Among the insects that can ruin the life of eggplants and the person who grows them, the leading position is occupied by the voracious aphid. The danger of this insect in a greenhouse can be compared to a locust infestation. When inactive, not one plant perishes, but sometimes all living things planted in the room. Aphids belong to the order Hemiptera, hemiptera. Science knows more than 4000 species of this insect, more than 1500 of which live on the Eurasian continent. Aphid colonies feed on plant juices, devastating the plant, and immediately switch to a new one. They are also dangerous in that they carry various plant viruses, infecting the land and fruit and vegetable crops.
As with any pest, it is important to determine what kind of aphid has settled in your greenhouse in order to choose the right means for the fight and the tactics of carrying out special procedures. Of course, any species can settle on eggplants, but melon (cotton) aphids and green peach aphids often stay in greenhouses.
Invasion of the green peach aphid usually occurs at the very beginning of the season. Insects are light green in color, with a pair of wings, as well as processes on the back of the abdomen. Depending on the nutrition of the aphids, the pigmentation of their body changes, acquiring pink, dark green, yellow shades.
The melon aphid prefers high air temperatures and actively manifests its presence closer to the middle of summer. The color of this aphid species ranges from light yellow to black-green. The darker the color of the aphid, the larger the individual. Also, the color indicates the type of activity of the insect: so light (yellow-green) individuals are small, develop very slowly, do not bear offspring, practically not dangerous for eggplant; dark green and black individuals develop in the shortest possible time, actively reproduce and destroy all plants (and not one bush) in just a couple of days.
The invasion of aphids in the greenhouse causes significant harm to all plants, since they parasitize not only on eggplants. Do not underestimate the danger of these insects only because of the small size of their body, the main strength of aphids is in the number of individuals in the colony.
Aphids fix and nest on all parts of the plant. Nutrition occurs by piercing the upper layers of the leaf skins and then sucking out the juices. This leads to an acute lack of nutritional resources in eggplant, as well as to the rapid necrosis of leaf or stem tissue. In the process of vital activity, the aphid covers the eggplant with crystalline secretions similar to sugar syrup - honeydew. This leads to the development of a sooty fungus. In addition, aphids release many toxins that negatively affect the life of the plant.
Fruits that form on aphid-infected eggplants are small in size, with a deformed shape, bitter and practically unsuitable for human consumption.
Experienced gardeners tell about proven methods of getting rid of aphids on plants.
It is imperative to fight aphids, because, having destroyed the plants of this season, it will hide until the next and repeat the destructive raid. There are several ways to get rid of aphids, but alone, their effectiveness is extremely low. The fight should be approached comprehensively.
The use of pesticides for insect control must be fully understood when they can be used and when not. Even if you know that the drug will definitely work, it cannot be applied to a plant that blooms or (even more so!) Bears fruit.
If you noticed hordes of aphids in time, then feel free to start fighting it with the help of such drugs as "Aktara", "Karbofos", "Decis Profi", "Actellik". Give preference to rapidly degrading insecticides that do not linger or accumulate in the plant. Each drug has its own mixing scheme, so carefully read the instructions before use. Also, make sure that your skin and respiratory tract are protected - pesticides are dangerous for human skin and mucous tissues. Spraying eggplant should be done in a well-ventilated area in the early morning in dry weather.
You can get rid of aphids with folk remedies when the eggplant has already begun to bloom or bear fruit. All the materials at hand will be used - from tops and mowed grass to tobacco ash.
Recipe 1: in a large bucket with a volume of at least 10 liters, mix the tops of potatoes, tomatoes, zucchini, garlic, celandine (in a 1: 1 ratio), add 400 g of wood ash and 1 glass of liquid soap (or grated laundry soap). Mix the resulting mixture well, set aside in a dark, warm place for 3 days. Stir the mixture from time to time. Strain the mixture before spraying; you can apply it once a week.
Recipe 2: In a ten-liter bucket, mix 50 g of tobacco ash, 50 g of chopped chili peppers, cover the ingredients with warm water. Such a solution should be infused for 24-30 hours. Then add 150-200 g of wood ash, 3 tbsp. spoons of soap, mix well and strain. Eggplant can be sprayed with this solution every 10 days.
Recipe 3: chop the stems and leaves of bitter wormwood and tansy, you will need 1 kg of raw materials from each plant. Mix them, pour 1-2 liters of water and boil for 10-15 minutes. The resulting broth, after it has cooled, must be filtered and diluted to 10 liters. Add 5-6 tbsp before use. spoons of liquid soap.
Recipe 4: dried yarrow (800-900 g) is crushed and then soaked in boiling water (1-2 l) for 2 days. Before spraying, the infusion is diluted to 10 liters, liquid soap is added.
Plants and insects can help get rid of aphids, even in a greenhouse. When planting eggplants, make sure that marigolds, coriander, onions, garlic, mint, fennel, basil or lavender grow next to them. The volatile aromas of these plants scare away insects, preventing them from taking root. They can be planted in small islands between eggplants or surrounded by a kind of living fence. This method is suitable for both prevention and control.
Another way is to lure insects that hunt and feed on aphids: hoverflies, ladybugs, lacewings, earwigs, ground beetles, predatory bugs and ticks. Of course, this method carries certain risks, since saving eggplants you can destroy other plants. But with full control, everything will go smoothly. To lure most of the listed insects, plant lavender, dill, garlic, carrots on the beds adjacent to the eggplant. For example, hoverflies are very fond of daisies, the pollen of which they feed on. The favorite delicacy of ground beetles is potatoes, tomatoes, peppers. Laceworms prefer shady thickets of ferns. Earwigs will flock from all over the area onto sawdust when placed in the garden. Remember that the same ladybugs (their larvae) can be purchased at garden stores.
Do not despair at the invasion of this insect, confident actions and following the simplest instructions will surely save your eggplants.
Ways to solve problems with aphids on eggplant are described in this video.
There are quite a few reasons for the appearance of aphids on seedlings. Most often this is due to improper plant care. The parasites can infect bushes when using contaminated garden soil.
Similar problems arise when buying ready-made seedlings that have been grown in violation of the rules. It should be borne in mind that aphids affect not only eggplants. Therefore, it can move to bushes from other plants - peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers.
Aphids on eggplants can appear if the bushes are watered too often. In this case, the soil simply does not have time to dry. High air temperatures only exacerbate the situation. In this case, it becomes much more difficult to deal with parasites.
Important! Ants often attack plants with aphids. Insects carry the parasites and consume the sweet secretion they secrete.
Juicy eggplant stems are a tasty morsel for many pests. Often small insects settle on the shoots, which become a disaster for the gardener - it is quite difficult to cope with them. You need to get rid of aphids on eggplants immediately. It happens that pests are detected late, especially if there is no experience and the crop is grown for the first time.
Untimely exposure to insects threatens the loss of plants. In order to prevent the rapid spread of the pest colony, you need to know which aphid settles on eggplants and how to recognize the signs of its presence.
A feature of aphids, which is found on eggplants in greenhouse conditions, is a greenish color. Some members of the family have a pinkish tint, it depends on the culture that serves as the main food for aphids. The insect changes depending on the stage of development - it can be with or without wings. This does not affect the speed of spreading through eggplants, the pests quickly occupy the plants. A distinctive feature of the melon aphid is pronounced "horns" on the middle part of the abdomen.
The cotton aphid that occupies the eggplant has a distinctive feature - a rounded green body, which varies from light salad to almost black. Insects do not have wings; they move on ants, which transfer them from plant to plant.
The cotton aphid family includes several varieties. Small representatives reproduce slowly, they do not cause much harm to plants in the greenhouse. More dangerous is a large cotton aphid on eggplant seedlings - in a few days the colony is capable of destroying a bed of "blue" ones.
If you start to fight aphids with chemicals, then it is better to use mild agents, for example, foliar feeding... This will require 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride. Dissolve these preparations in 10 liters of water. Spray the leaves from below with this solution. Repeat the process in 6-7 days.
It will be more effective to use organic insecticides and pesticideswhich are classified as organic products. They are based on pyrethrins, vegetable oils and fatty acids. These products will help you fight aphids and are not too aggressive for the environment.
If you are categorically inclined to forgive the use of chemicals - you are welcome to use folk remedies... It will not be difficult for you to prepare the preparations, since all the components are found in your household. For example, dissolve 2 teaspoons of liquid soap in 2 glasses of water. Spray such a solution on plants that are precipitated by aphids.
Garlic infusion will help to fight aphids more effectively. To do this, you need to pass 3-5 cloves through a press, mix the mass with 0.5 liters of water. Insist for a day, then add 1 teaspoon of liquid soap and 2 teaspoons of vegetable oil. For use, you need to dilute two tablespoons of the drug in a spray bottle and spray the plants.
Take care of your garden and vegetable garden, because it is a source of fresh greenery and juicy fruits. It is imperative to fight aphids and other insect pests so that all trees and plants bear fruit and provide you healthy eating.
There are many highly effective drugs on the market today. Among them are such insectoacaricides as "Fitoferm" and "Actellik". The first is slightly toxic to humans. Processing is recommended to be carried out indoors. After it, you should thoroughly wash your hands and face with soap. The frequency of treatment is 3 times a week. The second drug should be used in open areas. Of the acaricidal agents, one can note "Sunmight" and "Neoron". The first one well destroys both adult pests and eggs. The second makes it possible to eliminate ticks on eggplants after 2 treatments.
There are also biological preparations that do not have a detrimental effect on the human body and its pets. These are the so-called phytoseiulus and amblyseiulus - predatory mites that feed on spiderwebs. They can kill about 10 parasite eggs every day. Sometimes a greenhouse disinfection method is used by burning sulfur in the form of briquettes. In case of excessive growth of the parasite population, it is recommended to spray crops with colloidal sulfur. This is done at the rate of 70 grams of funds for 1 bucket of water.
Against aphids, which did not have time to spread through the greenhouse, use self-prepared means that are safe for others. The use of homemade formulations is recommended before harvesting the eggplant. After using chemicals, the fruit should not be consumed for 2-4 weeks.
Before treating aphid eggplants with chemicals or homemade ingredients, you can try to pick them by hand, especially if there are few pests. Insects move rather slowly, so it's easy to deal with them.
In a greenhouse, the fight is carried out in several ways, the most effective and simple is the use of chemicals. Insecticides differ in their effect - they affect the respiratory tract of pests, digestive organs, and the nervous system. The result of using the compounds is the death of insects.
It is recommended to use Aktara, Biotlin, Pirimor, Aktofit, Strela, Fitoverm preparations in a greenhouse against aphids. Each tool has its own characteristics, you need to study them in advance so as not to make mistakes in use and not harm other vegetables in the greenhouse or people.
It is not recommended to use the same preparation for several eggplant treatments - the pests quickly get used to the composition and do not react to toxic substances.
There are several interesting methods that can be applied if chemical processing of eggplants is undesirable in greenhouses. It is recommended to plant crops that aphids do not like, and pests will try to bypass the greenhouse.
Lavender, onion, mint, basil, fennel have an unpleasant smell for insects. It is recommended to plant fragrant plants near eggplants - the risk of aphids will be significantly reduced.
Often insects in the greenhouse are fought with the help of decoctions, infusions of plants, the preparation of which takes several days. Like chemicals, homemade mixtures will have to be alternated, since aphids quickly get used to the composition and do not react to subsequent treatments in which folk remedies are used.
One recipe she won't like is onion infusion:
It is recommended to do this in the evening, repeat spraying in the morning.
Drive away aphids and hot pepper decoction:
Carry out processing twice with an interval of 10 hours. A pure broth is not used - the prepared composition must be diluted with 8 liters of water.Often, greenhouses are treated with such a remedy - hot peppers are harmless to flowers and merciless to aphids.
Fortunately, there are many methods of aphid control. Moreover, folk remedies are not inferior to chemical preparations, and in some moments even surpass them.
For example, one of the most effective ways to combat aphids in a cucumber garden is to plant strong lashes that are practically resistant to pests. It is difficult for parasites to penetrate the dense shell of the plant. In addition, such lashes have excellent self-healing.
To grow such a strong plant, you need:
There are many folk remedies for controlling aphids. The most common are removing, luring enemies, insecticidal soap.
A small amount of parasites can be removed with a regular cloth, by hand, but always with gloves. This method is especially effective in the case of "settlement" of pests on the stem of the plant and the legs of the leaves. On the back of the leaf, it is better to remove parasites with a swab.
When new individuals appear, the process must be repeated.
The most zealous enemy of the described parasites is the hummingbird. But, unfortunately, it is impossible to meet this bird in our latitudes. Therefore, ladybugs and lacewings, which are natural predators that eat aphids, will come to the rescue.
Many consider red and black ants to be enemies of pests. But this opinion is wrong. Ants, on the contrary, contribute to the spread and reproduction of parasites on plants, as they feed on their excrement.
Insecticidal soap is an effective organic treatment for aphids. The solution made from this soap kills insects and prevents them from adhering to the plant. But, when making a solution, you need to make sure that it can be used on cucumbers.
To process a plant is far from all. It is worth paying special attention to rinsing the product off the cucumbers.
The fruits of a plant treated with insecticidal soap should be washed especially carefully before use.
You can also fight parasites with a harmless analogue of insecticidal soap, which can be prepared at home. To do this, you need to mix liquid soap (but by no means a detergent) with water. Ideal proportion: 2 tablespoons of soap per liter of water. You can spray the product with a clean spray bottle.
You can fight aphids with other folk remedies.
For example, a tincture of tomato leaves, garlic and hot pepper has proven itself well. You can make a solution from all of these components or from one element, and then process cucumbers with it. Pepper should be diluted in the proportion of a quarter teaspoon per liter of water. There are no special recommendations regarding the concentration of other solutions.
"Afraid" of aphids and essential oils. Therefore, it is possible to fight these pests with aqueous solutions of aromatic plants: tea tree oil or peppermint oil diluted with water.
As noted earlier, pests cannot tolerate aromatic plants. Therefore, planting mint, garlic, onion, pepper or horseradish next to cucumbers will ensure that the plants live without parasites.
Don't forget to prune any damaged cucumber branches. Sometimes you have to remove the entire bush, because the parasites are reluctant to leave their favorite plant.
Aphids are a parasite that lives on almost all plants and causes them great harm. But it is not difficult to cure plants, it is enough to adhere to simple rules and choose the right remedy.
Watch an interview with an expert who suggests using safe folk remedies for aphids in your garden.