It is interesting to get acquainted with the pear, which appeared far in America more than 160 years ago. Why, at a time when several hundred varieties of this crop have already been obtained, Lyubimitsa Klappa firmly takes its positions and does not retreat from them? Should I give preference to her when choosing a variety for planting and how to grow it?
This variety was obtained back in 1860 in the US state of Massachusetts by breeder T. Clapp, a seedling from the seeds of the Forest Beauty. Has the second name Clapp`s Favorite. In 1947 it was zoned for the North-West region, as well as for the North Caucasian and Lower Volga regions. In addition, it is distributed in the republics of Central Asia and the Baltic States, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus.
The tree has medium to high vigor with a wide-pyramidal, sparse crown. It blooms in medium terms for a long time and beautifully. The flowers are large. Klapp's favorite is self-sterile. Pollinators are pear varieties Forest Beauty, Williams, Bere Giffard, Olivier de Serre. High winter hardiness and drought resistance of the variety are its strengths. But in dry years, the fruits become smaller and are severely damaged by copperhead. There is no immunity to scab, it is strongly affected in damp years. Fruiting is rather late - in the 7-8th year after planting. The maximum yield of 150-300 c / ha is achieved by fifteen to twenty-five years of life of the tree.
The consumption period is summer. Fruits reach harvesting maturity in late July - mid-August, depending on the growing region. Fruits are very sensitive to the time of harvest - when overripe, they quickly crumble, and removed prematurely have a bad taste. The optimal harvest time is ten days before consumer maturity. Good transportability, keeping quality - 10-15 days. It is mostly consumed fresh, and compotes are covered and dried.
Fruits are short-pear-shaped, weighing 140-200 grams. The skin is smooth, yellow, with numerous subcutaneous punctures. On the sunny side, a bright, thick, carmine blush. The pulp is juicy, tender, melting with an excellent sour-sweet taste.
The fruit of Klapp's Pet has a bright, thick blush.
When choosing a place for planting pears, you need to take into account the characteristics of the variety. It is noted that the variety Lyubimitsa Klappa is absolutely not picky about the composition of the soil, but on the lungs it begins to bear fruit earlier than on clay. Does not accept swampy, poorly drained, saline soils. Grows well on southern slopes, especially sheltered from northerly winds. The acidity of the soil should be in the range of pH 5.0-6.5. It can grow on more acidic soils, and on alkaline soils, the susceptibility to scab increases sharply. Loves the sun, grows normally in the shade, but bears fruit poorly. It is also worth noting that the distance from buildings and neighboring trees should not be less than four meters.
Based on these features, they choose the optimal place for planting pears, Favorite Klapp. And don't forget about pollinators. If there is no room for them in the garden, but you still want to plant a pear of this variety, you can plant 2-3 branches of pollinating varieties in the crown and thus solve the problem.
It is necessary to plant a pear in the spring, since over the summer the young tree will gain strength, take root well and calmly endure its first winter. When growing a tree in the southern regions, it can be planted in the fall. But in both cases, there should be no sap flow, and the seedling should be planted in a dormant state. This rule does not apply to closed root seedlings (CCS), which can be planted anytime from April to October.
In any case, it is better to purchase seedlings for planting in the fall and it is recommended to do this in specialized nurseries. Plants take root best and grow faster at the age of 1-2 years. Saplings with ZKS can be even older - up to 5-6 years. As usual, when choosing, they give preference to plants with well-developed roots, smooth, healthy bark. If the seedling needs to be saved until spring, it is dropped in the garden or lowered into the basement. The roots are pre-covered with a layer of mullein and clay talkers, during storage they need to create a moist environment. Basement temperature should be between 0-5 ° C.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear looks like this:
A few hours before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water
The root collar of the seedling should be at the level of the lower edge of the rail
The seedling is tied to a peg with soft material in the form of a figure of eight
Unpretentious Favorite Klapp does not require special attention to herself. In old gardens, an abandoned one grows and often the owner remembers it only during the period of fruit ripening. There will be fewer of them, they will be smaller, possibly wormy - but they will be. Of course, this approach is incorrect and cannot be recommended.
As already noted, in drought conditions, the fruits of Klapp's Favorite become smaller. Therefore, the pear still needs to be watered sometimes. Watering is especially needed in dry years, as well as for young trees with an underdeveloped root system. The first time it is done before flowering, the second time after flowering. Further, several more times during the ripening period of the fruit. The frequency of watering depends on the amount of precipitation. At the end of the season, pre-winter water-charging irrigation is required. When watering, you need to control the depth of soil moisture. It should be 25-35 centimeters. After the soil dries up, it should be loosened. If the trunk circle is mulched, then loosening is not required.
At the end of the season, pre-winter moisture-charging irrigation is required.
Starting from the fourth year after planting, the pear begins to be fed. This will provide good shoot growth and large yields of large, juicy fruits.
Unpretentious in everything, this pear also will not cause much trouble with trimming. It is only important to correctly form the crown of the tree in the first years of life. Traditionally, it is given a sparse-tiered form, widely known and repeatedly described in the literature.
The crown of Lyubimitsa Yakovlev is given a sparse-tiered formation
Due to the fact that Favorite Klappa has a rare crown, she will not need regulating pruning. Only sanitary ones remain, which are carried out in late autumn by removing dry, diseased and damaged branches, as well as supporting ones. They are carried out in the first half of summer, shortening young shoots by 5-10 centimeters. This stimulates their overgrowth with fruiting twigs, on which flower buds are laid for the next year's harvest.
Considering that the Klapp's Favorite pear was obtained at a time when many modern diseases did not exist yet, then it has no immunity to them. Therefore, it is especially relevant to carry out prevention and perform compulsory sanitary work. They consist of cleaning and burning fallen leaves, digging near-trunk circles in the fall, lime whitewashing of trunks and branches, processing the crown and soil with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. All these works are carried out in the fall, thus preparing the plants for winter. In the spring, fishing belts are installed, trees are treated with DNOC and Nitrafen according to the instructions.
Almost all diseases to which the variety in question is susceptible are fungal. For their treatment, fungicides are used. You should know that these drugs are addictive to the fungus, so they can be used no more than three times per season.
It is the most common pear disease, especially in humid areas. Spores of the pathogen overwinter in cracks in the bark of a tree, fallen leaves, and the upper layers of the soil. In spring, the disease begins with the appearance of small brown-olive spots on the underside of the leaves. By the middle of summer, the spots grow, darken and already affect the fruits and shoots. Cracks, scabs, putrefactive spots form on the fruits. The pulp under them hardens and becomes stony. Such fruits are already unsuitable for food.
With scab, cracks, scabs, putrefactive spots form on the fruits
At the initial stage, the systemic fungicide Horus helps to cope well with the fungus. It is effective on young leaves and shoots at temperatures from +3 to +22 ° C. At later stages, the Strobi fungicide is recognized as the best drug.
The causative agent of this disease can also overwinter in leaves and bark cracks. In spring, as a rule, spores are brought in by bees during the collection of nectar. At the same time, the disease affects flowers, then shoots and leaves. They wither, turn black and look burnt. Therefore, the disease is sometimes called monilial burn. Such shoots must be cut out and destroyed, and the crown must be treated with a copper-containing preparation Abiga-Peak.
In June - July, moniliosis affects fruits with gray rot. At this time, it is better to use Strobe for treatments. And also the biofungicide Fitosporin helps well in the fight against moniliosis. It can be used throughout the season and is not addictive. The interval of treatments is two weeks, in rainy weather - one week. In addition to the therapeutic effect, the drug increases the yield and increases the shelf life of the fruits, which is relevant for Favorite Klapp.
In June-July, moniliosis affects fruits with gray rot.
In the spring, immediately after flowering, small greenish-yellow spots begin to appear on the leaves, which increase by mid-summer and acquire a bright brownish-orange color, reminiscent of rust. On the underside of the leaves, tubercles are formed, in which the spores of the fungus are located. In damp years, the disease develops rapidly and the lesion can reach 100%. If infected leaves are found on the pear, they should be cut off, and the crown should be treated with fungicides Skor, Strobi, Abiga-Peak, etc.
By the middle of summer, the spots enlarge and acquire a bright brownish-orange color, reminiscent of rust
To prevent the disease, you should avoid the neighborhood with the juniper, and also carry out a set of preventive work.
This is a fairly large order of insects.
This lily is common all over the world. Its size does not exceed three millimeters, the flea can fly and jump. It causes harm by feeding on the juice of young shoots, buds, ovaries, leaves. As a result, they dry out and fall off, the tips of the shoots curl and turn yellow. Fruits affected by copperhead become small, hard, stony.The harvest is lost. Honeydew secreted by the beetle beetle provokes a sooty fungus disease.
The pearl copper can fly and jump
In addition to the usual preventive measures, before flowering, you can treat the pear with the Commander.
These small insects are carried onto the tree by ants. They do this in order to subsequently feed on honeydew secreted by aphids. It feeds on the sap of leaves and tips of young shoots. You can find it by the twisted leaves. If you unfold such a sheet, you can find a cluster of insects inside. You can prevent damage by installing trapping belts that block the path of ants, expelling ants from the garden, and also applying insecticides. Preparations and methods of dealing with aphids are the same as with copperhead.
Ants feed on honeydew secreted by aphids.
It is also common in humid areas. It is a fly 5-6 mm long, which flies during the beginning of flowering of pears and lasts from one to two weeks. The fertilized female then lays eggs one at a time in the receptacle of each flower. To do this, she makes an incision at its base. After 10-14 days, the larvae appear, which do not come to the surface, eat out the rudiments of the seeds of the fruit. Then they move to neighboring ones. Within a month, each larva affects 3-4 fruits, which darken and fall off. After that, the larvae hibernate in the soil, where they are located at a depth of ten centimeters.
The pear sawfly is a fly 5-6 mm long
To prevent the problem, 5-6 days before flowering, the crown should be treated with Metaphos or Fufanon. After flowering, two more treatments are carried out.
The variety Lyubimitsa Klappa is worth having on the site for personal use. A pear that is undemanding to care for will annually give two weeks of summer delight with magnificent juicy fruits. And to prolong the pleasure, you can close a number of cans of compotes, as well as dry dried fruits.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Pear is a typical representative of the Rose family, which includes a large number of fruit and ornamental crops. Among the variety of its varieties, it is very difficult to navigate. Difficulties arise not only for beginners, but also for experienced gardeners. To make the right choice, you need to take into account a number of nuances. Below are the features of the choice and description of popular varieties of pears with names and photos.
The variety of pears Lyubimitsa Klappa belongs to varieties that are resistant to various weather disasters. The tree tolerates drought well, and also has excellent frost resistance, can withstand temperatures as low as -35 degrees.
Since the variety of pears Lyubimitsa Klappa tolerates severe frosts well, it is widespread in the northern region of Russia.
The variety is not very demanding on the soil, but when grown on light soils, fruiting occurs much earlier than on heavy clay soil. The tree grows slowly in moist, salty and poorly drained soil. In dry summers, the fruits become small and are very susceptible to damage to the sucker.
The tree is considered to be of medium height; an adult tree, as a rule, grows up to 3-4 meters in height. A young seedling grows rather quickly, forming a pyramidal, not very dense crown. As the tree matures, the crown becomes wide and rounded, the branches hang down a little.
Pear fruits have more than average size, their weight is mainly 100-200 grams, on young trees the fruits are quite large up to 250 grams, have the shape of an elongated oval. The skin of the fruit has a smooth and delicate surface.
The color of ripe fruits is bright yellow, from the side where there was a lot of sun, there is a bright, pink spot. On the surface of the fetus, you can see clearly visible subcutaneous points. It happens that a small rusty frame appears at the base of the fruit.
Pears of the Lyubimitsa Klappa variety are very juicy, have a light aroma and sweet and sour taste.
The flesh of the fruit is white, has a delicate texture, melts right in the mouth.
Due to its excellent taste, the fruits are consumed raw, and also used for making home preservation. Also, dried fruits are prepared from pears of this variety, only for this, it is necessary to remove the fruits from the tree at the initial stage of ripening so that they do not become too soft.
The fruit ripens in late July - early August; in some cold regions, ripening may be delayed until mid-August.
If the fruits are removed from the tree too early or too late, then their taste will change for the worse. Unripe pears stick to the tree firmly, but when they reach full maturity, they can quickly crumble, so it is better to remove them ten days before full maturity.
Plucked ripe fruits are stored for no more than 14 days. The shelf life of unripe fruits is increased to three weeks.
The variety is distinguished by good winter hardiness and unpretentiousness. Fruiting is regular and abundant, the taste and consumer qualities of the fruits are excellent.
The disadvantages include a short shelf life of the crop (2-3 weeks), as well as a tendency to shedding when the fruit is fully ripe, self-fertility and poor resistance to scab.
The variety is often used in breeding work. With the participation of Lyubimitsa Klapp, about 20 new varieties have been obtained, of which 5 have already been released.
The summer variety of pears "Modest", obtained as a result of crossing the varieties Lyubimitsa Klappa and Kuibyshevskaya Zolotistaya, is inferior to its parent in frost resistance, although it has the ability to accelerate recovery. But to scab, on the contrary, the Modest woman has a higher immunity.
Usolka is another summer variety with which Klapp's Favorite can compete on its merits. In addition to frost resistance, early maturity and resistance to scab, the fruits of the Usolka pear can be stored in the refrigerator without losing their taste for 2-3 months.
Susov rated resistance to one of the most common diseases - scab at 4.
But it doesn't hurt to know the signs of infection. First, yellow dots appear on the back of the leaf, which turn into brown spots. Then the affected leaves curl up and fall off.
Disease resistance can boast: Samara beauty, Tema, Bere Russkaya, Yakovlevskaya and Fairy.
You can fight this fungal infection by spraying Bordeaux liquid in the spring.
And also pay attention to disease prevention by collecting and burning or composting fallen leaves
A similar fungal disease is black cancer. It manifests itself as red spots on the bark and leaves and even on fruits. Treatment - with a solution of copper sulfate with the simultaneous removal of infected areas of the bark.
Dry and hot weather can lead to powdery mildew infections. Symptoms of the disease are folded leaves covered with a white coating. This can be avoided by spraying with a solution of colloidal sulfur.
Of the pests, the moth should be noted. Eastern and pear. These are small butterflies that lay their eggs on leaves or inflorescences.
After the formation and crawling out of the caterpillars, there is a massive defeat of the fruit. Control measures - trapping belts, traps with pheromones, preventive examinations, cleaning up foci of infection.
Of the ticks, the brown fruit mite and the gall mite harm the pear. Fight - spraying during flowering with any of the acaricides, but preferably with different types in order to avoid addiction and pest resistance.
The daytime butterfly is dangerous - the hawthorn. Its larvae eat pear leaves to thin veins and greatly interfere with the tree. Control measures - spraying with insecticides, getting rid of flowering weeds that attract these harmful Lepidoptera.
Most often, the following diseases of fruit trees are found in the garden: https://selo.guru/ptitsa/bolezni-p/gribkovye/parsha.html, Rust, Bacterial burn.
The pear is more capricious than the apple tree more common in the Middle Lane, but with proper care, it will reward the gardener a hundredfold.