plant cancer.

    Eating apples from infected trees will not do any harm. If the fruit is clean, not rotten.

    Advice. Rotten apples should not be eaten. They can cause poisoning in humans and animals.

    The apple tree dries up - what to do, it's a shame ... Analysis of the problem, search for solutions, resuscitation of a dried apple tree: recommendations of gardeners

    Drying of leaves and branches of an apple tree is a very common problem among owners of a summer cottage.

    And before looking for a solution to this problem, you should know all the nuances and features of your climatic zone.

    Based on this, it is already necessary to select a plant variety.

    Planting an apple tree will also differ in terms of the type of climate.

    Although the apple tree is a rather unpretentious and resistant plant, in especially cold regions, it is recommended to plant semi-cultivated varieties.

    For cold climates, the ideal option would be the “Ranetka” variety.

    Planting time for apple trees is spring and autumn. Some gardeners plant an apple tree in the summer, but this is rather an exception to the rule. Summer planting has many disadvantages, before the autumn and even more so the spring planting.

    When to plant an apple tree?
    Spring planting, apple trees generally tolerate better. Planting in the spring gives you the best chance for a large garden. In addition, closer to winter, your trees will already be formed and strong, which will allow them to safely survive the winter cold. But the autumn planting is useful in that the tree, if it takes root, will be stronger and more stable.

    There are several ways to plant apple trees. Let's consider the most popular one.

    1. Planting pit, prepared at least a week in advance. Depth, the hole should be at least - 60 cm, diameter, about the same. The ground from the upper layer should be placed separately from the lower one and not mixed.

    2. A peg is driven into the bottom of the pit to support the seedling. Consider its length, the peg should rise 35 cm above the ground.

    3. Next, you need to fill the pit with compost, fertilizer or manure of your choice.

    4. After a week, you can plant an apple tree. Remember to tie it to a peg.

    The apple tree has dried up: why?

    There can be many reasons for drying. But first, eliminate the simplest options. Make sure that the planting of the apple tree has been done - correctly. Also, the reason that the apple tree has dried up may be other large plants that grow too close to the root system of the apple tree. These plants can take up a large amount of moisture and spoil the roots of the apple tree, which leads to its drying out and diseases. Therefore, the solution to the problem may be getting rid of closely growing plants or replanting the apple tree to a new place.

    Also, the cause of the shrunken tree may be high-standing groundwater. Oddly enough at first glance, but precisely because of the abundance of water in the soil, the apple tree begins to dry out. This happens because excess water begins to displace air from the soil, so necessary for the root system. Therefore, the apple tree begins to "suffocate" and may soon die. The solution is to transplant an apple tree, loosen the soil or replace the soil for the root system. In addition, for greater efficiency, special drainage ditches can be dug, which will divert excess groundwater from the roots.

    But the most important thing is that the soil must “breathe”. Therefore, it is not allowed to find layers of sand, heavy clay, crushed stone and gravel in the planting zone. Young apple trees will probably be able to survive this, because their roots are high and have not yet sprouted deep enough, and there is always a lot of air in the upper layers of the soil. But for mature trees, this is extremely harmful, because their root system goes deep into the depths. And the older the tree, the more chances the apple tree will dry up.

    Even on loose and level soil, there can be “surprises” in the form of clayey layers.

    The planting site may be disadvantageous, due to the depressions in which rainwater will drain and moisture accumulate, thereby, again displacing oxygen from the soil. So, apple trees standing on the same soil may differ, due to the deep landscapes. Therefore, it is important, before planting, to study the place and make sure it is safe for the tree, this will save you time and effort.

    A young apple tree has withered leaves: what to do - weather reasons

    If everything is in order with the place and method of planting, then the reason why the leaves of the apple tree have dried up may be weather and climatic conditions. This is especially noticeable in the southern hot regions, where the temperature can easily reach +40 degrees. The scorching rays of the sun will dry out the leaves, evaporating moisture from them. The sun's rays practically do not affect the branches of an apple tree in this way.

    Too dry air, even in not too hot weather, can also contribute to this phenomenon. Although apple trees are unpretentious and highly resistant to dryness, nevertheless, the minimum level of humidity must be maintained both in the air, so that the leaves of the apple tree do not dry out, and in the soil itself, for the root system. Exit: regular spraying and sprinkling.

    The branches of the old apple tree have dried up: what to do?

    Drying of branches is a more serious problem than just shriveled leaves. Here, most likely, the matter is in the disease. One of the most common options is cytosporosis. The bark of the tree, at the same time, dries up in certain areas, the branches of the apple tree dry, in some places dark tubercles and dry growths appear. Cytosporosis is quite difficult to detect on young plants, on the bark and branches that have not yet formed.

    The problem can be solved only by removing the affected areas of the tree. So you can protect the tree from further infection. If the infection penetrates too far into the tree, then it can no longer be saved.

    The apple tree dries up: pests and diseases

    Most often, drying out of a tree causes disease-causing infections and various small pests. Let's take a look at the most common diseases and how to treat them.

    1 black cancer
    ... A very serious illness that requires immediate attention. You can recognize it by such signs as: black spots on the foliage, the branches of the apple tree dry, black ulcers and rot on the bark appear. There is only one way out - so that the apple tree does not dry out completely, you need to cut off the infected branches and remove the ulcerative areas, this is the only way to save the tree.

    2. Scab
    ... This infection damages the leaves, slows down the growth of fruits and spoils them. It is easy to recognize it - these are brown spots on the foliage, which subsequently dry out the leaf.

    The solution is the treatment of foliage with "Topaz" or "Hom".

    3. Powdery mildew
    ... A fairly common disease that infects tree buds, bark, shoots and foliage. Powdery mildew signs: White, gray and brown bloom on the leaves and buds, sometimes dark spots appear, there are no fruits, the tree dries up. After establishing this diagnosis, treatment consists of treatment with special solutions. For these purposes, "Skor" or "Topaz" is perfect.

    With pests, everything is also not easy.

    1. Aphids and ants
    ... If ants have settled in your garden, then there will be aphids. Therefore, you need to destroy the first. For this, there are special poisons and ant traps. Aphids are destroyed with special solutions.

    2. Caterpillars
    ... There are a huge number of types. It is easy to fight - the cobweb on the branches is destroyed, preferably by fire, and then, the apple tree is treated with a solution of karbofos.

    3. Mite, leafworm, moth
    ... The cobweb on the leaves and branches can tell you about the presence of ticks, the other two “comrades” are more difficult to recognize if you do not see small caterpillars. To destroy these pests, spraying with a solution of nitrophene, chlorophos or karbofos is suitable. Larvae and eggs, if found, are destroyed by fire.

    The apple tree has dried up: what to do - if the reasons are not established

    If you cannot establish the reason why the leaves of the apple tree have dried up or the branches of the apple tree are drying up, then we advise you to contact experienced gardeners and ask questions on gardening forums by posting photos of your problem.

    Do not sit back when the apple tree dries up, be sure to find the reason!

    Watch the video: How to Identify and Remove Canker from Apple Trees

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