The perennial plant Livistona is part of the Palm family. These plants are found naturally in Oceania, Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa. This genus was named in honor of the laird Livingston - Patrick Murray, who collected plants, and was also a student and friend of Andrew Balfour. This genus unites more than 30 species, and some of them are cultivated in greenhouses. However, there are also types of Liviston that can be grown at home.
Most of the Liviston palm species are trees that can reach a height of 25 to 40 meters. But these palms are slow-growing and therefore can be grown indoors. The surface of the trunk is covered with dried petiole sheaths left over from dead leaf plates. At the very top of the trunk there is a crown, consisting of fan-shaped leaf plates of a rounded shape, which are dissected to the middle (sometimes deeper), their lobes are radially folded. Powerful leaf petioles, sharp along the edge, pass into the leaf plate with a rod 5–20 centimeters long. Inflorescences are axillary. When grown at home, such a plant almost never forms a trunk, but many leaf plates grow in it. If the palm tree grows in favorable conditions, then 3 new leaves can form in it in a year.
Growing and caring for a Liviston palm tree with a fan-shaped leaf shape at home
If you do not yet have a Liviston palm tree at home, but you really want it, it is not at all necessary to purchase an expensive adult bush for this. It is quite possible to grow such a palm tree with your own hands from seed. Seed material needs mandatory scarification. For this, a not very deep incision is made on the surface of the seed, or the shell is thinned with an abrasive material. If this is not done, the sprout will take a very long time to break through the dense and tough shell.
Seeds are sown in separate pots (peat pots can be used) or in disposable cups. They are filled by 2/3 with a loose moist soil mixture for seedlings, the pH of which should be in the range of 6.3–6.5. Seeds are planted to a depth of about 20 mm, then the container is covered with a film (glass) on top and transferred to a very warm (about 30 degrees) and well-lit place. Do not forget to ventilate the crops every day and, if necessary, moisten the soil mixture.
The first seedlings should appear after 1-4 months. They are advised to provide a large amount of bright light that must be diffused. After the length of the first leaf plate is 20–40 mm, the seedlings are transplanted into ceramic pots, and the soil mixture is used the same as for transplanting adult palms. During the first year, the young plant should be in partial shade.
Young palms growing in natural conditions simply need shading from the scorching direct rays of the sun. But in indoor conditions, there is almost never a too bright sun that can harm the plant. However, it is still better to shade the bush from the scorching afternoon sun, while its foliage suffers most of all not from direct rays, but from heated glass. It is because of this that in the summer the room where the Livistona is located must be regularly ventilated. But it is best in the warm season, if possible, to transfer the bush to the garden and place it in the shade of trees. Indoors, the palm tree grows best on the western windowsill. In order for the bush to develop symmetrically, and there is no curvature of the trunk, it must be regularly rotated 180 degrees around its axis once every 15 days.
During the growing season, Liviston develops and grows best at an air temperature of 20 to 28 degrees. In winter, it is better to transfer the bush to a cool place (from 14 to 18 degrees), however, the temperature in the room should in no case fall below 12 degrees.
You can cut off old leaf plates only when the petioles are completely dry. If the tips have dried on the leaves, then it is not advisable to cut them off, since the rest of the plate will begin to dry at a faster rate because of this.
The clod of earth in the pot should not be allowed to dry out, as this has an extremely negative effect on the growth and development of the Liviston palm. In this regard, it is watered systematically, using soft and warm water for this, but make sure that no liquid stagnation occurs in the soil mixture. In winter, it is necessary to reduce the abundance and frequency of watering.
A palm tree in room conditions requires high air humidity. Therefore, in the warm season, its foliage must be regularly moistened with a sprayer. However, if the weather is cloudy and cool, then it is better not to spray the bush. Protect the foliage from drafts and hot air currents, otherwise this can damage the leaf plates, which will cause the bush to lose its decorative appearance. Once every 30 days, the plant is recommended to arrange a warm shower.
Top dressing is carried out only in April – August, once every 20–30 days. It is best for this to use a mineral complex fertilizer for palms in the form of a solution, and feeding is carried out only after preliminary watering, otherwise the roots may get burned. Also, every four weeks, the bushes are fed on foliage with a solution of trace elements. Remember that when the room gets colder than 18 degrees, the roots of the palm tree stop absorbing nutrients. The same is observed in the case when the pH of the soil mixture exceeds 7.5.
A bush is transplanted only if necessary, while younger plants are much more likely to need this procedure, compared to adult specimens. If the Liviston is already old, then it is better not to replant it at all, in this case the top layer of the soil mixture with a thickness of about 50 mm is only regularly replaced.
How to understand that a palm tree already needs replanting? A palm tree is transplanted when the soil mixture in the pot turns sour, while it has a bad smell. Also, the plant is transplanted, in which the root system has become too crowded in the pot. Most often, adult bushes are transplanted once every 3 years, and the procedure should be carried out in March, carefully transferring the palm tree from the old container to the new one. It is best to take a soil mixture with a pH of 5.6–7.5 for this; in addition, it must pass water well and retain its structure for a very long time. The approximate composition of the substrate is as follows: pine bark (2 parts) of fraction not less than 2 cm, coarse perlite (1 part), bone meal (1/10 part), coarse peat (2 parts), charcoal (1 part) of fraction not less than 1 cm, dolomite crushed stone (fraction 1.2 cm) or pebbles (1 part).
Take a tall pot, which will be 20-30 mm larger than the old one, and put a thick layer of drainage (expanded clay) on its bottom. Pull out the root system of the bush from the old container and carefully remove part of the felt layer of the roots, for this you can use scissors or pruning shears, which must be disinfected beforehand. Place the bush in a new container so that after all the voids are filled with fresh potting mix, it is no deeper in it than in the old pot.
Livistona. How to transplant and care for a palm tree.
Since this palm tree does not give growth and it has only 1 trunk, it can only be grown from seeds. How to do this is described in great detail above. When purchasing seed material, please note that it remains viable for only 1 year after harvest.
Liviston palm is highly resistant to viral and bacterial diseases. However, it can still suffer from fungal diseases such as root rot, sclerotinia, leaf blight and wilting.
When lesions are spotted, streaks and specks from black to brown-red are formed on the surface of the foliage, and most often these formations have a yellow border. Over time, the spots increase in size and join together, resulting in the formation of large, irregular necrotic areas. In some cases, specks form on very young leaf blades. It has been observed that those leaf plates that are not moistened with a spray bottle with water are not affected by spotting. That is why some experts advise to increase the air humidity in a different way, for example, you can pour wet pebbles into the pallet, on which a container with a palm tree is then placed. Also, in order to prevent the development of spotting, it is recommended to pay attention to the illumination: the foliage must necessarily receive the required amount of light, and even better if the lighting is very bright.
If the palm tree is affected by rhizostonia, late blight, fusarium or pythium, then it will begin to rot. Seedlings, as well as Liviston seeds, can be affected by sclerotinia. As many know, it is better to prevent the disease from affecting the plant than to cure it for a long time. That is why special attention should be paid to preventive measures for these fungal diseases:
If, nevertheless, Livistona is affected by a fungal disease, then in order to cure it, you will have to treat the bush with a fungicide solution.
Whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, thrips and spider mites can settle on such a plant. These pests are sucking, that is, they pierce the surface of the leaves and suck the juice out of them. In order to get rid of them, the palm is treated with an insecticide. But if scale insects or worms have settled on it, then before you spray the bush with a pesticide, you need to remove the pests with a cotton swab moistened with alcohol. The treatment of the bush with an insecticide is carried out in the open air.
Please note that spider mites are not insects, so they are not afraid of insecticides. In this case, acaricides are used for processing. Today, on the shelves of specialized stores, you can find insecticidal acaricidal preparations that can destroy both arachnids and insects, for example: Aktara, Fitoverm, Aktellik, Akarin, etc.
Livistona can also suffer if it is not looked after properly or if it is not provided with suitable conditions for growth. For example, if the room is cool, the lighting is poor, and there is very little magnesium in the soil mixture, this can cause the development of chlorosis of the lower leaf plates. If the plant lacks nutrients, and the soil mixture is excessively acidic, and manganese and iron are not present in its composition, then chlorosis of young leaf plates may develop because of this. When the first signs of chlorosis appear for the palm, optimal conditions need to be created, and it should also be fed foliarly with a nutrient solution that includes the missing elements.
If the bush lacks potassium, then its leaf plates begin to dry out. Initially, translucent spots of yellow or orange color are formed on the old foliage, after which necrosis of the edges of the plate appears. Then the leaf begins to dry, curl and changes its color to orange. If you find small necrotic spots on the foliage, then this is a sign that the flower lacks zinc. With a lack of nitrogen, the foliage becomes faded and its development worsens. If the soil mixture in the pot is salted, the tips of the lower leaf plates will first turn brown, and then the leaves will darken entirely.
If in summer spots of yellow or brown color have formed on the surface of the foliage, then this is the result of excessively intense lighting. Also, because of this, curliness of the leaves may develop. If the bush does not receive enough moisture, then the tips of its leaf plates die off, and the bush dries up. Moreover, in this case, the old leaf plates are the first to dry out. If water regularly stagnates in the substrate, then because of this, the bush becomes dark and rot appears on it.
Below will be described those types of Liviston palm, which are most often grown by flower growers at home.
The palm tree reaches a height of 10 to 12 meters, and its trunk diameter is 0.4–0.5 meters. She is originally from southern China. The surface of the upper part of the trunk is covered with remnants of dead leaf stalks and fibers. And the bottom of the barrel has a jagged surface. The fan-shaped drooping leaf plates include from 50 to 80 folded segments, which are deeply incised at the tips. The leaves have wide petioles, the length of which can be up to 150 cm, on their lower surface there are many straight, short and rather sharp thorns. The length of the axillary inflorescence often exceeds 100 cm.
Or liviston rotundifolia. In nature, this species can be found on the coastal sandy soils of the Moluccas and Java. The height of the trunk is up to 14 meters, and in diameter it reaches about 17 centimeters. Green glossy fan-shaped leaf plates of rounded shape reach about 150 cm in diameter, and at 2/3 of their length they are dissected into folded segments. The foliage has long (up to 150 cm) petioles, which are densely covered with thorns in the lower 1/3 of the part. The length of the axillary inflorescence is about 150 cm, it consists of yellow flowers. Since this species is most popular with flower growers, this article described how to care for it.
This species is native to the subtropical humid forests of eastern Australia. The height of the columnar trunk of this palm is about 25 meters, while it reaches up to 0.4 m in diameter. At the base, the trunk is thickened and its surface is covered with scars, as well as the remnants of sheaths of leaf plates. Folded radially fanned leaves are divided into small lobes with double-cut ends.These glossy dark green leaf plates have long (about 200 cm) petioles, along the edges of which are densely located sharp thorns, painted almost brown. The length of the branched axillary inflorescence is about 1.3 m.
This single-stemmed palm tree is slow growing, and it reaches a height of about 12 meters, a trunk diameter of up to 25 centimeters. The leaf plates are fan-shaped; they are dissected into drooping segments in numerous veins. Their front surface is dark green, and the wrong side is grayish-waxy. The leaf petioles have many small teeth.
Under natural conditions, this large palm tree can reach a height of about 30 meters. At the base, the gray trunk has a thickening, and its surface is covered with the remnants of leaf sheaths. The length of the fan-shaped leaf plates, like their petioles, is about 200 centimeters, they are divided into drooping lobes of a linear shape, and at a young age they have a reddish-pink color. As the lobes grow and develop, they turn reddish-bronze, and eventually become green-blue. Simple panicles consist of cream or yellowish flowers. Glossy fruits of a spherical shape are colored black, they reach about 20 mm in diameter.
In addition to the species described above, Easton Liviston is also grown at home, beautiful and other species that are still poorly understood today.
Ravena (Ravenea) is a majestic plant from the Palm family. The island of Madagascar and the Comoros are considered his homeland. Depending on the type and variety of palm, the plant can be medium or large in size.
Ravena consists of a single barrel in a light gray or gray shade, reminiscent of the shape of a bottle. In the lower part, it is wider in diameter, and becomes narrower upward. The plant has many large symmetrical feathery leaves of juicy green color, from two to five meters long. The palm tree blooms in small inflorescences, and the fruit is a drupe.
Mexico and California are considered the birthplace of this palm tree, it is there that you can find the brachea in natural conditions. There it reaches a height of 12-15 meters with a trunk diameter at the base of up to one and a half meters and a powerful root system. The fan leaves of the brachea form a lush crown. They are pale green or blue-gray, depending on the species. The trunk of the palm is ribbed. Scars are formed due to the death of the lower leaves.
Interesting fact. It is believed that the brachea was discovered by the Danish astronomer Tyche Brahe. But this is a mistake. He did not reveal anything. And in America, where this palm tree grows, I have never been. But it was named, indeed, in honor of this great astronomer.
Livistona belongs to the palm (arecaceae) botanical family. Representatives of this genus grow on the territory of Australia, Oceania. Many Liviston palms can be seen in the states of Southeast Asia. The listed regions of the world are the birthplace of our new friend. Moreover, the region of distribution of this kind of palm trees covers Polynesia, the islands of the Malay archipelago, and New Guinea. From all this, we conclude that in nature, Liviston palm trees settled in the subtropical and tropical regions of our planet.
The plant of interest to us is large. In a natural living environment, the culture can reach 20-25 m in height. The trunk of the exotic is covered with scars and leafy sheaths, which are equipped with long rod-shaped petioles of vegetative organs. The top of the plant is formed by a luxurious crown of fan-shaped dissected foliage. Livistona knows how to turn green. Its reproductive organs are collected in axillary inflorescences. Palm flowers cannot be of decorative value. Indoors, the plant has become widespread only thanks to the attractive spreading leaves that form the beautiful appearance of an exotic culture. It must be said that decorative leafy Liviston looks very great both in houses, apartments, and in office premises, halls.
The genus of these palms includes 30 plant species. The most famous in room culture were 3 types of liviston: L. Kitayskaya, L. Yuzhnaya and L. Kruglistnaya.
Family: Palm (Arecaceae)
Origin: Southeast Asia and New Guinea
Moisture: Maintain moist soil conditions at all times. Let the soil dry slightly before watering.
Location: South, East, West without direct sunlight
Pests and diseases: Scabbard, thrips, spider mites, whiteflies, mealybugs. Spotting and root rot.
Work Required: Remove all brown leaves to stimulate healthy growth of Livistona. The spikes on the barrel are sharp, so be careful when handling or wear gloves.
Growing temperature in the room: The normal temperature in the house should be between 18-24 ° C and always above 13 ° C. avoid drafts.
The Liviston Palm is also known as the Table Palm or Fan Palm.
Livistona Is a very attractive and elegant palm with large shiny fan-shaped leaves and thorny stems.
The palm tree adapts well to room life, it is undemanding and can survive the owner's oversight. Livistona is smaller than most other palms, but can still grow up to 2m indoors. This plant will surely add a tropical green element to your living space.