The plant tuberose (tuberosa), or polyanthes (polianthes) is part of the Amaryllidaceae family, and it comes from Central America. This flowering plant is highly decorative. Its magnificent flowers have a pleasant, strong aroma that brightens in the evening. In mid-latitudes, this flower can be met infrequently, since many gardeners are afraid not to cope with such a capricious plant. But those who decided to decorate their garden plot with it do not regret it at all. Experienced gardeners say that if you take care of a plant correctly and choose a suitable site for it, it will look very impressive and bloom for a long time.
Tuberose is a herbaceous perennial and is highly decorative. The bush has a bulbous cone-shaped tuber, the surface of which is covered with dense small brown scales. In diameter, these scales reach from 20 to 60 mm. At the bottom of the bulbs there are thin filamentous roots. The life span of a corm is from 1 to 2 years. During this period, foliage, stems appear, after which the formation of buds is observed. When the flowering of the bush ends, the adult bulb dies off, while several young children remain in its place.
The height of the erect, slender stem is about 0.9 m. Dense sessile and narrow leaf plates can reach about 0.4 meters in length, and up to 30 millimeters in width, they are colored dark green and have a rough surface. Their formation occurs in the lower part of the stem.
During flowering, a spike-shaped inflorescence is formed at the top of the shoot, which includes from 10 to 40 buds. Tubular flowers reach about 50 mm in diameter and up to 60 mm in length. Pinkish, smooth and dense petals at the tops are pointed. The opening of the buds occurs alternately, and the first to bloom are those that are in the lower part of the inflorescence. Each of the flowers, after opening, dies off after three days. The inflorescences have a pungent but pleasant scent. Flowering is long, and it is observed from July to October. In place of wilted flowers, fruits are formed, which are oblong-oval-shaped capsules, inside which there are very small flat-shaped seeds.
Most often, this perennial plant is cultivated in indoor conditions, and a well-lit windowsill is chosen for it. In mid-latitudes, this flower is often grown outdoors as an annual plant. Species and varieties with double flowers are especially popular.
If you want to decorate your garden with tuberose, then you need to consider that this plant is quite demanding in terms of care and growing conditions. Therefore, you should take care of it correctly and systematically. However, it tolerates various environmental changes, for example, sudden changes in temperature or transplantation. Therefore, if you follow all the rules of care, then your work will certainly be rewarded. Your garden area will be decorated for a long time with a lush, fragrant plant with very spectacular inflorescences.
When choosing a suitable place for tuberose in the garden, remember that it is distinguished by its light and thermophilicity. If there is too little light, then this will negatively affect the decorativeness of this bulbous perennial. First of all, pay attention to the fact that polyanthes can only grow well in an open area. But on hot days at noon, the bushes should be protected from the scorching rays of the sun, otherwise burns may form on their foliage, which will lead to a loss of decorativeness. If the plant is planted in a little shade, then its flowering will not be so spectacular and lush. On tuberose grown in the shade, no inflorescences are formed at all.
Getting ready for planting tuberose
If you are determined to start cultivating tuberose in your garden, then pay special attention to the fact that this is a very thermophilic plant. It will grow well only in regions with a fairly mild and warm climate. Please note that during the growing season, the air temperature should be from 20 degrees and above. If it is cooler than 16 degrees outside, this will have an extremely negative effect on the condition and development of the plant. The flower reacts extremely negatively to the cold. If it does not receive enough heat, then its development, growth and flowering will stop.
The fertile and light soil is ideal for growing polyanthes. It should include: turf and leafy soil, as well as sand, taken in equal shares.
Such a flower is also distinguished by its moisture-loving nature. He needs high humidity for normal development. The bush should be watered sparingly, for this they use well-settled water, which should not be cold. When the bush is watered, do not forget to loosen the surface of the soil near it. This will help to avoid stagnation of fluid in the root system, which can lead to the development of rot and death of the plant.
Tuberose needs not only regular watering, it also needs to be systematically moistened with a spray bottle. The bush should be sprayed with warm water in the morning, in the evening, or in cloudy weather. If you carry out this procedure during the day, then the direct rays of the sun caught on a wet bush can cause a burn.
It is necessary to feed the plant regularly so that it blooms magnificently and develops correctly. The first top dressing is carried out in May and continues to fertilize the soil until the end of the growing season. Polyanthes are fed monthly, using organic or complex mineral fertilizers, which are dissolved in water.
Corms must be removed from the ground before the first frost. They are stored in a dry place, and the children do not need to be separated. With the onset of spring at an air temperature of 8 to 10 degrees, it is necessary to separate the children from the parent corms for growing, and this must be done several days before planting.
When a few weeks have passed after removing the corms from the ground, they can be used for forcing. To do this, they are transferred to a warm, well-lit and ventilated room, and regularly moistened with water from a sprayer. In order to plant the corms, you need to take small pots, they are filled with garden soil, which is mixed with sand. Green sprouts should appear after a very short time. And soon your home will be decorated with a delightful flowering bush.
The plant is highly sensitive to transplants. In this regard, it is highly undesirable to transplant tuberose at the beginning of the growing season, since the probability of its death is high: the bush may rot, dry out or not take root. Experienced gardeners recommend replanting the bush from early to mid-April, and it should grow in one place for at least one year. If green sprouts have already appeared from the ground, then it is better to postpone the transplant until the flowering ends. Only in this case, the transplant with the subsequent division of the bush will be successful.
In order for the plant to remain spectacular throughout the growing season, do not forget to cut off all wilted leaves and inflorescences from it in time. It will also have a positive effect on flowering, which will become more lush. Strong bushes need a garter, as their tall stems can break due to strong gusts of wind. And thanks to the garter, the bush will not decay.
Tuberose: why was it banned? Origin, myths and perfumes with her scent.
You can propagate polyanthes by seed and daughter bulbs. Such a plant is rarely grown from seeds, since this is a rather difficult task. The fact is that the seedlings that appear are very delicate, and therefore they often die in the first few days, while not even a single leaf has time to form on them.
Experienced gardeners recommend either buying new corms in the store, or propagating the bush with children. During one season, a large number of small children can form on an adult bulb. It is they who are disconnected from the mother corms and used for planting. The smallest children will have to grow from three to four years, and the largest - 1-2 years. The bush will bloom only after its bulb in diameter is at least 35–45 mm. Before planting a large onion in the garden, you must first grow it by placing it in a greenhouse or in a warm room. Planting of bulbs in pots for growing is carried out in March. And in the spring, when the return frosts are left behind, the bush can be transplanted to a suitable site in the garden.
If your region has a temperate climate, it is best to grow tuberose in a pot. In the warm season, the bush is transferred to the garden, and when it gets too cold outside, it is moved to a warm room. If the climate is warm and mild, then you can grow a bush in the garden. Plant the bulbs in holes one-third covered with sand. The root collar should be level with the ground surface, and the roots should look up.
Spectacular tuberose looks great both in group and in single plantings. To make the flower garden look brighter, you can plant various varieties of this plant nearby, differing in the color of the inflorescences. Polyanthes looks good next to gladiolus, the more you need to care for these crops in the same way.
Polyantes is used in rabatas as a background for low-growing horticultural crops. A tub with a flowering bush can be placed on a balcony, terrace, near a gazebo, etc. The inflorescences of such a perennial can be used for cutting, since they retain their freshness for about two weeks. But remember that they have a very strong smell, so it is better to keep the flowers in a well-ventilated room.
Essential oils are extracted from tuberose. They are used for the manufacture of perfumery products.
To date, 13 types of tuberose are known. However, only 2 species are grown in culture.
No more than nine narrow, oblong-shaped leaf plates grow on the bush. Outwardly, they are similar to the foliage of cereals. The length of the leaves varies from 0.35 to 0.5 meters, and in width they can reach from 10 to 20 mm. They form a root rosette.
Most often, highly decorative flowers in this plant are double, but they can also be simple. As a rule, they are painted white, but there are also pink ones. Flowers are part of a loose spike-shaped inflorescence. On one peduncle, from 18 to 20 flowers are formed, reaching from 40 to 60 mm in diameter.
The best varieties of this type include:
This perennial has a bulbous root system. In diameter, the corm reaches from 20 to 30 mm. The height of the dense erect stem is about one meter, its surface is bare and rough. Belt-like smooth wide leaf plates form a rosette at the base of the stem. The spike-shaped inflorescence includes white funnel-shaped flowers, reaching from 40 to 50 mm in diameter. This plant begins to bloom in April – May. Its flowers have a very pleasant scent.
TUBEROSA / POLIANTHES TUBEROSA
Characteristics of the schizanthus plant, how to plant and care in a personal plot, recommendations for reproduction, methods of combating diseases and pests, species and varieties.
Schizanthus can be found under the name corresponding to its transliteration - Schizanthus. The plant belongs to the Solanaceae family. The natural area of natural distribution is in the south of the American continent (Chile and Argentina) and South African lands. There is also an opportunity to meet these representatives of the flora on the islands of New Zealand or in the USA. According to various sources, the genus Schizanthus has combined 10–12 species, and the last indicators were obtained from the The Plant List database. The plant has an attractive appearance and has become a favorite as an annual in our territories, or is grown as a pot culture.
|Growing period||One-year or two-year|
|Breeds||Seeds only (seedlings grown)|
|Dates of disembarkation in open ground||At the end of return frosts|
|Landing scheme||Distance between holes 10-15 cm|
|The soil||Lightweight, well-drained, rich in nutrients|
|Indicators of soil acidity, pH||Any, but better neutral with values of 6.5-7|
|Illumination level||Open, well-lit by the sun or light shade|
|Humidity level||Regular and abundant watering, in the heat twice a day|
|Special care requirements||Mandatory feeding|
|Height options||0.3-1 m|
|Flowering period||Depends on sowing time, but usually takes the whole summer|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Terminal racemose inflorescences|
|Color of flowers||Snow white, yellow, crimson, pink, red, peach, orange or purple|
|Fruit type||Bivalve box|
|Fruit color||Light brown|
|The timing of fruit ripening||Depends on the beginning of flowering|
|Use in landscape design||As a single or group planting, in mixborders or flower beds, in rock gardens or ridges, for decorating borders|
Schizanthus got its generic name due to the fusion of a pair of Greek words "schizein" and "anthos", which have the translation "to split" and "flower", respectively. This is because people have long noticed the structure of the corolla of a flower that has cleavage and resembles a butterfly. Apparently, this was the reason for the emergence of the popular names Shikhantus "butterfly" or "poor man's orchid" (due to the similarity of the outlines).
Schizanthus, although it is considered a perennial representative of the flora, but its life cycle does not exceed two years and is often used as an annual.The plant is distinguished by trochitomic branching, that is, when the stem is divided into three branches of equal size, and those, in turn, are also divided into three identical branches, and so on. The vegetation form in Shikhantus is herbaceous. The height of the species that are part of the genus is quite diverse, so they can be measured by 30 cm or reach meter heights, but this will directly depend on the cultivation conditions, the composition of the soil and the frequency of watering. The surface of the shoots, like the leaf plates, is covered with pubescence of glandular hairs.
Schizanthus foliage is colored grassy green or light green. The outlines of the leaf plates are pinnately dissected. Because of this shape, the deciduous mass has a very delicate openwork outlines, which makes the bush, even before the flowers have opened, very decorative. The flowering of schizanthus is very long, it begins in late spring and lasts until the first frost. This directly depends on the sowing time, but mainly takes place during the entire summer months.
At the tops of the shoots of the schizanthus, flowers of a zygomorphic structure open up - that is, through its center there is the possibility of drawing only one plane of symmetry. Apical loose racemose inflorescences are collected from the buds. The calyx of the schizanthus flower is composed of five parts. The corolla has a two-lipped structure. The upper lip has a three-sided shape, with the central petal having a serrated apex. There are as many stamens in the corolla as there are shares in it. The diameter of a flower can reach 2 cm. A lot of buds are revealed.
The color of the Schizanthus flowers can take on a wide variety of colors: snow-white and yellow, crimson and pink, red and peach, orange and purple. Among other things, the surface of the petals is often decorated with a pattern of strokes and specks. The shape of the corolla is very similar to a butterfly, for which the plant is popularly nicknamed - the butterfly flower. Some flower growers who do not have sufficient experience often confuse schizanthus with an orchid, but these are completely different representatives of the flora from different families.
During flowering, the open corollas of schizanthus attract not only bees, but also butterflies. After pollination, fruits are set, which in the schizanthus are represented by a box with a pair of valves. When ripening is complete, the flaps crack, opening access to the seeds.
There are a lot of varieties for today, which are characterized not only by the height of the stems, but also by the color of the flowers, and since the plant is not difficult to care for, even novice gardeners can grow it.
The fashion for flowers is capricious and changeable, it often goes in circles. In the 19th century, tuberoses were loved and popular. Now interest in these half-forgotten colors is returning again.
Tuberose, or polyanthes tuberosa (Polyanthes tuberosa), from the amaryllis family comes from Central America. The plant is thermophilic; it winters outdoors only in the south. In our area, corms before the onset of frost must be dug up and stored in a cool dry room (at a temperature of 15-20 °).
It takes 5-6 months from planting tuberose to flowering, and it takes time for the bulbs to ripen, so I start sprouting them in the room early, already in February. And it is better to do this not in the light, but, for example, in a box with moistened moss at a temperature of 25 °. As soon as the roots and shoots hatch, I plant the bulbs in pots filled with light fertile soil. At the same time, in no case do I fall asleep to the tops of the bulbs.
When the sprouts reach 2-3 cm, I put the pots on a sunny windowsill. At first, I water it moderately and only with warm water, when large leaves begin to unfold in tuberoses, I increase the watering. Until the beginning of June, I keep the pots in a greenhouse, and with the onset of stable heat I take them out into the garden.
I tried to plant tuberoses from pots into the ground in sunny places - they tolerated transplanting well. In flower beds, plants are spectacular in small groups in the middle ground... As a rule, flower arrows do not need support, because these are not gladioli, whose stems bend under the weight of large inflorescences. I plant tuberoses with a curtain to a depth of 2-3 cm rather tightly (5 × 10 cm).
But all the same, the main plantings of tuberose are in pots, since when it gets cold it is easy to bring them into the greenhouse. We must not forget that this plant is extremely thermophilic and reacts sensitively to coolness. In the summer I make sure that there are no children around the edges of the bulbs. If you do not break them off immediately, then the flower shoot will stop growing, and there will not be enough strength to bloom.
Once a month I fertilize tuberose with a mullein, this promotes good flowering. But it so happens that sometimes I forget to water or weed the plants, and they, at least henna, grow calmly and bloom in July-August. By the way, these flowers are not subject to any attacks of pests and diseases. Such plasticity of the culture makes it possible to grow it even for those who appear in the country only for the weekend.
Blooming in the ground can be very long - up to a month. When on long stems (80-100 cm) the buds begin to increase in volume, turn white and open, I have a holiday. I can admire the graceful snow-white double flowers for hours, inhaling their indescribable wonderful scent. Each wax flower is like a small porcelain masterpiece. The largest on the arrow - the lower one - reaches 4 cm in diameter.
I cut all tuberoses in pots into bouquets and give them to my friends, they cost more than two weeks.
I usually dig up the bulbs before the onset of the first frost. By this time, the leaves are already dry. First, I dry the planting material at room temperature, and before storing it, I keep it for several days by the stove at 40-45 °.
I propagate polyantes by children, which, when separated from the mother's bulbs, take root well. Seeds and dividing the bulbs did not try. But I did forcing: I germinated the bulbs with a diameter of at least 2 cm and planted them in pots in June-July. In September, the plants were brought into the greenhouse and after seven to eight months, depending on the conditions (temperature and lighting), they bloomed. It's nice when, on New Year's Eve, tuberoses fill the whole room with their aroma.
In Crimea, tuberose can be immediately planted in the ground - tubers in a southern climate quickly take root and grow well. In cooler regions, planting material is recommended to be germinated by planting - placed in peat or moss, kept in the dark and warm until the first shoots appear.
Then the corms will need to be placed in pots filled with a nutritious light substrate, and in May they can be transferred to the ground.
For good drainage, plant the tuberose on a sandy pillow.
Also, the southern night beauty is grown according to the gladiolus technology. Before the start of freezing, underground parts are dug up and washed, if necessary, then disinfected. The tubers will need to be thoroughly dried and stored at a temperature of 10-15 ° C, lightly sprinkled with sawdust or wood ash.
Among the variety of varieties of polyanthes tuberous, which are grown in the open field in the southern regions, and more often as an attachment (container) culture in the colder middle lane, are popular:
Tuberose The Pearl with double waxy white flowers. The height of the plants is about 100 cm.
Tuberose varieties Sensation (Sensation) (photo 2) and Pink Sapphire (Pink sapphire) (photo 3) with bright pink-lilac flowers, the second inflorescence is even larger and more luxuriant.
Tuberose Yellow Baby with flowers of a pastel yellow shade in narrow loose inflorescences.
© Author: Kristina KLEMESHOVA, head. Department of Floriculture VNIITSISK, Cand. agricultural sciences, Sochi
Muy buena la thesis. Solamente queria aclarar que en España, existe mucha confusion con la vara de San Jose y el nardo, que realmente es la Polianthes Tuberosa. La vara de San Jose denomina una multitud de flores silvestre y de cultivo, de tipo gladiolus.
I bought tuberose nodules, how to plant them correctly and when?
From her many years of experience, she deduced a certain growing scheme for herself. In mid-March, I prepare the bulbs, which were stored indoors in winter, for planting. The main task is to achieve early flowering of plants, as well as to allow the baby to mature by autumn, so that it will be planting material for the next season - bulbs with a diameter of 2 cm or more. It takes 4-5 months from planting to flowering.
I pre-germinate the bulbs. For this I use a root formation stimulator ("Kornevin"). I separate the baby from each of them and remove the old roots from the bottom. I put a soft cloth at the bottom of the container, arrange the bulbs (baby separately) and pour out the stimulant solution (1 tsp / l of water). It is necessary that its level reaches up to a third of the height of the planting material. I stand it for two days, periodically pouring the solution into the container.
The peculiarity of tuberose: sprouts appear first, and then roots. Root formation lasts 15-20 days. After that, I plant the bulbs and the baby in prepared boxes filled with nutritious light soil (with the addition of rotted cow dung).
So tuberose grows before the onset of heat. In late April-early May (for the middle lane a week or two later) I plant already grown plants in the garden according to the scheme: large bulbs - 10 × 20 cm to a depth of 5 cm, small ones - 8 × 20 cm to a depth of 5 cm, baby - 5 × 10 to a depth of 3 cm. By the way, some specimens from the baby can bloom in the year of planting - if the strongest ones are dug in August with a lump of earth and brought into the room.
Tuberose looks great in a group (10-15 pcs.) At the foot of the hill, on a rocky dump. This is a sun-, moisture- and heat-loving flower with a very powerful root system, therefore it requires a lot of nutrition. Very responsive to watering and feeding with mineral and organic fertilizers. Depending on the weather, I water the plant about twice a week. Once every 7-10 days I give nitroammofosk with the addition of "Humat + 7" fertilizer (according to the instructions).
Two months after planting in open ground, "thickets" of babies are formed around the mother bulb. In order not to weaken the flowering, I carefully dig out the young and plant them separately. With good care, standard bulbs are formed from it by autumn. You don't have to dig it out, then it is important not to forget about feeding - after all, the "family" needs to be fed.
This year I grew tuberose for the first time. I recently dug nodules. What to do with them next?
- Tuberose is a thermophilic plant and it is better to grow it as a container culture, not digging it out annually, but simply removing it with a container for the winter in a warm room. But if grown in open ground, put the bulbs for storage in a dark, warm (+25 degrees, and above) place, put a container of water next to it.