Pear Just Maria is quite widely known in Belarus and Russia. A young and promising variety has won a significant market share among a huge number of pear varieties. What properties contributed to this, what is Just Mary and how to grow her.
The pear variety Prosto Maria was selected at the Belarusian Institute of Fruit Growing in 1996, and in 2005 it was transferred for state variety trials. Included in the State Register in 2013 for the Central Region.
The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing. By the age of ten, the height reaches three meters. The crown is wide-pyramidal, with a diameter of up to 2.5 meters, the density is medium. Fruiting of a mixed type - most of the fruits are formed on ringlets and spears. The winter hardiness of the variety is high. Frost resistance - up to -38 ° C. After freezing, the plants recover quickly enough and give good yields, ranging from 40 to 70 kilograms per tree. It's just that Maria is resistant to scab, bacterial cancer and septoria. Early maturity is 3-4 years after planting. Partially self-fertile, therefore, the maximum number of fruits can be achieved by placing nearby pear varieties such as Pamyati Yakovlev, Koschia, Duchess and others that coincide in terms of flowering. Late ripening period - October-November.
The fruits are pear-shaped and have an average weight of 180 grams. They can grow up to 220 grams, sometimes more. During the harvesting period, the fruit is light yellow in color, with a slight pink tan on a small area. Numerous green subcutaneous dots are clearly visible. The skin is delicate, thin, smooth, glossy. No rustiness or roughness. The pulp is medium-dense, yellowish-white, juicy, fine-grained, sour-sweet, pleasant taste. The tasters gave a rating of 4.8 points, according to the gardeners' reviews, Just Maria deserves a higher rating. And also, many believe that the taste of its fruits surpasses the well-known industrial standards of Europe, such as Williams, Bere Bosc and others. The purpose of the fruit is dessert. When slightly unripe fruits are removed from the tree, transportability and keeping quality are good. In the refrigerator, the fruits can lie until January, gradually ripening.
The fruits of Just Mary are pear-shaped and have an average weight of 180 grams.
Summing up, we can highlight the main qualities of the pear Just Maria. Its advantages:
We could not find any shortcomings.
To plant a pear, you first need to find a suitable place for it. Only by creating favorable conditions for the life of the tree, one can expect high and stable yields from it. Pear does not like cold northern winds, drafts and deep shade. It will completely refuse to grow in swampy and flooded places, and will hurt on soils with a high alkaline reaction.
The best results can be achieved by planting Just Maria on a small slope in the south or southwest direction with natural protection from the north or northeast in the form of a building wall, fence or dense trees. In the absence of such protection, it is possible for the first time to install special shields painted in white. This color reflects the sun's rays and creates additional heating and better illumination of the crown. The soil is needed loose, well-drained with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. The pH level can be in the range of 5.5-6, but possibly 4.2-4.4. In the latter case, as noted by some sources, the incidence of scab is practically excluded.
It is good if there are dense trees from the north or northeast of the planting site, protecting the young tree from cold winds
Although it is possible to plant a pear in the fall, but in this case there is a great risk that a poorly rooted tree will not tolerate winter frosts well. This is especially critical for the northern regions. Therefore, early spring planting is recommended, when the buds have not yet blossomed and sap flow has not begun.
It is advisable to purchase a seedling in the fall - at this time they are massively excavated in nurseries, which leads to a large selection of varied, high-quality planting material. The seedling should not be more than two years old, it is better even if it is one year old. This age is optimal for the survival of the tree. It will quickly grow and begin bearing fruit earlier. When buying, they inspect the condition of the seedling - its roots should be healthy, well-developed, without growths and cones. The bark is clean, smooth, without cracks or damage.
When buying, they inspect the condition of the seedling - its roots must be healthy, well-developed, without growths and cones
In order for the seedling to be well preserved until spring, it should be dug in the garden. To do this, you need to dig a small hole 30–40 centimeters deep and about a meter long. A small layer of sand is poured onto the bottom, the tree is laid with its roots on the bottom, with the crown on the edge of the pit, the roots are sprinkled with sand and watered. First, the roots must be dipped in a clay mash with the addition of mullein and water. This will prevent them from drying out. With the onset of the first frosts, the pit is covered with earth to the top, leaving the upper ends of the branches on the surface.
In order for the seedling to be well preserved until spring, it should be dug in the garden.
If there is a basement or cellar, the temperature in which is maintained within the range from 0 ° C to +5 ° C, then you can store the seedling in them. Just do not forget that the roots need a moist environment, so they cover them with moss or sawdust, moisten and place a plastic bag. In the bag, you need to make several small holes for ventilation. After that, you can begin to carry out planting activities.
The pear is planted according to the well-known algorithm:
The roots of the seedling must fit freely into the planting hole
Water the tree abundantly, well moistening the entire volume of the pit.
After watering, the soil should be mulched
In order for the tree to start bearing fruit on time and give regular, large yields, the main stages of care should be performed.
A pear tree, especially a young one, needs regular watering. They begin to them in the spring, before flowering. In the future, watered at intervals of 3-5 weeks, depending on weather conditions. Watering should not be superficial; the soil should be moistened to a depth of 30–40 centimeters. After the soil dries up, the trunk circle should be loosened. It is also advisable to cover it with a layer of mulch, this will prevent the soil from drying out quickly and reduce the need for watering. Humus, compost, rotted sawdust, hay, etc. are used as mulch.
For the growth of a young tree, the nutrition that was laid in the planting hole is quite enough. The deficit will begin to be felt when the tree enters the fruiting season. From this time on, the feeding becomes regular and balanced.
An important stage of agricultural technology, aimed at maintaining the optimal dimensions of the crown, its thickening and fertility.
Pear Just Maria has a low tree, for which the formation of a crown like a bowl is more acceptable. This shape provides good illumination of the inner volume of the crown and its ventilation. And also it is convenient to care for such a crown and harvest.
This operation is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow. How they do it:
The crown, shaped like an improved bowl, can withstand heavy harvest loads
Regulation of crown thickening is carried out in early spring, by cutting out into a ring part of the shoots growing inside the crown and thickening it. You should not over-thin the crown, as this will lose part of the crop.
To maintain high yields at the beginning of summer, young green shoots are shortened by 10–12 centimeters. This causes their additional branching, new ringlets and spears grow, on which flower buds are laid. This technique is called chasing.
It is carried out in late autumn, when sap flow is stopped. Dry, diseased and injured branches are cut into a ring. According to the results of winter, additional early spring pruning of frozen or broken branches may be required.
In order for a tree to undergo the operation of pruning branches well, certain rules must be followed in their behavior:
The trimming tool must be sharpened
When choosing a garden varnish, one should give preference to one that is made on the basis of natural materials, such as lanolin, beeswax, etc. Garden var, based on petrolatum or other petroleum products, is harmful to the plant.
The high immunity of Just Mary to major diseases allows the diligent gardener to manage only with preventive measures.
In damp years, if the rules for the implementation of preventive measures are violated, fungal diseases may occur.
This fungus infects almost all stone and pome crops. Infection usually occurs in spring, when bees collect nectar from flowers and carry pathogen spores on their paws. The lesion begins with a flower, then the fungus penetrates the shoots and further into the leaves. Droopy and blackened shoots look burnt. If such signs are found, the affected shoots should be cut out with a part of healthy wood 2–30 centimeters long.
In the summertime, the fungus infects the fruits with gray rot, after which they become unusable. Such fruits should also be harvested and destroyed. Timely and regular fungicide treatments prevent disease.
In summer, moniliosis affects pear fruits with fruit rot.
It is unlikely that a gardener will have to deal with this disease if he has taken preventive measures. But it doesn't hurt to know the signs of the disease. It usually begins with velvety olive spots on the underside of the leaves. Then it spreads to the fruits, forming putrefactive spots on them, cracks in the skin and hardening of the pulp. Such fruits will no longer ripen and are unsuitable for food. They should be collected and destroyed, and the crown should be treated with fungicides.
The scab on the leaves of a pear forms olive-colored spots, spreading to the fruits, covers them with putrefactive spots and cracks
Usually this fungus appears after aphids. Its sweet secretions are a breeding ground for the fungus. The lesion looks like a black coating on the leaves and fruits, resembles soot. First of all, you should fight with aphids, and the fungus is destroyed by fungicides.
The defeat of a pear with a sooty fungus looks like a black coating on the leaves and fruits, resembles soot
Insecticides help fight pests, for example, Decis, Fufanon, Iskra, Iskra-Bio.
Usually settles on the back of leaves, as well as on young shoots. As a rule, it enters the tree with the help of ants, which carry it in and then feed on sweet secretions.
As a rule, aphids get on the tree with the help of ants, which bring it in and then feed on sweet secretions.
Like other moths, this gray butterfly lays its eggs in the soil of the trunk circles. Crawling out caterpillars crawl onto the crown and penetrate into the fruits.
Pear moth lays eggs in the soil
A representative of a fairly large number of weevils. Hibernates in the soil. With the onset of spring, the soil begins to warm up and the beetles crawl out, climb the tree and begin to eat away the inside of the fruit and growth buds. At this time, you can take advantage of the feature of beetles to be in a state of numbness at low temperatures. In the morning, when it is still cold and the air has not warmed up above +5 ° C, you need to spread a cloth or film under the tree and shake off the bugs. An insecticide treatment will complete the process.
The pear flower beetle eats away the contents of the flower
The pear variety Just Maria has many advantages and practically no disadvantages. It can be grown both in home gardening and in farm gardens. Is of commercial interest. The taste competes with European reference varieties. It can definitely be recommended for cultivation in many areas of the Middle Lane.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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According to the description, photos and reviews, the Chizhovskaya pear is a high-yielding, widespread variety, bred by crossing 2 varieties: Olga and Forest Beauty. Sometimes it is mistakenly called Chizhevskaya, but the variety is listed in the State Register under the name Chizhovskaya.
An autumn pear variety called Prosto Maria was bred by crossing frost-resistant, disease-resistant species with hybrids of the dessert group, distinguished by an oily, rich taste. Among the parental hybrids: Bere Sulfur, Late Belorussian, Dulia, Ro Maslyanaya. The work on crossing and selection began in the 90s by scientists of the Belarusian Research Institute of Fruit Growing under the guidance of a well-known practitioner, candidate of agricultural sciences Maria Myalik.
By 1996, among the seedlings, several specimens were selected that differ in taste, high immunity, and resistance to low temperatures. Using the rootstock of a forest pear, the seedlings were propagated in the selection garden, where they underwent further research and observation. Due to the high rates, in 2003 the seedlings received the status of the elite, in 2006 the specimens were sent for state variety testing. In 2013, Prosto Maria was included in the register and zoned for the Central Region of Russia.
Breeding characteristics (according to the data of the state register)
|Registered name||"Just Mary" (Pyrus communis L.)|
|Originator||RNPD "Institute of Fruit Growing"|
|Recommended growing region||seedlings have proven themselves well in the climatic conditions of the Central region (Moscow, Moscow, Ryazan, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol, Smolensk, Tambov, Tula, Ivanovsk, Bryansk, Vladimir, Kostroma regions)|
|Yield||fruiting begins at the age of 5, young seedlings bear little fruit, from adult specimens they receive up to 72 centners per hectare|
|Description of trees||the seedling develops rapidly, forming a spreading pyramidal crown of medium density|
|Description of fruit||Fruits of a standard pear-shaped shape with a wide base, the color of a ripe fruit is green-yellow with a pink barrel, weight is 160-180 g|
|Taste qualities||fruit taste was rated by professional tasters at 4.8 points for sweetness, juiciness, delicate aroma and tender, buttery pulp|
|Ripening terms||September October|
|Pollinators||late varieties are suitable for cross-pollination, for example, Duchess|
|Fruit preservation||in winter, about 90% of the total volume retain their presentation|
|Frost resistance||high, withstands up to -38 0 С, with frostbite of the branches, the tree quickly restores the crown during the summer period|
This variety is partially self-fertile. This means that in order to increase its yield, it will need pollinators that grow next to it. Any stone fruit that grows in the garden is suitable for pollination. But it is only necessary that they have the same flowering period, and it will be just fine if it grows near it.
The variety can be propagated by grafting, layering or cuttings.
The most effective method is to use green cuttings. They should be planted under a film or in a greenhouse. A favorable environment for rooting is considered to be a temperature of 20-25 degrees and good watering, about 3 times a day.
The grafting procedure on the stock is slightly more complicated, this requires special knowledge and skills, but even an inexperienced gardener can handle the layering. To do this, pick up the lowest branch, make a couple of cuts on the bark, then bend it to the soil and attach it. After about a month, with constant irrigation, the stem will take root and new plants can be transplanted.
This is a winter-hardy representative that gives not small fruits that reach the mark of 140 grams. It is noteworthy, but the trouble with this particular variety is not observed, because the plant is picky, productive, and the fruits ripen tasty, juicy. Fruiting occurs in the third year of the growing season and rapidly increases with the growth rate of the tree itself.
Winter-hardy varieties of pears are practical representatives of pears, since you should not worry about the safety of the plant, since our winters are not a problem for them.