rose flower - one of the most beloved plants in our garden. Every year the number of rose seedlings in our market increases, new varieties appear, more and more gardeners and just summer residents want to plant these wonderful flowers.
The literature on growing roses is very extensive: books, articles, websites. It would seem that agricultural technology has been developed in detail, but roses do not always grow well in our gardens, they often die in winter.
There are many reasons for this: our difficult and unstable climate and agricultural technology that does not take it into account, rash selection of varieties for specific sites, poor choice of location.
In this series of articles, I want to share with gardeners my many years (more than 40 years) experience in growing roses in the northern suburbs of St. Petersburg. In August, the time for summing up the first results of the summer, as well as the best time for planning next year's plantings. It is at the peak of decorativeness that good luck and miscalculations in design are clearly visible. This is the best time to plan the planting of roses, carefully choose a place for them, prepare a place for spring planting in the fall. And you can plant roses in September. Under favorable conditions, next year they will already give full bloom.
With the existing abundance choosing the right varieties of roses for your garden is really tricky. When deciding which rose to buy, you need to go from the existing design, from the place where these roses will grow.
These plants differ markedly among themselves in the nature of growth, size, whimsy. A strain that is perfect for one location may not be appropriate for another.
Roses, especially grafted ones, can be transplanted only at a very young age, so the planting plan should be very carefully thought out, taking into account the design, the requirements of roses for growing conditions, ease of care and shelter for the winter.
Depending on the size, growth and flowering characteristics, use in the design, rose varieties are combined into garden groups based on the classification of roses. Usually there are park, shrub (scrubs), climbing, hybrid tea, ground cover, miniature roses, floribunda and patio roses. It is necessary to start choosing a variety precisely with the choice of a group, in accordance with the design concept. In addition, there are significant differences in varieties within the groups.
For example, for planting to an arch, you need to choose not just a climbing rose, but rather high and flexible. It is important to estimate the height of the rose, the area that it needs to be given. The main thing for choosing a variety is the presence of repeated or even better permanent flowering, as opposed to a single one. You need to think about how the chosen place is favorable for the growth of roses, and what kind of care you are ready to provide them. In many cases, you will have to give preference to the most stable, unpretentious varieties, even to the detriment of the size of flowers, terry and other valuable qualities.
The resistance of roses is indicated by the distinction awarded to certain varieties, for example the ADR. Often, when choosing a variety, it is worth consulting with experienced rose growers who have experience growing these plants in your area. It is worth paying attention not only to the color, but also to the size and shape of the flower, its doubleness, the presence and characteristics of the smell, the resistance of the flower to dampness, rain, the ability to self-clean after flowering. In any case, it is wrong to buy a rose simply because you liked the picture on the rose packaging or even in the catalog. In order not to be disappointed in your purchase, you need to take it seriously enough.
It must also be remembered that there are roses grafted on the roots. rose hips, and rooted roses, grown from cuttings, offspring or seeds. There are advantages and disadvantages to both methods of growing roses. Grafting allows for mass propagation of species and varieties with poor rooting of cuttings, such plants are more drought-resistant, with a more cold-resistant root system.
But recovery from the root system after freezing is possible only with rooted roses. The grafted plants can give rise to rose hips, which must be cut out in a timely manner and carefully. The rootstock used is also very important. Roses grafted onto non-resistant greenhouse rootstocks or rooted cuttings are very unstable in our country. The best rootstocks for us are the "dog rose" seedlings - canina. These roses have strong deep roots with a pronounced stem.
The place for roses is chosen based on the requirements of a particular type. The place should be warm, sunny, protected from wind, cold air and stagnant water. But it is no less important that decorativeness and convenience of caring for them are provided.
It is best to arrange roses, especially thermophilic ones that require shelter, compactly in the rose garden... It will be more convenient to cover them if the rose garden has a rectangular shape no more than 1.5 m wide. It is convenient to plant climbing roses in one row along a wall or support, then the shelter will be more compact. Do not plant roses too close to buildings, no closer than 70-100 cm.
For planting roses, they dig spacious pits or trenches ranging in size from 40x40 cm for miniature ones, up to 80x80 cm for shrub and climbing species. When planting in a rose garden, you can completely replace the earth there, and then place the plants in it arbitrarily. Pits are dug and filled with soil in advance, so that the earth has time to settle in them. Pit filling is common for large, soil-demanding plants. The addition of humus or compost is mandatory, it can be semi-rotten, mineral fertilizers, preferably long-acting, on acidic soils be sure to add lime or dolomite flour.
In the North-West, it is better to plant roses in spring, although grafted roses, when planted in September, also root well and hibernate with sufficient cover. In spring, dormant or early growth plants can be planted as soon as the soil is ripe. Before planting roses, it is necessary to inspect, cut off damaged branches and roots and paint over the sections and defects with water-based paint with copper chloride.
Plants infected with diseases, especially powdery mildew, often go on sale, therefore, before planting, it is necessary to etch the aboveground part in copper oxychloride (5-10 g per liter of water), and if there is a danger of pest infestation - karbofos or another insecticide.
The root collar of the grafted rose should be deepened by 5-6 cm, and by its own-rooted - by 2-3 cm. If the soil in the hole has not settled well, it is better to plant it a little higher, and after shrinkage, add earth. Deepening of the root collar, i.e. the grafting site of such a rose is very important because, being underground, the lower buds of the scion are better preserved in winter. In case of freezing of the aerial part, the rose will be able to recover from these buds.
Plants planted without burying die more often in winter. It is very useful to cover the root collar and the lower part of the stem with coarse sand, this will prevent stagnation of water in the most prone to underpinning place. After planting, the rose needs to be watered, mulched peat, humus or a mixture of them. To improve rooting, it is advisable to shade them with paper or cloth.
Immediately after planting, all roses need to cut, leaving 2-4 buds on each shoot. When the roses begin to grow, you need to pinch the shoots above the fourth leaf to enhance the branching and regrowth of new shoots. In this case, more powerful, symmetrical bushes grow. When buds appear in the first half of summer, they must be removed, since flowering will slow down the growth of new shoots.
In August, you do not need to pinch the buds, now the growth of new shoots is undesirable, and flowering will only accelerate the ripening of the shoots. Climbing and park roses do not need to be pinched after regrowth of shoots. When planting in autumn, roses are not pruned so as not to cause the growth of new shoots, it is advisable only to cut off part of the leaves to reduce evaporation.
The main difference between roses and other shrubs usually grown in our country is the absence of a natural dormancy period in most roses, the absence of cyclicity, forcing plants to grow intensively in spring, bloom, slow down their growth by autumn and prepare for winter. Roses grow until late autumn, do not prepare for cold weather and hibernate poorly.
Our main task is to create such cyclicality artificially, with the help of agricultural technology. At different periods of growth and development of roses, the gardener faces different tasks that he solves using different agricultural techniques. Consider caring for your roses according to these periods.
Early spring is the period from the beginning of massive snow melting to its complete melting and thawing of the soil (second half of March - April). This period is characterized by sharp temperature fluctuations, the snow is actively melting, and the weather is often sunny. The temperature in the shelter can rise to high values, especially if it is covered with plastic wrap. For roses during this period, the danger is: disease and bark podoprevanie, premature bud germination with the formation of weak shoots.
During this period, you should not clean off the snow from the shelters, it smooths out temperature drops, shades the shelters. After the shelter is free of snow, the roses covered with foil must be ventilated. Roses covered without a film can be left alone at this time. As soon as the snow melts, the soil thaws, you can start opening the roses.
Spring is the period of opening of roses and caring for them until the end of frost (late April - early June, in more northern regions this is early May - June 5-10). The weather during this period is unstable, during the day the temperature can rise to + 20 ° С, and at night it can drop to -5 ° С and even lower. The gardener is faced with the task of preventing burn roses, freezing during night frosts, the development of diseases, to ensure initial growth, preparation for earlier flowering.
Roses should be opened gradually, accustoming them to full lighting for several days. The situation is very dangerous when, when the soil is not completely thawed, the roses end up in the bright sun. Water does not flow from the soil to the plant, since the roots do not work yet, but evaporation occurs, the roses dry out, and the shoots shrivel. There are no problems with the opening of roses, covered in winter only by spruce branches and lutrasil. During this period, it is necessary to carry out the first basic processing of the plants: uncoil them by removing unnecessary soil or distributing it in the rose garden, carry out the main pruning of roses, spray them to prevent diseases. If the roses came out of the shelter dry, you need to water them abundantly, fertilize them with full fertilizer (N, P, K) with microelements, mulch with humus, peat.
The first half of summer is a period of active growth and flowering of roses (June - July). The main task of this period is to provide optimal conditions for the active growth and flowering of roses, the formation of new shoots, and preparation for the secondary flowering of re-blooming roses.
Immediately after the end of the frost, it is necessary to process the roses: check for damaged, poorly growing branches, which are often additionally detected during this period, cut them out, water the roses and fertilize with full organic or mineral fertilizer. At this time, diseases and pests often appear, but even in the absence of visible signs of damage, it is advisable to spray roses from fungal diseases, aphids, spider mite.
In June - July, they make systematic, once every 7-14 days, fertilizing plants with mineral and organic fertilizers, watering, weeding the rose garden. During this period, faded flowers and inflorescences are cut to enhance growth and the formation of new flowering shoots. The inflorescences are pruned to a well-developed bud. You can cut flowers into bouquets.
When diseases and pests appear, it is necessary, preventing their strong development and spread, to spray the plants with appropriate preparations. When signs of damage appear on one or more plants, everything should be sprayed.
The second half of summer, the period of attenuation of the growth of roses and ripening of shoots (August - September). The main task of this period is to create conditions for the maturation of the formed shoots and the cessation of the formation of new ones, which will not have time to mature before winter. Many groups of roses continue to bloom at this time.
From the end of July, it is necessary to stop the supply of nitrogen, the increased content of which delays the growth of shoots. The last fertilization with nitrogen in the form of foliar dressing can be carried out in mid-July or a little later - after the end of the first mass flowering of roses. This is necessary in order to induce their active growth and prepare them for re-flowering. Foliar dressing is quickly absorbed and has a short duration of action. The use of dry full (with nitrogen) fertilizers at the end of July is already unacceptable.
In August, you need to fertilize the roses with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and water with a solution of boric acid. This contributes to the better preparation of roses for winter. Watering during this period is necessary only if the weather is hot, dry. It is necessary to stop cutting the faded inflorescences to prevent the stimulation of new shoot growth. Fruit formation improves shoot maturation. If there is a need to cut flowers for a bouquet, then you need to cut off the branches at the top of the bush. Cutting at the bottom of the bush will lead to the growth of young shoots close to the base, they will not have time to ripen. The formation of young shoots in the upper part is not so harmful, since the entire upper part of the plant is cut off in front of the shelter.
Read the next part. Types and rules for pruning roses →
Tatiana Popova, gardener
Photo by the author
Read all parts of the article "Growing roses in St. Petersburg"
- Part 1. Selection of variety and planting of roses
- Part 2. Types and rules for pruning roses
- Part 3. Shelter roses for the winter
Rose is one of the most exquisite and beautiful plants to grow in your garden. Planting roses must be carried out in accordance with all the rules, and caring for it requires care and careful work, as well as some starting knowledge when choosing a seedling and a place for growing.
I disinfect all the seedlings purchased in spring or autumn - I dip them for 20-30 minutes in a solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) or in a solution of foundationazol (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
All reputable firms recommend planting roses in nets or other containers in which they are sold. But I was convinced that very often roses supplied with a closed root system in containers have a lot of damaged, broken, bent roots, which is not acceptable when planting.
Therefore, before planting, I very carefully examine the seedlings, remove all broken, weak branches and damaged roots, shorten the roots to 30-35 cm. If the seedlings come with cut roots, the sections must be updated. If the roots are dry, the seedlings should be immersed in cold water for a day before planting.
When planting in spring, you need to shorten the shoots and leave the following number of buds (pieces):
Ground cover roses do not need pruning, you just need to update the cuts of the roots. In climbing large-flowered roses, park, semi-climbing, scrubs, it is necessary to slightly shorten the roots and remove the weak and damaged tops of the shoots.
When planting in the autumn, the shoots of the seedlings of all groups are slightly shortened, since in the spring, after removing the shelters, the roses will be pruned according to the basic rules, depending on the group and variety. This is described in detail in the section Pruning roses.
If rose seedlings were bought in early spring and unfavorable weather conditions do not allow them to be planted in open ground, I put them in a bucket, box or other container, fill them with wet sand above the grafting site, install arcs from rods on top and cover the seedlings with a film so that moisture does not evaporate ... In this form, in a cool room, they are stored until planting.
Undoubtedly, and has long been customary, that the rose is one of the most revered and beloved flowers. No wonder she is called the queen of all colors. It is truly one of the most beautiful and fabulously attractive plants.
As a symbol of love and beauty, roses will probably forever be the most revered among women. There is no sweeter and more delicate gift in the world than a bouquet of amazing roses.
But this bouquet brings positive emotions only at the beginning, when the flowers look beautiful in a vase and smell sweet all over the room. Some time passes and the flowers fade. And some kind of sediment appears on the soul. This phenomenon once again confirms that all good things will pass anyway.
So that subtle and romantic natures do not suffer from this, breeders have bred miniature roses patiothat can grow in small pots and always delight everyone with their presence. It is impossible to pick up epithets to convey all the charm and beauty of this plant.
It is impossible to name the optimal calendar period when roses should be planted. Much depends not only on the region, but also on the variety of plants. In principle, it is clear how to plant roses in a garden from seedlings in containers or pots with soil. They should simply be carefully removed from the pot and, together with a lump of soil around the roots, transplanted into the ground at any time of the year except winter, of course. But planting seedlings with a bare root system (including if there is soil around the roots, but there is very little of it) is recommended to be done in spring or autumn.
For the southern regions, where autumn is warm and long, and winters are mild, both autumn and spring are equally suitable, since in autumn the plants have enough time to take root and adapt before the onset of frost. But in the northern regions and the middle lane, where the first frosts can hit in September, the autumn planting is too risky. If the cold weather finds the plants unrooted, the roses may not survive until spring.
For central Russia, the period from April 20 to May 20 can be considered a conditionally safe period for planting roses. You can determine the optimal planting time by the temperature of the soil: it should warm up to 8-10 ° C.
The flower belongs to the Rosaceae family. These are shrubs, branches of which have strong clinging thorns and can reach a length of thirty centimeters to two meters (and in climbing species - up to twelve meters). Since the mid-seventies of the last century, the World Federation of Rose Communities has adopted a classification of roses according to the principle of using these flowers for planting lard, according to which three groups are distinguished:
In turn, they are divided into several groups, the most popular of which are:
If you provide garden roses with proper care and feed them on time, they will delight their owner for a long time with lovely fragrant flowers and lush green foliage.
The best fertilizer for roses is manure, and especially horse manure (must be at least 6 months old). The fresher chicken and pork manure will only bring harm to this flower. The fact is that it is very sour and can simply burn the plant. And fresh horse manure helps to block nitrogen in the ground.
During budding, calcium nitrate diluted in water is used as a top dressing (a full tablespoon of the substance is taken for 10 liters). When the rose begins to grow actively, it should be watered with a solution of mineral fertilizers, infused mullein, herbal infusion or a solution of chicken droppings every 1.5-2 weeks. It is best to apply fertilizers dissolved in water and after the plant has been watered. From the 3rd week of July, it is no longer necessary to feed the plant, as it begins to prepare for winter.
Roses, like all other plants, very poorly tolerate excessive cold, heat or long rains. To help them, you can spray the plant with epin, sodium humate, zircon, or ecosil. If the flowers are overfed, then a lot of foliage will form, and, on the contrary, there are few buds.
Watering should be infrequent, namely, once every 7 days. However, if the summer is very hot and dry, the amount of watering doubles. A bucket of warm water is poured under the root of one bush (do not pour on the leaves). Watering should be done so that the soil is saturated to a depth of 20-30 centimeters.
If the rose bushes will not be watered for a long time, then the soil under them should be covered with plucked grass, humus or bark from a tree.
If the plant lacks moisture, the flowers will become smaller. If it is in excess, then the foliage will begin to turn yellow. It is also recommended to loosen the soil after each watering.
Rose bushes are susceptible to diseases such as powdery mildew. For prevention, spray the foliage with a solution made from regular soda (40 grams) and water (1 liter). It is necessary to spray 2-3 times in spring (with a break a week), and in June.
If aphids appear, then 10 liters. Dissolve a bar of laundry soap with water and put 2 sprigs of wormwood. Boil this mixture for 10-15 minutes. After it cools down, process the foliage. Repeat the procedure after 7 days. In the event that the aphid remains, then spray the rose with a systemic poison, for example, Aktara.
Nasturtium and lavender repel aphids, so it can be planted near roses. Close-planted garlic and onions will help keep the roses from getting sick and make the flowers more fragrant. Marigolds and calendula will protect from beetles.
If cracks appear on the stems, buds on the foliage have ceased to form and spots have formed, then the infected branches must be carefully cut off, and the plant should be sprayed with infusion of wormwood, nettle and horsetail.
Shoots that grow inward are subject to pruning. As a result, the bush will have many new shoots. And if the withering flowers are removed in time, then the next flowering will be more abundant than the previous one.
Rose variety "Black Baccarat", bred by French breeders, belongs to the hybrid tea varieties. The flower has a black-red color and a beautiful velvety texture.
Such roses are planted in partial shade, in areas protected from the wind. Neighborhood with tall trees is not allowed, planting next to shrubs of medium height is possible. Looks good in a flower bed with red and white roses.
Used for cutting and decorating the landscape. Since the rose has a long flowering period - from June to September - it can be planted in the center of the flower bed and surrounded by other flowers.