Continuing the conversation about types of cabbage, which can be grown in the conditions of the North-West region, we will now focus on the kohlrabi cabbage, which is not yet very widespread in our country. But this is the fastest ripening cabbage.
She ripens 70-80 days after germination, or 20-30 days earlier than head. Besides being cold-resistant, it is valuable for the northern regions of the country, where in June - early July there is a shortage of fresh vegetables from their backyards.
Kohlrabi cabbage known for a very long time. They knew about it several centuries before our era. Kohlrabi was known to the ancient Romans as kaulorapa, which means stem turnip. This is where its modern name comes from. It is most widespread now in the countries of Western Europe.
Nutritional value in kohlrabi has a spherical overgrown stem, called a stalkblood, which forms above the ground. Kohlrabi cabbage has a high dietary value, as well as a pleasant taste. In terms of nutrient content, it surpasses white cabbage. Dry matter accumulates in it up to 10.5%. It is distinguished by a high content of sugars (3-7%), a significant part of which is represented by sucrose, which determines its sweet taste, proteins (1.5-3%), fiber (0.9-1.2%).
In terms of the content of vitamin C, kohlrabi occupies a prominent place among many vegetable crops: in 100 grams of raw matter, it accumulates up to 50-100 mg. This is the same and even slightly more than the fruits of lemon and orange have. That is why kohlrabi cabbage is also called "northern lemon". In stem crops there are carotenoids (3-9 mg%), vitamins: B1 (thiamine) - 0.02-0.3 mg%, B2 (riboflavin) - 0.05-0.4 mg%, B6, PP (nicotinic acid ) - 0.2-0.9 mg%, in terms of which kohlrabi exceeds white cabbage and most other vegetables.
Kohlrabi cabbage is rich in mineral salts. Ash elements contain 0.8-1.2%, incl. potassium salts 387 mg%, calcium 45-60 mg%, magnesium 19-179 mg%, phosphorus 50 mg%, iron 2.2 mg%, sodium - 50 mg%, sulfur - 88 mg%. It has anti-cancer (cancer of the lungs, bladder, prostate and breast, intestines), antiscorbutic, anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous, anti-atherosclerotic, antimicrobial, anti-toxic, hematopoietic and restorative effects.
Eating kohlrabi has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, metabolism and functions of the liver, gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract. It is much softer than white cabbage, gently affects the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates appetite, therefore it is better suited for medical nutrition (in boiled form) for chronic gastritis, cholelithiasis, gastritis and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, it can be used in nutrition weakened patients with infectious diseases, anemia, kidney disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis. Kohlrabi and juice from it are useful for children, since the calcium contained in them is easily absorbed and is used to build teeth and bones. The high content of calcium, phosphorus and protein makes this type of cabbage important in the diet of pregnant women.
Kohlrabi seeds are the same in shape, size and color as the seeds of cabbage and other types of cabbage. In terms of shoots, it also does not differ from them, but already the first true kohlrabi leaf has a long petiole, a grayish-green or bluish-purple color and an elongated shape, and its edge is incised in the form of teeth.
Kohlrabi forms a very developed root system. Its taproot is not thick, but long. Numerous densely branched roots extend from it. Usually the root system is located quite densely in the upper soil layer at a depth of 25-30 cm and is evenly distributed in all directions at a distance of about 60 cm. As the plant grows, the roots penetrate deep into the soil. The main root and its branches can reach a depth of 1.5-2.6 m. The total suction surface of the kohlrabi root system surpasses even the root system of cabbage. If the groundwater comes close to the soil surface, the roots do not penetrate deeply.
After the formation of the 7-8th true leaf, the stem grows noticeably thicker. From this point on, the formation of stems and the growth of leaves proceed simultaneously. The early varieties of cabbage have a smaller number of leaves and their size than the later ones. Stem fruits can be of various shapes, but round and round-flat ones have higher taste qualities. Outside, the stem is covered with a dense skin of green or purple color.
Inside, it has a dense, fleshy, juicy, sweet white flesh. As it ripens, the lower part of the stem grows first, and then the rest of it. Coarsening is caused by the differentiation in the core of a large number of vessels. An overripe stalk plant, as a rule, has an ugly, elongated shape with swellings formed on it in the form of "cones". The quality of the stem crop deteriorates with a lack of moisture in the soil, as well as under the influence of high temperatures, when the weather is hot for a long time.
Kohlrabi is an extremely plastic plant, it can grow in various soil and climatic zones, from the far north to the sultry south. This cabbage is a cold-resistant plant. The most favorable temperature is +15 ... + 18 ° С during the day and +8 ... + 10 ° С at night. At a higher temperature, its stems grow faster, at a low temperature (+6 ... + 10 ° С), early-ripening varieties have flowering plants.
Among cabbage plants, kohlrabi is the most resistant to drought, since it has the ability to extract moisture from the deep horizons of the soil, but it forms a high-quality stemfruit only with good moisture supply. It reacts positively to watering, especially on peaty and sandy loamy soils prone to drying out. When soil moisture is below 60% of full moisture capacity, cracking of stems is observed in it. Plants are especially demanding on soil moisture in the initial period of growth, when there is an intensive growth of leaves and roots.
Kohlrabi is a light-loving plant. When growing it in the aisles of the garden, when the crowns of trees create a little shading, the formation of stems is delayed, and the yield decreases. She is a long day plant. It was noticed that under the conditions of a long polar day there is a more rapid growth of leaves and the formation of a stalk.
Kohlrabi grows well on loose loamy, light loamy, well-warmed soil rich in organic matter. Each kilogram of kohlrabi cabbage takes out 3.5 g of nitrogen, 3 g of phosphorus, 5.5 g of potassium and 2 g of calcium from the soil with a crop. Of all types of cabbage, it is the most salt-tolerant. The best reaction of the soil solution for the growth of kohlrabi is neutral or even slightly alkaline. However, kohlrabi gives quite satisfactory yields on slightly alkaline soil (pH 5.5).
The value of kohlrabi lies in the fact that it has predominantly early ripening varieties that can yield a harvest 60-70 days after germination, which is very important for getting early production from the land in early spring. Late varieties of it grow little and are well stored in the autumn-winter period.
Early ripening varieties - Vienna White 1350, Atena, Corist F1, mid-season - Eder RZ F1, Cartago F1 and late-ripening - Violetta, Gigant, Kossak F1.
Kohlrabi is grown in protected and open ground. In greenhouses and greenhouses it makes sense to grow only the earliest varieties. Kohlrabi can be successfully grown outdoors as a re-crop after harvesting early green plants - lettuce, spinach, Luke on a leaf from a set or sample, radishcultivated on well-fertilized soils.
The best predecessors for kohlrabi are potatoes, cucumber, tomato, peas, beet, onion. For kohlrabi, organic fertilizers are not applied, but the previous crops are provided with them. Mineral fertilizers are applied immediately before sowing or planting seedlings.
The soil for kohlrabi is prepared in the fall. It is dug to its full depth (25-30 cm). To combat the keel, which affects all cabbage plants (and weeds as well), they introduce lime fertilizers (0.4-0.8 kg of dolomite or ground limestone per 1 m²). The best effect is obtained by using finely ground lime materials. If there is a lack of liming agents, local application in small doses can be used.
When planting seedlings, 5-10 g of dolomite is added to each hole, spending 50-100 g per 1 m². Such fertilizer as phosphorite flour not only provides plants with phosphorus, but also is an effective means of combating soil acidity, which has a beneficial effect on the yield ... In the spring, as soon as it becomes possible to start the first work on the personal plot, it is necessary to burrow the soil with a rake in 2-3 tracks in order to loosen its surface layer and thereby prevent strong evaporation of moisture from it. The soil for kohlrabi must be carefully cut and leveled.
If a the soil is heavy, floating, do digging, on lighter soils - loosening to a depth of 12-15 cm using a hoe or flat cutter. Good results are obtained by processing the soil by milling with a walk-behind tractor. It is only advisable to loosen rapidly drying soils in the spring, followed by harrowing. Before spring digging or loosening, make mineral fertilizers: 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate or urea, 20-30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride. In our northern conditions, sowing or planting seedlings is done on pre-prepared ridges or ridges.
Kohlrabi is grown in two ways: seedling and seedling. For sowing, only large, calibrated seeds should be used. They give amicable, aligned shoots with fast growth rates. Such seeds provide early maturity and the highest yield of high quality stems.
Kohlrabi seedlings are grown, as well as white cabbage, with a pick or without it. For the preparation of seedlings, you can use greenhouses, nurseries or greenhouses.
An abundance of light and fresh outside air always ensures high quality seedlings. It is important to monitor the temperature, not to steam the plants. The air temperature during the day should be at +12 ... + 16 ° С, and at night +6 ... + 8 ° С. Seedlings need to be watered rarely, but abundantly. After each watering, it is necessary to ventilate in order to eliminate excess air humidity, which, interacting with high temperatures, creates favorable conditions for the development of the "black leg" disease. During the growing period, seedlings are fed twice.
The first time is 7-10 days after the pick, when the seedlings will root well and get stronger. On one watering can take 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate, 10-15 g of potassium chloride. Immediately after feeding, the plants are watered with clean water to avoid leaf burns. They feed the second time, 10-12 days after the first feeding. In this case, the dose of fertilizers is doubled.
Before planting, the seedlings are hardened. Kohlrabi seedlings are planted at the age of 3-5 true leaves. For planting, use only healthy, not overgrown plants. Coarse, overgrown are not suitable for planting, since they form lignified stems of an elongated shape.
The timing of planting seedlings is determined by the time of consumption of the product. For summer use, seedlings of early varieties are planted in open ground at intervals of 10-15 days. The earliest planting date is the end of April - early May. Seedlings of late varieties can be planted simultaneously with late or medium varieties of white cabbage - from May 15 to June 5. For autumn consumption, seedlings grown in the garden are planted in a permanent place in early August.
Various methods of planting seedlings are used. Early varieties of kohlrabi, forming a small stem, are preferably placed on ridges or beds with a distance between the extreme rows of adjacent beds (ridges) of 45-50 cm.The distance between rows is 20-25 cm.Thus, 2 rows are placed on the ridge, and 4 In a row, a plant from a plant is planted every 15-20 cm. Late varieties, which have a large rosette of leaves, are planted with wide (45-60 cm) aisles. In a row, a plant from a plant is at a distance of 25-50 cm. The technique of planting seedlings is as follows.
First, the surface of the bed is leveled, then the cord is pulled and, according to the distance between the plants, which depends on the variety, holes 10-12 cm deep are made with a hoe, shovel or hand scoop. 0.2-0.5 liters of water are poured into each such hole. Plants are planted in the resulting mud to the same depth at which they were in greenhouses or nurseries. Too deep planting of seedlings delays the growth of stems and degrades their quality. Very useful hole around the plants mulch (sprinkle on top) with dry soil, or even better with a layer of peat 1.5-2 cm thick. After planting, the soil compacted in the aisles must be loosened. Mulching and loosening prevents strong evaporation of moisture from the soil.
You can grow kohlrabi cabbage in our North-West zone and in a reckless way. For sowing, select areas with light, organic-rich soils, free of weeds. Sowing is started as soon as the soil warms up and it will be possible to process it. As a rule, from the end of April - the first days of May, sowing continues until the end of spring. Seeding rate of seeds is 0.1-0.2 g of seeds per 1 m². The seeding depth is 1.5-2.5 cm.
For a more even distribution of seeds in a row during sowing, dried sand is often mixed with them as ballast, dry sawdust, calcined (killed) seeds of millet, rapeseed, mustard and other crops. A good ballast is granular superphosphate, sifted and calibrated to the size of cabbage seeds. It not only promotes uniform sowing, but also provides young cabbage seedlings in the initial period of growth with phosphorus necessary for the development of the root system.
For 1 g of seeds, 3-10 g of superphosphate are mixed. Sowing with coated seeds gives very good results. Such processing simultaneously protects the seed from mechanical damage, various pests and diseases, serves as food in the early stages of plant life. Usually, seedlings of pelleted seeds appear earlier. The pelleted seeds can be sown without ballast, with a lower seeding rate, and most importantly, they are evenly distributed in the row and lie at the same depth when sowing. Under favorable conditions, kohlrabi shoots appear in 5-7 days. If the sowing is carried out in dry soil, then the seeds can lie in it for a long time and will sprout only after the rains have fallen. However, it is possible to speed up the emergence of seedlings even before the onset of rainy weather, if before sowing the furrows are spilled with water and immediately after sowing the soil is compacted with a board or a rake.
As soon as shoots appear, the soil must be loosened immediately. In addition, you need to closely monitor the seedlings.When a cabbage flea appears - the most dangerous pest of young cabbage plants - the crops must be urgently pollinated with tobacco dust (3-5 g / m²). Thinning of seedlings is best done in the phase of the first true leaf, but no later than 2-3rd. In a row, plants are left at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other - for early varieties and 25-50 cm - for mid-season and late ones.
Further care for kohlrabi plants grown by seedling and seedling is the same. It consists in the systematic loosening of the soil, watering, feeding, combating weeds, pests and diseases.
Read the next part. Kohlrabi: watering and feeding, growing in greenhouses →
candidate of agricultural sciences
Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kalmykia
Municipal general educational institution
"Ovatinskaya secondary school"
FOR EXTRACTIVE ACTIVITIES
"YOUNG AGRONOMY" FOR CLASS 5
DIRECTION: GENERAL INTELLECTUAL
Authors: Bodraeva M.L., school director,
V.E. Khechieva, Deputy Director for Internal Affairs
This work program "Young agronomist" is drawn up on the basis of the Model program of extracurricular activities of basic general education and has a general intellectual focus.
Since 2011, our school has been participating in the republican experiment "Agroclasses - as an innovative model of specialized education." The theme of the republican project takes an important place in the extracurricular, extracurricular activities of students and teachers. Each graduate of a rural school must become a comprehensively competent land user, at least on the scale of a personal subsidiary farm. And the formation of "agricultural literacy" can start from elementary school, continue in the main one - through the organization of extracurricular activities of the "Young Agronomist" circle, where students will receive the necessary amount of knowledge and skills that will allow them to realize themselves as future owners of the land.
Vegetable growing and field growing is a highly intensive branch of plant growing. They continue to be very labor-intensive sectors of agriculture, especially in Kalmykia, so one of the most important tasks is to transfer vegetable growing and field cultivation to an industrial basis. Every year the demand of the population for these products is increasing. It is necessary to further expand the range and increase the yield of vegetables, field crops, improve their safety and reduce losses. Agronomists play an important role in fulfilling these tasks. Today agriculture is reviving and is in dire need of specialists. And therefore, at this time, the profession of an agronomist is in great demand. Perhaps, in the future, our pupils will be interested in this profession, and they will want to devote themselves to agriculture.
The work program "Young Agronomist" is an additional material to school subjects - natural history and biology.
The program provides for the continuous study of the material for one year, taking into account the age characteristics and the level of development of the students.
A distinctive feature of this program is:
- connection between agronomy and ecology
- education of an environmentally literate and socially adapted citizen through love for work on earth.
Purpose: mastering the experience of the practical application of knowledge and skills when growing plants on a training and experimental site
- to give the concepts of "Field cultivation" and "Vegetable cultivation"
- to study the variety of agricultural plants and their importance in human life
- expand and deepen knowledge of biology in the field of agronomy
- to form certain skills and abilities in the basics of agronomy
- to teach the ability to work individually and in a group, to lead a discussion, to defend their point of view.
- improve students' skills in growing and caring for agricultural plants
- to develop a cognitive interest in plants, both in natural and in agroecosystems
- develop skills of independent work, hard work, interest in the subject, the ability to independently analyze
- to develop attention, logical thinking, students' speech, observation.
- to form a high level of ecological culture and patriotism, the need for environmental protection, a humane attitude towards the surrounding living and inanimate nature and responsibility for its fate
- to form a sustainable interest in work
- to educate an environmentally competent and socially adapted citizen of Russia and the Republic of Kalmykia.
The program is designed taking into account the regional component and age characteristics of children. This program is designed for 1 year of study. Children age - 5th grade (9-12 years old). The composition of the group is permanent, the form of classes is group.
Classes are held for 2 hours once a week. Total 68 hours per year. Preferred forms of work organization: lesson, research, seminar, practical work. These classes will find their application in everyday life, therefore it is appropriate to use the activity approach in teaching, an active way of knowing the material being studied.
Conditions for the implementation of the program.
This program can be implemented subject to the availability of a suitably equipped office (in this case, the office of the "Young Agronomist"), a greenhouse, a training and experimental site, equipment for agricultural work.
Methodology for the implementation of the program.
The leading place in the classroom is occupied by the methods inherent in biology as a subject of the natural science cycle: direct observations in nature, experimental work on the training and experimental site. The program provides for such forms of work as excursions to the Karat, Nadezhda, Tyunga peasant farms, Kalmyk State University, the participation of pupils in the preparation and holding of mass events, environmental actions, exhibitions of crafts, competitions "Bichkn Turskm" , "Green planet", "My small homeland: nature, culture, ethnos", "Young researchers of the surrounding nature."
Assessment of students' knowledge.
The assessment of students' knowledge is carried out in the form of quizzes, solving and composing crosswords, testing on the topics of the program covered, and preparing projects.
At the end of the course, students should know:
- know the basics of field cultivation and vegetable growing
- be able to recognize vegetable and field crops by their appearance
- have basic knowledge of the compilation of a herbarium
- be able to care for plants, monitor agricultural
- be able to apply theoretical knowledge in practice.
- development of interest in classes in the association
- deepening and improving the knowledge of pupils in the field of plant biology and ecology
- the formation of skills in the basics of agronomy
- developed thinking, correct formulation of speech, observation and correct drawing up of conclusions
- the formation of a sustainable interest in agricultural labor, high environmental culture and work culture.
Within the framework of the program, in the classes of the association, interdisciplinary communication is carried out:
1. Literature - in the preparation and conduct of public events, thematic classes: "Autumn Festival", International Earth Day, International Water Day.
2. History - when studying the topics: "Kalmykia is a blessed land", "How beautiful you are, my steppe, in April!"
3. Fine art and technology - in the preparation and conduct of thematic contests of drawings, posters, consolidation of the studied material.
The performance indicators of the association are:
The aspiration of pupils to receive new information and self-education.
The ability of pupils to navigate in the variety of field and vegetable crops, as well as the basics of agricultural technology.
Formation of practical skills and the ability to creative activity.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
Perennial shrub of the Yasnotkov family. In the wild, it is widely found in southern Europe. The Mediterranean countries are recognized as the homeland of sage. It was widely appreciated in the Middle Ages and had universal applications. Now this crop is widely cultivated in Moldova, Ukraine, in the Krasnodar Territory. It is increasingly found in summer cottages in Belarus.
Salvia officinalis (pharmacy) in our conditions it reaches a height of 30-40 cm. The bush consists of numerous tetrahedral densely leafy stems of gray-green color. Leaves on long petioles, oblong in shape. The flowers are collected in an inflorescence - blue-violet, pink, less often white. Seeds are round, black, viable for 3-4 years.
At one place sage can grow for five or more years.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
The leaves contain a lot of essential oils, flavonoids, phytoncides, organic acids, tannins. There are vitamins P, PP. Inflorescences and leaves serve as spices.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Sage drought-resistant, reacts poorly to waterlogging. Prefers not too heavy loamy or sandy loam soil. Loves secluded places protected from the north and east winds. Frequently freezes in winter (over 10 years of observation).
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Sage propagates by seeds, dividing old bushes and cuttings. The seedling method is traditional.
Sage leaves containing essential oil and tannins are of practical importance. In the first year of life, only one harvest is made, while mainly the lower leaves are plucked. In subsequent years, the plants are cut in the budding phase (June). After collecting the green mass, sage is watered and fed. The second time the sage is harvested no later than the beginning of September. From one three-year-old plant, you can get 120 g of dry leaves. The collected raw materials in a layer of up to 20 cm are dried in the shade in a well-ventilated area. The dry mass can be stored for 2-3 years.
Cut inflorescences are placed in a warm, well-ventilated room, where ripening takes place.
Sage is very decorative and retains its attractiveness until the onset of persistent frosts. It looks good in both group and solo compositions.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
Sage is used mainly for external use due to the pronounced anti-inflammatory and disinfecting effect. It is used for rinsing with angina, flu, acute respiratory infections, stomatitis, gingivitis. Infusion washed purulent wounds, fistulas, ulcers. In case of hair loss, it is sometimes rubbed into the scalp.
It is believed that sage normalizes the activity of the gonads, therefore it is prescribed for infertility, in menopause, for obesity and senile weakness. Infusions have a strengthening effect on the central nervous system.
Broth. 20 g per 200 ml boiling water. Drink 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day. For rinsing the throat and mouth (especially for toothache). With inflammation of the renal pelvis and gallbladder (for a greater effect, add wormwood powder: for 3 hours of sage, 1 hour of wormwood).
Tincture. For 100 g of alcohol (200 g of vodka) - 20 g of the plant. Outwardly - for the treatment of festering wounds.
Mixture: 1 teaspoon of vinegar and 3 teaspoons of sage broth - as a lotion for thrush.
TO YOUR TABLE
Sage is an original spice for grilled meat, minced pork and fish. It is seasoned with salads, soups, vegetables, sweet dishes, added to cheese dishes.
Leek (also known under the names leek, pras, pearl onion), probably comes from the wild-growing grape onion found in the Mediterranean and Western Asia. Cultivated in Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Pharaoh Cheops rewarded those who distinguished themselves with leek bunches.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
Leek cultivated as a biennial and annual crop. In the first year, forms a false bulb and leaves, blooms in the second year. It has a cylindrical white bulb 2-8 cm in diameter, formed by thickened leaf bases. On top, the bulb is covered with 1-2 dry white or grayish scales.
Leek tolerates transplanting well and grows until late autumn. The leaves are long, wide, dark green with a waxy bloom, flat, forming a thick false stem - "leg", which is the main edible part.
Leek is a good honey plant. Seeds remain viable for 2-3 years. Of the varieties we have the most widespread early maturing Karantansky. It is winter-hardy, in autumn it tolerates a drop in temperature to -7 ° C. The taste is weak. Keeping quality is good.
The varieties Gigantskiy and Sizokryl are also of interest. The first is high-yielding, has long leaves (80-90 cm) and a very large thick leg. The second is a late-ripening variety that can winter outdoors.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
Leek contains fiber, protein, essential oils, vitamins C (more in spring, after storage, more than in autumn), B1, B2, B3, B6, E, H, PP, potassium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, iron salts. A small percentage of essential oils gives it a pleasant taste, but less pungent than onions and does not leave a strong odor.
Leek increases appetite, improves the functioning of the digestive tract and liver, it is recommended for atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders (including gout), urolithiasis, scurvy, vitamin deficiency, anemia. Green leek leaves contain carotene, chlorophyll and xanthophyll, which regulate blood composition,
In ancient times, leek was prized as a means of preserving and strengthening the voice. Emperor Nero, who was very fond of singing, treated the vocal cords in this way: on certain days he ate exclusively leek, seasoning it with olive oil.
In its raw form, leek is contraindicated in inflammatory diseases of the stomach and duodenum 12.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Leek is a cold-resistant plant. But the optimum temperature for growth and development is 15-20 ° C. For a better wintering of leeks, it is necessary to huddle or cover it with peat, cover it with coniferous legs and leaves.
Leek is hygrophilous, requires regular watering - at least 10-12 times during the growing season. This is a light-loving plant. For its cultivation, loose, fertile, rich in organic matter, sandy loam and light loamy soils with a deep arable horizon are suitable. They must be weed-free and neutral. Leek grows well on floodplain soils in river valleys.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Biennial plant. In culture, it is grown as an annual. High-yielding, cold-resistant, loves well-fertilized, moist soils.
Contains dry matter, protein, carbohydrates, trace elements, vitamins. Improves the activity of the liver and gallbladder. It has a beneficial effect on the digestive system. Useful for rheumatism, atherosclerosis, obesity, metabolic disorders (with age-related changes), salt deposition.
Leeks are grown both by seeds and seedlings. When sown with seeds (in June), the plants overwinter. Floral arrows form for the second year. The flowers are small, whitish or pinkish, collected in umbrellas.
The main edible part of a leek is the part of the stem called the leg. At a young age, the leaves are also suitable for food. To obtain bleached legs at the beginning of August, it is spud up to a height of 20-25 cm. The false stem is used in salads, soups, as an addition to main courses in stewed and fried form. It has an unclear aroma, pleasant, delicate taste.
Retains nutritional value for up to six months, buried in the sand at a temperature of about zero.
For early harvesting, leeks can be grown in joint crops between rows of radishes, lettuce, beets, celery, kohlrabi, onions, carrots.
In autumn, the soil is dug deeply and fertilized in the same doses as when growing onions. During autumn processing, manure can be applied in an amount of 4-5 kg / m 2.
Grow leek mainly by sowing seeds in open ground and through seedlings. You can also use a vegetative propagation method, planting small sighting bulbs. To obtain seedlings, seeds are sown in a greenhouse, boxes or pottery pots in late March - early April. The soil mixture is prepared from turf or compost soil with the addition of humus and low-lying peat (in equal parts). If grown on peat, then sawdust and sand are added to it (ratio 3: 1: 0.5). For 5 kg of the moistened mixture add 250 g of dolomite flour, 50 g of double superphosphate, 30 g of urea, 40 g of potassium sulfate and trace elements. Before sowing, the soil is lightly tamped, watered abundantly.
Seeds are sown in grooves, at a distance of 6-7 cm. Seeding rate: 6-10 g per 1 m 2. Seeds are germinated in the same way as on onions, which accelerates the emergence of seedlings by 5-7 days. The seeds sown into the grooves are covered with a small layer of light soil, then the surface is slightly tamped, covered with a film and kept in a warm place (20-22 ° C) until shoots appear. As soon as shoots appear, the boxes are transferred to a cooler place. When growing seedlings, the temperature is maintained at 17-20 ° C during the day and 8-14 ° C at night.
At the end of April - the first half of May, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place in grooves 10-15 cm deep. This depth is needed to obtain elongated bleached "legs". The distance between the rows is 40-45 cm, between the plants in the rows - 10-15 cm. It can be planted even thicker: 20-30 cm - the distance between the rows and 8-10 cm - between the plants. In order for the seedlings to take root well, the leaves and roots are cut to 1/3 of the length. Then the roots are dipped in a dung-clay mash.
After planting, the grooves are mulched with humus with a layer of 1-1.5 cm and watered abundantly. It is recommended to plant seedlings in cloudy weather or after rain, preferably in the afternoon. The seedling method increases the yield by 30-50%. To get a harvest in autumn and for winter storage, seeds can be sown directly into open ground in early May (at a soil temperature of at least 7 ° C) in shallow grooves at the same distance as when planting seedlings. Seeds are soaked before sowing. The sowing depth of seeds is 1-1.5 cm, the seeding rate is 0.8 g per 1 m 2. Leaving is traditional.
|CLEANING AND STORAGE|
Leeks are dug out of open ground for winter storage at the end of October and even at the beginning of November. It is cleaned of soil, dried, the roots are cut to 1 cm (without damaging the scales of the bulbs), and the leaves are cut by one third. The dug leek is sprinkled with sand in the storage, leaving only the ends of the leaves uncovered.
During the storage period, nutrients outflow from the leaves into the false stem, as a result of which it thickens, and the amount of vitamin C in the "stem" almost doubles.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
Numerous recipes are given in his poem "On the Properties of Herbs" by the French scientist Odo from Men (XI century). For example, he advises to apply to wounds and ulcers leeks, pounded with honey, take leek juice with barley broth when coughing, and mixed with wine - for back pain. Avicenna in his work "Canon of Medicine" (XI century) reports on methods of treating warts, skin ulcers, boils, nosebleeds, asthma, bloody diarrhea, etc. with the help of lesions. Many ancient recipes are adopted by traditional medicine.
TO YOUR TABLE
Leek use in raw, stewed and boiled form for salads, sauces, soups, dishes from vegetables, meat, fish, cereals, eggs, for cold snacks, as a filling for flour products.
For long-term storage, leeks are frozen (leaves), salted (leaves and "legs"), pickled and dried. When pickling, they usually use “legs”, but daughter bulbs can also be preserved (in sweet and sour marinade). For drying, we recommend early ripe leek varieties with a long "stem", which is cut into rings. When dried, leek retains its aromatic properties well.
Delicious (and rare) recipes
Vegetable puree soup. Chop 2-3 leek plants, 3-4 carrot roots, a little parsley, celery and simmer with 2-3 etc. tablespoons of butter. When the vegetables are soft, pour them with hot water or broth, add 3-4 potato tubers and salt to taste. Rub the prepared vegetables through a sieve, dilute with vegetable broth and let it boil, then season with butter. Serve with croutons sprinkled with grated cheese.
Milk soup with leek. Rinse the leeks cut into slices, put in boiling milk, add salt to taste and cook for 10-15 minutes. Along with the leek, you can add grated or diced potatoes or carrots to the boiling milk.
In our country, with the onset of spring, cabbage can be seen in almost every vegetable garden or in a summer cottage. Nevertheless, without basic knowledge of agronomy, it is rather difficult to grow strong heads of cabbage from ordinary seeds. Not too capricious to the temperature regime, cabbage loves a lot of moisture, sunlight and fertilized soil. The best conditions for planting seedlings will be the construction of a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or plastic wrap.
Cruciferous vegetables can be of several types:
In addition, you can pick up various hybrid varieties bred by artificial selection. The yield of such cabbage can reach up to 40 kg from 10 sq. m.
Regardless of what type of seedlings were planted in the ground, any cabbage will ripen no earlier than August. Even an ordinary unheated greenhouse will speed up the ripening process and get the harvest in late June or early July. If the greenhouse is equipped with special lighting, then it is possible to regulate not only the air temperature, but also the length of daylight hours, which will also increase the growth of the vegetable.
I continue to tell you what I'm going to try to grow this season. One of them is Mitsuba. In 2015, I tried to buy seeds on Ali, they obviously did not send them. This year I bought it in the seeds of Asia. It really takes a couple of weeks. Now I have swooped down the seedlings. I will save here information about this plant.
The Japanese lurk grows in the Asian region. In Japan, which is famous for its long-livers, there is a special attitude to food. This is the primary source of energy and health. The culture is used as a spice and healing agent. In Russia, this vegetable is not known to most gardeners. Therefore, it is important to know the tricks of growing a crop.
Description Japanese cryptotenia (lat.Cryptotaenia japonica) refers to herbaceous perennials from the celery family (umbrella Apiaceae). In its natural environment, it grows in China, Japan, Korea.
The spicy-aromatic culture is known by other names: Tripol. Mitsuba. Japanese lurk. Japanese parsley.
The plant is distinguished by thick roots, white or light pink small flowers. The voluminous petiole trifoliate leaves are oval in shape with serrated edges and a purple-red color. The formation of larger foliage occurs in 2-3 years. The inflorescence, which is characteristic of the umbrella, looks original - it looks like a loose panicle due to the different length of the peduncles. Mitsuba's height ranges from 30 to 120 cm. The fruit is a two-seed that easily breaks into 2 halves. The oblong seeds have a grayish-brownish color.
Grows on damp grassy slopes, in shaded floodplain forests.
In the conditions of the middle zone of the Russian Federation, the leaves die off in the winter season. The culture wakes up late after winter.
The chemical composition of trifol contains: mono- and disaccharides essential oils vitamins: C, A, B6, B2, B1, B9, PP, E fiber minerals: calcium and iron retinol and phosphorus potassium and magnesium sodium. The composition of the culture includes: proteins - 2.3% carbohydrates - 4.4% fats - 0.23%. There are 13 kcal per 100 g of Japanese Skylark's raw materials.
Cryptotenia Japanese has: tonic and antioxidant antiseptic and antimicrobial anticancer and antimutagenic effects, expectorant and hypolipidemic antifebrile. Japanese parsley has found application in alternative medicine: it fights against colds, coughs and bronchopneumonia; it resists prostate adenoma and strokes; it solves problems with urinary excretion; it fights diabetes and neoplasms; it inhibits chronic inflammation and protects from autoimmune diseases; it treats rashes on the epidermis; reduces the content of lipids. In the treatment of bee and snake stings, Mitsuba leaves are used.
How is it grown The Japanese secretive is distinguished by its unpretentiousness. Prefers light drained soils. It feels great both on sandystones and loams. Landing requirements: humidity and partial shade. Direct rays of the sun cause the leaves to turn yellow. It is not very demanding on the acidity of the soil. Soil preparation begins in the autumn. Dig the earth to a depth of 30 cm. Fertilize the soil: In the fall - with humus or compost (up to 4 kg per 1 m2) and double superphosphate (20-30 g). In spring - nitrophobic, complex feeding (30–40 g). In the chernozem regions of Russia, it grows for up to 4 years in one place. In the northern regions, it is grown as an annual. It is characterized by winter hardiness. No need to cover for the winter. The sowing depth of seeds is 1.5–2 cm, the distance from each other is 3 cm. Planting in open ground at a soil temperature of + 15 ° С. In accordance with the growth, thinning of crops is carried out, at first they leave the interval - 5 cm, then increase to 10 cm. Growth of green foliage occurs at a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° С.
To get a faster harvest, use a seedling planting method. In early June, they are planted in a greenhouse or under agrofibre. To get a luxurious outlet, you will definitely need to pinch the main stem. They do not bring semi-rotten or fresh manure to the Mitsuba site: clean greens and the absence of nitrates are guaranteed.
Trifol is planted after: legumes, cabbage, cucumbers, potatoes, tomatoes.
How to plant Breeding methods: seeds for seedlings by dividing the roots in spring or autumn. Seedless method Practicing podzimny or classic sowing in the spring on an open bed: the last decade of April - early May. The seeding depth of seeds is 1.5–2 cm. The planting scheme is observed: the interval between crops: 15–20 cm, the spacing in the rows: 30–40 cm. By the fall, a small rosette of foliage is formed. Under favorable conditions, natural seeding of the soil occurs. The planting material is hardened at + 2 ... + 7 ° С for 3 months. Sometimes seed soaking is used when planting. Thus, they are kept for 3 days, changing the liquid at least 3 times daily. Seedling method Differs in lightness and simplicity. The temperature, which is optimal for germination of seedlings, is + 25 ° С. However, the seeds germinate successfully at higher or lower temperatures. The cultivation of Mitsuba is carried out in many stages. This will provide a spice for the entire season. Planting of seed for seedlings is carried out in March in peat glasses 6 x 6 cm. The appearance of leaves and their appearance will tell you how to choose a seedling. Transplanting to an open bed in the second decade of May when 2 true leaves appear. Seedlings together with peat tablets are embedded in the soil. Not afraid of light frosts. Harvested in the first summer months. Seeds, which are sown in open ground in early May, will allow harvesting during the height of the summer season and in August. To saturate with greenery in the fall, seed sowing is carried out in June.
Cooking use The softness of the aroma of Tripoli is reminiscent of a celery scent. The wayward spice tastes sweet. Stimulates appetite, invigorates and tones up. In the land of the rising sun, roots, twigs and leaves are used to flavor potatoes and soups, rice and rolls, as well as to bake with vegetables. Suitable as a side dish for seafood. Stem, seeds are consumed raw. Sprouts are usually added to salads. It is not customary to subject it to prolonged cooking heat treatment: the taste changes to bitter, the nutritional value decreases. It is used as a spicy culture in the recipe for the national Japanese food tempura. Leaves and bleached sheets are good for burgers and sandwiches. They are also boiled, stewed and fried. The seeds are used as a spice. The roots of Japanese Cryptotenia are used in the diet, during cooking they are stewed or boiled. Often they become an independent dish that can be consumed as a separate dish or in conjunction with other prepared foods. Mostly with fish or meat. A distinctive feature of Mitsuba: being a perennial plant, it pleases with greenery in early spring. Consumption in large quantities is harmful to health, causes irritation of the skin. For gastronomic purposes, it is grown in an annual plant.
Kakiage with vegetables: half of the head - turnip onion 3 tbsp. l. - water 60 g - ginger root 1 bunch - Mitsuba 0.2 tbsp. - wheat flour 1.5 tbsp. l. - potato starch 300 ml - sunflower oil. Cooking technology: Cut the onion and the Lurker into strips. Stir in ginger with vegetables. Add starch, flour and cold water. Heat oil and fry until golden brown. Place on paper napkin. Wait for the oil to drain. Serve with soy sauce.
How to care Features of caring for the Japanese Lurker are: weeding and loosening watering top dressing. Watering Tripol is a moisture-loving plant. Requires regular watering. It is important not to allow the soil to dry out between waterings, but without excessive waterlogging. What should be fertilized During the cultivation of exotic plants, additional fertilizing will be required. Organic and mineral fertilizers are used. To feed the plant, bird droppings or slurry are used. In the fall, the planned site for planting is filled with well organic matter. During the growing season, just right to feed the plants 2 times with complex mineral fertilizer. Take nitrophosphate: 1 m2 10-15 g. Pest and disease control From time to time, Japanese parsley is exposed to diseases and attacks of pests. It is affected by the melon aphid, which causes a growth retardation of the culture. The massive appearance of harmful insects leads to the death of the Mitsuba. The danger of aphids is not only in damage to the ovary and foliage. She is a distributor of viral and bacterial diseases. They fight pests by spraying with onion peel infusion. 400 g of raw materials are poured with boiling water (10 l), the dishes are tightly closed. A day later, diluted laundry soap (40 g) is added to the solution and the plants are treated twice. To combat snails and slugs, hot peppers, ash, and all kinds of traps are used.
How to harvest Vegetation period of Japanese parsley: 55-60 days. The yield of greenery from 1 m2 ranges from 1.3 to 1.5 kg. Roots, branches, foliage are suitable for use in cooking. They eat young greens and shoots that reach 25–35 cm. Harvesting in early spring before flowering. Plants are pruned in the morning. They emphasize the integrity of the surface, the absence of damage and deterioration.
How is it stored The place to store fresh Mitsuba is the refrigerator. The leaves are used for a maximum of 5 days, and the roots after a few weeks. A sealed glass container is appropriate for seed. It does not lose its useful properties for about 4 months if it is in the dark and cool far from the water and heat source.