Cabbage is one of the main vegetable crops. In the sod-podzolic zone, it occupies the first place in terms of the occupied area. Various types of cabbage are successfully cultivated: white cabbage, red cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Savoy, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, collard, Chinese, and Peking cabbage.
White cabbage among all common cabbages Is one of the main vegetable crops. Planted early, mid- and late-ripening varieties. It is very demanding on high doses of nitrogen, medium - on potassium and phosphorus. For the formation of a marketable and non-marketable crop, an average of 10 kg of crop is consumed 40 g of nitrogen, 15 g of phosphorus and 50 g of potassium. Fertilizers are absorbed stretched out throughout the growing season, however, for mid-season varieties, the maximum consumption occurs in July-August. For example, in June plants absorb 17% of nitrogen, 11% of phosphorus and 10% of potassium, in July - 26, 45 and 39%, respectively, in August - 40.36.25%, in September - 17, 8 and 26%.
The growing season varies from 60 to 140 days for varieties of different early maturity. The times of absorption of nutrients are the most compressed in cabbage of early varieties and more extended in cabbage of later varieties.
Red cabbage in terms of biological properties, like mid-season varieties of white cabbage, it is very demanding on increased doses of phosphorus fertilizers, which significantly increase the sugar content in heads of cabbage and improve the taste of cabbage.
Savoy cabbage, like mid-ripening varieties of white cabbage, is more demanding on soil fertility, but it is more tender, richer in protein and vitamin C and responds better to nitrogen fertilizers.
Brussels sprouts, equal to mid-ripening white cabbage, demanding on soil fertility, contains more protein, vitamin C. Does not tolerate excess nitrogen, which enhances the growth of leaves and delays the formation of heads.
Cauliflower, like the mid-ripening white cabbage, is more demanding on soil fertility, the best greenhouse lands, humus-rich loamy soils are allocated for it.
Kohlrabi earlier than the earlier varieties of white cabbage, it also requires fertile loamy light soils.
Collard greens, Chinese and Beijing are distinguished by high early maturity, require fertile humus and peaty soils.
The increase in the total amount of dry matter in cabbage occurs during the entire growing season before harvesting. The increase in dry matter of outer leaves stops at the very end of the growing season. It grows well in slightly acidic soils. On acidic soils, cabbage reacts positively to liming.
With magnification manure doses the yield of cabbage increases and its ripening is accelerated, which is of great importance for obtaining early marketable production. Mid-season and late-ripening cabbage varieties are more responsive to the introduction of manure. Early ripening varieties with a short growing season are advisable to be planted on the predecessor fertilized with manure. Well-rotted manure is more suitable for direct use under early maturing varieties.
On most soils, especially on podzolic, cabbage primarily needs nitrogen. On peaty floodplain soils characterized by a low potassium content, high yield increases are obtained from potash fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers increase the yield no less than manure.
When one manure is introduced into the soil, the cabbage lacks, first of all, nitrogen. It consumes about three parts of potassium and nitrogen for one part of phosphorus, whereas from manure in the year of its incorporation, plants absorb three parts of potassium and only one part of nitrogen for one part of phosphorus. Therefore, when applying manure for cabbage, nitrogen fertilizers should be added first. Only in the case of growing this crop on floodplains and low-lying, well-decomposed peatlands, rich in nitrogen available to plants, the need to add nitrogen fertilizers to manure is reduced or they are not used at all.
Early ripening varieties of cabbage are especially needed in combination of the main fertilizer with fertilizer during planting, which increases the yield of early production.
All cabbages are crops that love sulfur. Therefore, sulfate salts are chosen for them. They also respond well to magnesium, boron and molybdenum fertilizers.
When using small doses of fertilizers locally, when planting seedlings, more stable increases in cabbage yield are achieved. With a cabbage harvest of 2.5-6 kg per 1 m², the increment from small doses of fertilizers applied locally during planting is from 0.6 to 1.3 kg.
Thus, the productivity of cabbage when applying manure in combination with mineral fertilizers increases. Therefore, the formula for fertilizing cabbage is as follows: fundamental background fertilizers - manure 10-15 kg / m² together with ammonium nitrate 30-40 g / m², superphosphate - 30-50 g / m², potassium sulfate or potassium magnesium - 30-40 g / m² , dolomite flour - 600-900 g / m², ammonium molybdate - 0.5 g and boric acid - 1 g / m² for digging to a depth of 18 cm in the spring and additional fertilization in the hole - 0.3-0.5% urea solution with peat potwhere a whole complex of fertilizers is concentrated.
Or, it is practiced to introduce nitrophoska 10-15 g / m² into the nest with a layer of soil from the roots and top dressing with ammonium nitrate with potassium sulfate at a rate of 20 g / m² to a depth of 10-12 cm during the first processing of the row spacing. Top dressing for mid-ripening varieties is carried out again in a month, and for late-ripening varieties - two more times.
Extreme options for fertilization can be different, you can always do it according to the situation.
I wish you success!
G. Vasyaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Scientific and Methodological Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy
Cabbage is one of the basic vegetables that can always be found in any vegetable garden.
Caring for this plant requires a special approach.
But preparation for the summer cottage season should be started now, because then it may be too late.
If you are going to plant cabbage, then you should know some secrets of working with seedlings.
Take note of the following important regulations:
If the cabbage lacks moisture or air, it stops developing normally. Also, in no case should the soil be allowed to dry out.
If the soil dries up during the fruiting period, the culture begins to reduce its active growth. As a rule, even heavy watering after a severe drought may not restore it.
Particular attention should be paid to the water temperature. Cold water can even provoke the death of a plant and this point should be clearly considered in advance.
It is ideal to water the cabbage with water that has naturally heated up throughout the day.
Top dressing of trees is carried out along furrows dug in a circle at a distance of 1.5–2 m from the trunk for vigorous trees and 1 m for low-growing ones. Fertilizer is dissolved or stirred in water, poured into furrows and covered with earth. Instead of a furrow, you can dig 8-12 holes 20 cm deep at the same distance from the trunk and distribute the fertilizer evenly over them. Top dressing of fruit shrubs is combined with watering, distributing fertilizer along the projection of the crown.
Timely and complete fertilization of the beds in the spring will allow your vegetables to start growing in high-quality, nutritious soil. This will save them from stress and give strength to resist disease. In addition, the plant does not have to spend energy searching for macro- and microelements, and it will develop into the envy of its neighbors.
The most important fertilizer for the garden in spring is, of course, nitrogen. However, you shouldn't forget about potassium and phosphorus either - a competent combination of these substances will allow vegetables to evenly grow the root system and foliage. It is important to correctly combine organic and mineral fertilizing for the garden, because only in a complex they will give a good result.
So rotted manure or compost should be applied 3-4 weeks before planting vegetables at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 sq. M. And mineral fertilizers - just before planting or digging the earth. If you do not have organic matter, you can use dry fertilizers and apply the following substances per square meter: