part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4, part 5.
Most tomato varieties, let alone older varieties, are all determinants. And the range of hybrids of this species is very large. They form 4-6 flower clusters on the central shoot (see Fig. 13) and bend (stop growing themselves). I form most often in two shoots (see 14).
One shoot is the central one, the second is the stepson from under the first flower cluster. On the central shoot, I leave all the brushes, how many the plant will tie. over the second brush I leave 1-2 leaves and cut off the top. In our zone, such a load for the plant is sufficient, the fruits all have time to ripen.
According to science, in determinants, you can cut off the central shoot after the third brush, and let the stepson over the first flower brush. Give two brushes on it and check again. From the stepson, the stepson will again go, on which again leave two brushes, etc. (see 15).
This method of formation is called "in one shoot with a continuation shoot" the whole plant is on one rope, the stepson (continuation shoot) must be twisted on the same rope as the central shoot. This is all well and good in a heated greenhouse with an extended growing season. With this option, the distance between plants is 40x40 cm. I compared three options for the formation of determinants.
1) In one escape with a continuation escape. We need more seedlings, more work, on the second-order stepson the fruits were smaller and did not have time to blush.
2) In one shoot (Fig. 13), ie left only the central shoot, removed all the stepsons, the distance was 40x40 cm. The fruits were large, they began to blush earlier. The yield per plant is 300-400 g less than that of a plant with two shoots.
3) In two shoots (Fig. 14). The central shoot (all the brushes were left by the stepson under the first flower brush, and on it she left two brushes and poured). The fruits were smaller, the yield was 300-400 g higher than in the second variant. The fruits all turned red on the plant. Distance 50x50 cm. The central shoot was tied to a trellis on another rope. I did these variations on the Verliok F1 hybrid. Now I don't grow it anymore - there is Blagovest F1. Earlier, when there were no hybrids, I used the Early-83 variety, which was an excellent variety at that time.
And also the Agatha variety, alas, forgotten now. In any summer he could please with the harvest, I formed these varieties according to option No. 3. I do not remember either the Talalikhin variety, or the Siberian early ripening, or the Novinka of Pridnestrovie, since they gave a large leafiness in my greenhouse, in the open ground - a small harvest ... They were in my greenhouse for a short time.
I consider it a mistake gardeners when they leave the lowest stepson. It is powerful, bold (see 16), but while it blooms, the mother plant lags behind in growth, fruiting is greatly delayed.
They do not limit their growth, we have to do them ourselves. When to do this - each gardener must decide for himself. I often see it in publications - it is necessary to top the liana varieties of tomatoes in early August. Why such specificity? I have a high greenhouse, but no heating. So, I have to check 30-40 days before the cold October nights. The neighbors have a tall greenhouse with electric heating, so their tomatoes still harvest throughout October.
This means they can check plants around mid-September. If there is an unexpected threat of any fungal disease, then I will not wait for mid-August, as usual, but check at the end of July. Of course, in this case, I will not receive the harvest, but the tomatoes will have time to ripen earlier.
In all manuals, in all lectures, scientists advise to form indeterminate varieties and hybrids into one shoot, i.e. remove all stepchildren. It's very easy, you don't have to count or think. I follow science, I obey it, thanks to scientists, we, gardeners, have learned to get full-fledged high yields of any vegetables. But here something is not working out for me in science. I form indeterminate plants in two shoots (see 17).
Many times I compared the yield and ripening period in one shoot and in two shoots. Of course, the plant that is in one shoot begins to blush earlier. But for me, this option has two drawbacks. In one shoot, the distance can be given 60x50 cm or 70x50 cm, but I give plants two shoots 70x100 cm, i.e. in this case, I need less seedlings.
The second minus is that I lose productivity. I will give examples: the Stresa F1 hybrid in one shoot gave five brushes to the trellis. In two shoots (stepson under the first brush), he formed 10 brushes in total, and all ripened. In the variant with two shoots (but the stepson under the third brush) 7 brushes managed to mature.
F1 Typhoon - in one shoot 7 brushes, crop weight 5 kg 40 g, F1 Typhoon in two shoots (stepson under the first brush) gave 11 brushes, yield 7 kg 920 g. Another plant next to two shoots (stepson under the third brush) gave 10 brushes, yield - 7 kg 200 g. In 2003 I checked new indeterminate plants.
F1 Titanic gave 6 brushes in one shoot and began to blush from 15 July. In two shoots (stepson under the first brush) gave 11 brushes, began to blush 6 days later. The same result was given by F1 Favorite. The fruits were large and tasty. Large-fruited indeterminate tomatoes are usually apex after the fifth brush, but the summer was hot and dry, so I checked it later.
I remind you once again - a tomato is a plastic plant, and no matter how it is formed, the harvest will turn out. But with thickening, you will get a low yield of small green fruits, or even they will fall off. So formation is not an axiom, but a way of knowing plants. I approach each of them individually. They are all different, like children. According to the standard, in determinate or indeterminate tomatoes, we form the second shoot from under the first flower brush, but I am looking at the plant.
For some reason, one is lagging behind in growth, which means I will leave his stepson over the first flower brush. And F1 Blagovest generally turns out a strong stepson over the first flower brush. For many years I have been closely observing tomatoes, counting, writing down. No one will help you to deal with plants, tk. everyone has different growing conditions, different levels of agricultural technology, different requirements for the final result.
As for the formation in the open field, then two factors play the main role - for the soul you grow or for the harvest. The expression "for the soul" means to collect tomatoes in red. The expression "for the harvest" means to collect a lot of green fruits at any cost. Let me give you an example. The summer of 2002 was hot and dry. I planted in open ground after June 10 varieties Ina, Snowdrop, I-3, Garant, F1 Semko-98.
Agrotechnology is usual: once tucked the hole, watered once when planting, distance 30x50 cm, formed two shoots, loosened twice over the summer, and by mid-August, almost all the fruits were red, but not very large. In the open field, I do not tie up tomatoes, they lie on the ground. But my colleague in the open field, too, in 2002 filled the beds well with humus. He gave them food and drink. The fruits turned out to be very large, but he collected the entire crop of tomatoes green in early August, because there was a threat of late blight. Of course, later, during storage, the fruits turned red, but this, I think, will not be "for the soul."
When planting seedlings, I spill the holes well, planted the plant, water it again, sprinkle it with dry soil on top and leave it for 5-7 days. Then I start watering after about 3-4 days. It all depends on the weather, but I don't spoil tomatoes with watering right away. I land in early May, the weather is sunny these days. Then, by May 15-16, a cold snap is approaching, I try to water it, even spill it, not only near the holes, but also the whole soil before it gets cold. After each watering, I do not loosen the soil deeply in the morning, I slightly poke it, about 2-3 cm. By the time it gets cold, the plants will already take root and bloom.
When they become large, large leaves shade all the soil around, I stop loosening. It is recommended, and this is true, to add fresh soil around the plant after watering. One year I fulfilled these recommendations, dragged buckets of earth and realized that this was not for me, and I didn’t force my husband. Heavy.
The soil must be specially stored. The next year, I poured one ridge, and the other did not. I did not find a big difference in the yield. Since then, I have not been adding fresh soil. At the end of the growing season, the roots are very bare, but they work fine. Maybe I'm losing my harvest, but I usually get 18 kg, or even 20 kg / m², that's enough for me. Watering plants, as well as feeding, cannot be taught. For the entire growing season, irrigation regimes have to be changed.
If it rains, and the groundwater is close to me, I do not water it. The weather is sunny - at least once a week, and sometimes once every five days. Often I combine watering with top dressing. If I rarely water, then the fruits will not fill up large, they turn red faster. In the open field, I do not water, so the fruits are smaller, but they turn red faster.
There is an opinion, or rather groundwork, that it is necessary to water tomatoes in greenhouses only when the seedlings take root, bloom, the first fruits are tied, and after that you can not water them. Allegedly, the taproot goes deep and finds water. Maybe this is true. Everyone should check this method for himself. Some gardeners increase the height of the ridges, adding something every year. Such ridges in the greenhouse are 40-50 cm above the level of the garden. Most likely, the soil will have to be watered there.
I also cannot do without watering, because I have cut seedlings, there is no tap root, the roots all spread over the surface. And the superdeterminants that I use also have a not very deep root system. We water in the evening, at about 17-18 o'clock, and sometimes we start at 16 o'clock.
After June 10, the gables at the greenhouse are open on both sides until cold nights in August. In addition, we take out the glass from the sides (instead of the vents) and also do not insert them until August. There are two doors open all day, i.e. The airing is good, so I don't need to specially shake the plants during the day for pollination, there is a very good draft. Sometimes it happens that a cold rain falls for a week. All the same, the vents and gables are open day and night.
I open the doors early in the morning at 7 o'clock or at half past seven, no later than the sun rises from behind the forest, and the temperature in the greenhouse from + 16 ° С rises sharply by 9 o'clock to +24 ... + 27 ° С. This is a violation that should not be allowed, especially when the temperature rises in small (low) greenhouses. In the evening, I close the doors in the greenhouse earlier, at about 18-19 o'clock, in order to keep the heat longer. On the day of watering, I close the doors very late - at 21-22 hours. We usually pour water from barrels, where the water heats up in a day.
In 1995 and 2002, the summer was so hot and without rain that the temperature in greenhouses reached + 35 ° C. It was not easy for the plants to develop under these conditions, moreover, the air humidity was very low, and some hybrids set fruits well at high humidity. And then I decide on a risky business. Early in the morning, before 7 o'clock, I turn on the pump and from the hose I pour well water over all the plants, the lid, the glass, the passage. We must see these plants during the day! They come to life, stand clean, large flowers, breathe easily in the greenhouse.
In a dry, hot summer, I do this procedure no more than twice a season. Why not later than 7 o'clock in the morning? Because the plants and soil in the greenhouse have cooled down overnight, and there will be no sharp difference in the temperature of the water and soil.
I cut off the lower leaves selectively. Sometimes a very large leaf touches the ground, even lies on it, I cut off part of it if it starts to turn yellow or some spots appear. If the leaf is healthy, and water and solutions get on it, I do not cut it out, let it vegetate. Until the first fruit cluster, I do not cut out the lower leaves until the fruits of the first cluster, and sometimes the second, begin to brighten.
I cut out 1-2 leaves from the plant, after a week - the next 1-2 leaves, i.e. gradually, until the first fruit cluster, I remove all the leaves. I carry out the clarification (thinning) of the central shoot as follows: if there are three leaves between the fruit brushes, then I cut out two leaves, I leave one above the brush, and the other I cut out. Thinning between the fruit clusters is done only when the next fruit cluster brightens.
Sometimes the brushes are laid through the sheet, then I don't cut out anything. On some plants, the leaves are very long. In this case, I cut off part of the sheet. I spend my stepchildren's activities, or rather, I look at my stepchildren at least once a week. There are many recommendations for pinching - break out or cut out such and such a size, leave a stump of so many centimeters. I cut with scissors, I don't look at my stepson's age, but the stump remains the same as the scissors will stop.
In large-fruited varieties and hybrids, the brushes are formed, i.e. I leave four fruits in the brush, sometimes even three. I carry out all types of pruning in the morning from 7 o'clock to 9 o'clock, by the evening the wounds will dry out. On the day of pruning, I do not water or feed.
Above, I have already indicated which formulas for the minimums I use, i.e. the ratio of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium at different stages of the growing season. Let me remind you: during flowering N-P-K = 1: 2: 1, during fruiting N-P-K = 0.5: 1.5: 2.
This is, as it were, the basis, but indeterminate plants have extended fruiting, or rather ripening, at the same time they ripen, new clusters are tied and others continue to bloom. Therefore, if you strictly obey this formula, then they will not have enough nitrogen. Potassium is also not worth joking, tomatoes will be tasteless, incorrectly colored, fungal diseases begin to cling to them. During this period, potassium nitrate helps me, but it is not always on sale, and I have to use potassium sulfate with urea.
I add phosphorus in the form of superphosphate at the rate in the spring, not to the wells, but throughout the entire ridge, and I have never had to do superphosphate extracts during the growing season. I also apply full mineral fertilizer (azofoska, Kemira wagon) in the spring, so I don't have to feed much in the summer.
Here is an example from 2002: June 7 and June 19 I fed "Solution" brand B (Buisk chemical plant), one tablespoon per 10 liters of water. I usually spend this bucket for 1.5 m2. "Solution" B contains nitrogen 18%, phosphorus 6%, potassium 18%, as well as manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum. At first glance, it does not fit the minimum, but in previous years I noticed that the phosphorus that I brought in in the spring was always enough until the end of the growing season.
Solution B contains trace elements, but no magnesium. I use magnesium supplements - root and foliar in the form of magnesium sulfate - separately, because most plants are hybrids. Even in practice, I was convinced that the varieties really like magnesium, although we had not been taught this before. On June 27, I fed with potassium sulfate, because the fruits of the early varieties are already full. July 2 - again sprinkled potassium sulfate and poured another solution of urea - 10 tablespoons per 10 buckets of water.
And then: July 11 - Kemira-lux - foliar feeding; July 18 - potassium magnesium (sprinkled) and poured water on top; July 27 - potassium magnesium (sprinkled) and urea - a solution of 10 tablespoons per 10 buckets of water - I spend on 18 m2; August 10 - magnesium sulfate, foliar feeding. Sprayed indeterminate hybrids, because the rest of the varieties are already almost ripe and harvested. Previously, there was not a wide variety of fertilizers, and the varieties were less demanding.
For many years I used Azofoska in top dressing, but I carried out foliar dressing with microelements twice a season. "Solution" - a brand that I managed to buy, used for cucumbers, but then tested it on tomatoes. Plants developed excellently, bloomed beautifully, tied 90%. I do not specially feed organics, tk. enough of the soil that I add from borage, there is enough humus. But the tank with slurry or herbs is in the greenhouse all summer long. I'm not fond of potassium permanganate. If I spilled the holes with potassium permanganate, then in the summer I can water the entire soil once, and sometimes I never water it.
Nowadays many gardeners use humates. I use humates of Irkutsk production, but only in the garden - for onion crops, for root crops, for flowers and for berries. The results are great. In the greenhouse, I use humates for cucumbers and peppers. For tomatoes in the greenhouse, a soil with a good humus content was watered on one ridge with Humate + 7, and "trees" grew. So my soil is enough to make the tomatoes feel good and not fattened.
I periodically inspect the plants in the morning when I open the doors, and at 12 o'clock in the afternoon. In well-developed tomatoes, the upper leaves curl slightly during the day, and straighten at night, the flowers do not fall off, they are bright yellow, large, there are many of them in the brush. This means that the plants receive everything they need - light, nutrition.
Read the end of the article: Prevention of tomato diseases, harvesting and storage →
Luiza Klimtseva, gardener-practitioner
Plants in this group are usually formed in three ways.
Formation of determinant tomatoes
Option for open ground. Again, the same meaning - the summer is short, cool, the fruits on the side shoots do not have time to ripen, so we remove the stepsons. Only the main stem is left. We do not cut off the top, since the growth of such tomatoes is limited. We do not remove the fruit clusters, we leave everything - there are no more than 6 of them, everything is equal, and they all have time to ripen.
Varinat is suitable for greenhouses. For mid-late tomato varieties. It is similar to the variant of the formation of superdeterminate tomatoes, but with its own nuances. At first, everything is the same: the main stem and the 2 lowest stepsons. But the side shoots must be shortened, leaving 1 flower brush on each, plus one leaf above it. As a result, we get 8 tomato inflorescences, instead of 6 (the maximum that one shoot gives) - the greenhouse allows them to ripen. But you should not leave more fruit clusters of tomatoes - the tomatoes will still not ripen on them.
The variant is suitable for greenhouses, but for medium early varieties and hybrids of tomatoes. Its essence is as follows: we leave the main shoot, one lowest stepchild, and then we leave one more stepson, but not on the main stem, but on the side. Why is that? Because the growth of determinant tomatoes is limited - 6 brushes and that's it. And the features of mid-early varieties allow you to get more harvest.
Therefore, we go to the trick - the lateral shoot will give us a couple more brushes (cut off above, leaving the leaf above the inflorescence), and the shoot from it - two more (we also cut off, like the first). In total, instead of 6, we have 10.
And then the question may arise: why do we need a second stepson from the first? Is it possible to leave one side shoot - it will also have 6 brushes? And then you get 12 in general! But not everything is so simple. The third brush on the stepchildren produces low quality fruits. Therefore, we leave only 2. To get 2 more high-quality inflorescences, you just need a stepson from a stepson.
Today there are many varieties of tall tomatoes bred by breeders. Each gardener can choose the most suitable one, based on the available opportunities and climatic conditions.
|Variety or hybrid||Hybrid||Average weight||150 grams|
|Disease resistance||Tobacco (tomato) mosaic virus, verticillium wilting, fusarium||Using||Universal|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Red|
|The form||Rounded||Structure and color of the pulp||Red|
|The size||Average||Taste qualities||High, sour|
|Ripening terms||Early (85-100 days)||Yield||12.6 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||From 150 cm||Storage duration||Long-term|
The variety is intended for outdoor cultivation.
|Variety or hybrid||Hybrid||Average weight||130-170 grams|
|Disease resistance||Verticilliasis, fusarium, cladosporium, TMV and bacterial spotting||Using||Universal|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Red|
|The form||Flattened-rounded||Structure and color of the pulp||Red|
|The size||Average||Taste qualities||High|
|Ripening terms||Early (60-75 days)||Yield||8 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||100-120 cm||Storage duration||Long-term|
Designed to be grown in the open field or in the heifer.
|Variety or hybrid||Hybrid||Average weight||107 gram|
|Disease resistance||Verticillous, fusarium wilting,|
Grown in the open field. Suitable for cultivation in small farms and in private plots. The southern regions are the most favorable for cultivation.
|Variety or hybrid||Hybrid||Average weight||190 gram|
|Disease resistance||Verticillous, fusarium wilting,|
Growing this variety is possible in the open field and in a greenhouse. If the greenhouse is equipped with heating, the first crop can be obtained in June. When breeding this hybrid variety, it should be borne in mind that the dressing must contain a sufficient amount of potassium.
|Variety or hybrid||Variety||Average weight||25-30 grams|
|Disease resistance||Verticillous, fusarium wilting,|
One of the varieties of cherry tomatoes. Grows well in open field conditions. However, in the middle lane, it is recommended to plant plants in a greenhouse.
|Variety or hybrid||Variety||Average weight||100-110 grams|
|Disease resistance||fusarium, cladosporium||Using||Fresh|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Yellow orange|
|The form||Rounded||Structure and color of the pulp||Yellow|
|The size||Average||Taste qualities||High|
|Ripening terms||Early (90-100 days)||Yield||9 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||180 cm||Storage duration||—|
The most favorable conditions for growth are greenhouses.
|Variety or hybrid||Variety||Average weight||80-120 grams|
|Disease resistance||Late blight, nematode, mosaic, bacterial wilting, phomosis, gray rot||Using||Universal|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Orange|
|The form||Rounded, slightly ribbed||Structure and color of the pulp||Orange|
|The size||Average||Taste qualities||Tall, sweet, sour|
|Ripening terms||Early (98-100 days)||Yield||9.2 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||200 cm||Storage duration||—|
Open ground and greenhouse are equally suitable for cultivation.
|Variety or hybrid||Variety||Average weight||15-25 grams|
|Disease resistance||Nematoda, mosaic, bacterial wilting, phomosis, gray rot, but vulnerable to late blight||Using||Universal|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Dark yellow to brown|
|The form||Round||Structure and color of the pulp||Dark yellow to brown|
|The size||Small||Taste qualities||Tall, sweet|
|Ripening terms||Early (95-100 days)||Yield||7 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||250 cm||Storage duration||—|
One of the varieties of cocktail tomatoes. Growing in the open field is permissible only in the climatic conditions of the southern regions. Cultivation is possible in the conditions of glazed loggias and balconies.
|Variety or hybrid||Variety||Average weight||15-20 grams|
|Disease resistance||Mosaic, black bacterial spot, Alternaria, Fusarium||Using||Universal|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Red|
|The form||Oval, elongated||Structure and color of the pulp||Red|
|The size||Small||Taste qualities||High|
|Ripening terms||Early (90 days)||Yield||Up to 10 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||150-180 cm||Storage duration||—|
Designed for open field or greenhouse cultivation.
|Variety or hybrid||Variety||Average weight||150-550 grams|
|Disease resistance||Late blight, fungal diseases||Using||Fresh|
|Pest resistance||—||Peel structure and color||Red-brown with characteristic stripes|
|The form||Rounded flattened, ribbed||Structure and color of the pulp||Red-brown|
|The size||Medium, large||Taste qualities||High|
|Ripening terms||Early (107-110 days)||Yield||5-6 kg / sq. m|
|Plant height||195-210 cm||Storage duration||—|
In the conditions of the middle lane, it is recommended to grow in greenhouse conditions.
On packages of tomato seeds, among other characteristics, the type is usually indicated: determinant or indeterminate. What do these words mean and does the type of tomato matter for the successful growing of vegetables?
The above pros and cons make it possible to understand what determinant and indeterminate tomatoes are, what is the difference between varieties.
Sometimes novice gardeners are too lazy to pinch the bushes regularly. Then you have to remove a large number of processes at one time. As a result of this procedure, the plant spends a lot of energy on recovery. In addition, with this approach, most of the nutrients are spent on the growth of green mass, and not on the formation of ovaries.
Another mistake is to remove the fruit shoots instead of the stepchildren. A fruiting branch is a process that extends from the stem with formed inflorescences.
Do not use dirty tools to remove the appendages. Before and after work, pruning shears, a knife or other tool are disinfected with a chlorhexidine solution, alcohol, potassium permanganate or bleach.
in order not to waste time on disinfecting the instrument, you can cut off the stepsons with your hands.
Unlike other activities, pinching is best done during the day in sunny weather. In dampness and lack of sun, the wounds on the plant heal slowly. This increases the likelihood of contracting viral or infectious diseases.
In the southern regions of our Motherland, where the growing season of tomatoes in the open field is long, they can be grown in the following way to obtain large yields. We leave 4-5 inflorescences on the main stem, among which we save 2 stepsons. After the completion of the growth of the main stem (its versatility), development is continued by the stepsons left by us. On them, I recommend removing all the resulting brushes, except for one or two.
Tomato 'Magnifica F1'
In the meantime, leave 1 more stepson emerging from the bosom of one of the leaves preserved on the main stem. This shoot will ensure the further development of the bush. After the formation of 2 inflorescences, stop its growth - leave 2-3 leaves and pinch the "crown". When pushing the stems forcibly, always keep a few leaves at the end of each stem, which will provide nourishment to the fruit. For intensive plant development, do not forget about timely feeding, watering and picking ripe tomatoes.
In conclusion, it must be said that by giving the plants freedom - allowing them to grow as they want, you allow the formation of a huge number of seedlings that do not have time to fully develop. Plants lack food and often lack moisture, light and heat. The root system is unable to ensure the development of all fruits, so most of them grow small and ugly, the plants themselves become weak, easily affected by diseases.
Our advice is based on many years of experience in growing nightshade crops. Following our recommendations, you can always provide your family with a lot of beautiful and tasty fruits.
Vasily Ivanovich Blokin-Mechtalin,
General Director of the Agrofirm "Partner"