What should we build a house: do-it-yourself slate roof


If you need to build a reliable and durable roof, many developers choose slate, despite the availability of more modern materials. The possibility of self-assembly can also be considered an advantage, but only if the instructions are strictly followed.

Slate: technical characteristics, service life

In translation from German, slate ("schiefer") means "slate". It was from the clay shale rock divided into tiles that roofing was built in the Middle Ages. A long-lasting natural material with beautiful, natural shades is still used today, but its distribution is limited due to its high cost. As for the name, today this word is used to refer to several artificial roofing coverings with a flat or wavy surface.

Being one of the most common roofing materials of the last century, slate is still popular in our time.

Material composition, production features

In the classical sense, slate is wavy or flat sheets of gray color, which are obtained by molding from a plastic asbestos-cement mixture.

The simplicity of slate production is one of the components of the low price of such a roofing material.

It is no coincidence that chrysotile asbestos was chosen as a raw material. Being an inexpensive natural material, it separates well into separate strands, which are superior in strength to steel. These fibers adhere well to the cement mortar and serve as a reinforcing filler. If we talk about the percentage, then the proportion of the components included in the slate is as follows:

  • chrysotile asbestos - 10–20%;
  • Portland cement - 80–90%;
  • water.

The exact ratio depends on the brand of cement used to make the slate. In addition, recently, manufacturers have added cellulose and fiberglass fillers to asbestos-cement slurry. Thanks to them, it is possible to increase the strength of the sheets and increase the degree of reinforcement.

Dimensions and weight of sheets

Slate parameters are determined by GOST 30340–95. This document establishes the standard sheet length of 1750 mm, and the number of waves - 6, 7 or 8. The latter affects the width of the material, its thickness, weight. An important parameter is the type of sheet profile. According to the same GOST, the section of corrugated slate is 40/150 or 54/200, where the numerator indicates the height of ordinary waves in millimeters, and the denominator indicates the step between them. The extreme waves of the sheet are called overlapping and overlapping. In order to achieve a flat surface during installation, the profile of the latter should be slightly lower. For this reason, the height of the overlapping wave of roofing with a profile of 40/150 is 32 mm, and for a material with a cross-section type of 54/200 - 45 mm.

The dimensions and profile of the slate sheet will be needed when calculating the amount of material that will go to the roof

The width of the six-wave slate should be 1125 mm, while the seven- and eight-wave sheets are produced with dimensions of 980 mm and 1130 mm, respectively.

The most practical is the 7th and 8th wave slate - when using it, the overlap will be minimal, which has a good effect on the final cost of the roof. For a material with 6 waves, the overlap of the edge elements will take away about 20% of the material from the usable area.

The main linear parameters and the weight of slate sheets according to GOST 30340–95 can be taken from special tables. Note that in the assortment of almost every slate manufacturer there are sheets of non-standard sizes. Their parameters are regulated by the manufacturer's internal technical specifications. That is why experts recommend starting calculations only after the size and type of slate are known exactly.

Advantages and disadvantages

Modern roofing has not been able to push the slate into the background. This is largely due to its technical and operational advantages:

  • long service life - with a guaranteed service life of up to 15 years, slate roofs can easily overcome the 50-year milestone;
  • the ability to withstand high wind and snow loads;
  • affordable cost;
  • fire safety;
  • the ability to use in any climatic zone;
  • ease of installation;
  • good sound absorption;
  • heat insulating properties.

Not devoid of slate and flaws. The main disadvantage is the large weight and fragility of the material. This complicates the transportation process, and installation requires the utmost care.

For all its advantages, slate remains one of the most fragile roofing materials, and therefore requires a particularly careful attitude both during installation and during operation.

Over time, the color of the slate roof changes, and the areas in the shade are exposed to biological factors. The appearance of fungi and lichens on the outer surface not only makes the roof unsightly, but also contributes to the destruction of the roofing material itself. At the same time, there are simple ways by which you can preserve the original purity of the slate for many years.

Types of slate

At the moment, there are several types of slate:

  • asbestos-cement (wavy and flat, but only the first option is used for arranging the roof). Information about the dangers of certain types of asbestos to humans has led to a decrease in the popularity of traditional roofing. European manufacturers have found a way out of the situation by using components made of rubber, cellulose, jute, glass and basalt fibers and other artificial materials as a reinforcing filler. When they are impregnated with polymers and saturated with bituminous vapors, it is possible to obtain roofing sheets with less weight and high flexibility. In our country they are known as Euroslate, Ondulin, Nulin, Ondura;

    Modern wavy slate is not a dull gray material, but bright and colorful canvases for the most daring design decisions

  • soft (euro slate or ondulin);
  • metal. Galvanized corrugated sheets have been used in construction since the last century - mainly for the roofs of industrial buildings. In the construction of country houses, metal slate began to be used relatively recently. This was facilitated by the technology of applying a polymer coating to its front side, with which the roof became not only extremely durable, but also visually attractive.
  • plastic. This material has filled the niche of roofing materials for functional and decorative structures - gazebos, greenhouses, winter gardens, verandas, etc.

    Plastic slate is an excellent alternative to asbestos-cement material if you need to cover a greenhouse, gazebo or pool

Features of the slate roof truss system

When constructing a roof with a slate covering, be sure to take into account the large weight of this material. A properly constructed rafter structure will evenly distribute the loads acting on the walls of the building, compensate for wind and snow loads. Before proceeding with the construction of the rafter system, the lumber should be well dried in a stack, after which knotty and defective boards and beams should be discarded.

Well-dried lumber is a guarantee that the roof surface will remain flat throughout the entire period of operation.

Requirements for crate

For the construction of slate roofing, two types of crate are used:

  • solid, for the arrangement of which plank flooring, plywood or OSB boards are used. Most often, such a base is used when installing flat slate, as well as in places of increased load - in valleys or near skates;
  • sparse.

The step of the lathing depends on the type of slate, its length, thickness and the number of waves. Since asbestos-cement sheets are themselves strong and tough, this parameter is calculated in such a way that each sheet has three reference lines. Two of them should be at least 15 cm from each edge, and the third should be in the center. For a standard sheet, this requirement is fulfilled with a sheathing step of no more than 60–70 cm.

A sparse or continuous lathing is mounted under the slate roof - it all depends on the type of slate (wavy or flat) and the slope angle

Often, when constructing the lathing, the timber is shorter than the slope. In these conditions, it is impossible to do without joining the beams, therefore it is necessary to follow this rule: the connection line should be in the center of the rafters. To avoid cracking of lumber, nails are driven into the edges of the beams at a slope, making the required indent of 3-5 cm.

Experts recommend placing even lathing bars 3 cm higher than odd ones. This will even out the internal stresses in the sheets and prevent cracking.

A high load on the roof structure requires the use of only high-quality material without knots and other wood defects. Despite the impressive weight of asbestos-cement sheets, an overly strong frame is not required for their installation - here the rigidity and strength of the material itself plays into the hands. For this reason, a timber with a section of 60x60 mm or an unedged board with a thickness of 20-25 mm is suitable for the construction of the lathing. In places of reinforcement (ridge and valley), beams of 60x120 mm or 60x150 mm should be used.

Endova on a slate roof is equipped with reinforced crate with waterproof gutters

Before installation, the timber and the board are treated with a solution with antiseptic and refractory properties. Thanks to him, the wood will be protected from biological factors (fungi, wood-boring beetles, etc.), will become more resistant to sparks and open flames.

Optimal slope angle

In regions with a large amount of precipitation, the slope of the slope should be up to 45 °, while in areas with strong winds, a structure with a minimum slope will be more reliable. For gable roofs, it is 20 °, while on gable roofs, a slope of at least 25 ° must be observed. If we talk about the maximum values, then they are equal to 30 ° and 45 °, respectively.

Please note that the cross-section of the elements of the rafter system, the pitch of the sheathing and the slope of the slopes are in direct proportion.

Required tools and materials

Before starting roofing work, prepare in advance:

  • a hacksaw for wood;
  • ax;
  • a hammer;
  • bubble or laser level;
  • electric drill;
  • nail puller.

In addition, you will need:

  • lumber for the construction of the sheathing and the manufacture of a special roof ladder;
  • ladder or stepladder;
  • ropes with hooks for moving the asbestos-cement sheets up.

Roof slate calculation

Getting started with the calculations, you need to measure the length of each slope and the distance from the eaves to the ridge.

Roof plan with applied slope dimensions simplifies material calculation

A schematic roof plan should be drawn up and the measurement results should be applied to it. The calculation itself is carried out in the following order:

  1. The length of the slope must be divided by the width of the slate sheet. Add 10% to the result. Thus, the number of sheets in one row is obtained.
  2. The distance from the eaves to the ridge must be divided by the height of one sheet, after which an overlap correction must be made. On steep slopes, a 10% overlap will be enough, while flat roofs need to be covered with an overlap of up to 15%. The resulting value is equal to the number of slate rows.
  3. By multiplying the first number by the second, you can get the number of sheets of roofing material that will go for one slope.
  4. If the roof is gable, then the result must be multiplied by two. In the case when it is planned to build a complex roof, the values ​​obtained for its individual parts are summed up. So, roofs with slopes in the shape of a triangle or trapezoid require calculating the area of ​​each surface. The obtained values ​​must be divided by the area of ​​one blade, and then add 15–20% for trimming and waste.

Before proceeding with the calculations, decide in advance the issue of the type of slate that will be used on the roof. This will allow for more accurate calculations.

I want to share some secrets of accurate calculation and even installation. So, it should be borne in mind that the extreme slate waves are cut off not at the extreme point, but a little earlier, which is why the real length of the roof along the slope decreases by about 1–2 cm for each laid sheet. This value is different for each manufacturer, so it is best to measure the width of the extreme wave with your own hands, and then make the necessary corrections. In addition, do not forget about the necessary overlap 1/2 or a full wave to protect the frontal board from precipitation. Unfortunately, even the most authoritative information resources are often silent about this.

Fasteners

To fix the slate sheets to the lathing, special galvanized nails with wide heads or self-tapping screws with washers and rubber gaskets are used. The length of the fastener should be related to the wave height of the material and the thickness of the sheathing. It is impossible to drive in nails (screw in self-tapping screws) all the way - with seasonal movements, a tightly fixed sheet may crack.

Roofing nails have a wide convex head that protects the attachment point from leakage

To prevent damage to the slate, you should mark and drill holes in advance through which it will be attached to the crate. The drill diameter should be selected in such a way that the nail or self-tapping screw fits into the hole with a millimeter margin. Fastening is carried out only along the upper points of the ridges, with an indent of one wave from the edge. So, for an eight-wave slate, the attachment points should be on the 2nd and 6th wave, while the 7-wave is attached along the second and fifth ridge. In height, each slate sheet must be fixed at two points. It is easy to calculate that up to 4 fasteners are consumed per sheet.

For fixing a standard slate sheet, four fixing points are sufficient

The method of fastening, which I want to tell the readers about, can be used only at your own peril and risk - if you are not sure of your own accuracy, then it is better not to resort to it. The fact is that experienced roofers almost never perform drilling if nails are used to fasten the slate. Experts believe that this is simply time-consuming. The hole is made in the same way as for slitting concrete walls. The nail is driven into the sheet with neat, gentle blows, constantly turning it around its axis. As a rule, no more than 5–6 weak blows with a hammer are enough to create an even, neat hole in the slate. Please note that in this case, the sheet must fit snugly against the crate, otherwise vibration loads will lead to cracks. I have used this method many times for both new and used slate, so I can guarantee its effectiveness.

Preparatory work

Inspect each canvas carefully for chips and cracks. It is better to set aside products with defects immediately - later they can be cut off and laid on the edge of the slope.

If desired, the slate can be protected with a water-repellent compound or painted with a special acrylic paint.It fills all the pores of the material and forms a glossy layer. On such a surface, snow and moisture practically do not linger.

Raising slate to the roof

Considering the weight of the roofing material, it is best to install it with the support of relatives or friends. With a sufficient number of assistants, the slate can be lifted to the roof with your hands - for this you only need a couple of ladders. Otherwise, you will have to look for a rope with hooks at the ends. As guides, you can use a pair of boards or beams that lean against the Mauerlat or the lower edge of the rafter structure.

To lift the slate to the roof, use guides made of timber or boards

The slate canvas must be hooked from below, and then pulled to the roof with a rope. This method will allow you to carry out the installation yourself.

Video: how to raise slate on the roof

Asbestos cement trimming tools

Slate is pliable in terms of machining. Any cutting tool is suitable for cutting it - a grinder, a hacksaw, a jigsaw or a circular machine.

It is more convenient to cut slate sheets with a grinder with a circle designed for cutting stone

When starting cutting, be sure to mark the sheet with a simple pencil or colored chalk - this will help to get a straight line. If a circular saw with teeth longer than 10 mm is used in the work, then its disc is turned in the opposite direction - this will reduce the coloring of the material.

Slate roof ladder

During the installation process, the roofer has to move both along the elements of the rafter system and along the slate flooring. In order not to damage the fragile roof and make the work safer, it is recommended to take care of the manufacture of a special ladder in advance. It will also come in handy in the future - when carrying out preventive and repair work.

The roof ladder ladder will make installation more convenient and safe, and will allow you to easily inspect any place on the roof during its operation

You can make a ladder for slate from waste lumber that was used to build the lathing. You will need two beams of the required length and several short jumpers - at the rate of one step per 40-50 cm of a running meter of stairs. Hooks made of metal or wooden bars must be attached to the upper edge of the ladder. They will be needed to fasten the ladder to the lathing or ridge part of the roof.

DIY slate installation

Depending on the geometry of the roof slopes, it is possible to lay the slate with an offset (staggering) or by cutting corners.

Stacking according to the pattern

Installation of roofing sheets in a staggered manner (with an offset through one row) is suitable for long, low slopes - in this case, the amount of waste will be minimal.

Laying the slate apart assumes the displacement of the upper row by half of the slate sheet

Getting started with the installation, you should make a sketch with the location of each canvas - this will determine how many sheets will have to be cut in half. Having completed the cutting, further work is carried out according to the following algorithm:

  1. Having retreated 10-15 cm from the edge of the cornice, pull the cord.
  2. Installation is carried out from the leeward side, starting from the cornice and moving towards the ridge part. The first row should be made of a whole slate. The sheet is laid on the crate and aligned with the cord, and then nailed at four points.

    The first row is recommended to be mounted from whole sheets of slate.

  3. The next canvas is aligned with the previous one so as to overlap its extreme wave. Thus, it is necessary to lay 3-4 sheets of the first row.
  4. Installation of the next row begins with half of the canvas. The overlap on the bottom row should be at least 15–20 cm (it all depends on the slope of the roof). Initially, no more than 2-3 sheets are laid.

    During the installation of slate, the necessary overlaps and overlaps must be observed

  5. For the third row, whole sheets are used. Observing the requirements for overlap and overlap, mount 1-2 canvases.
  6. Adding 1 sheet in each row, fill the entire surface of the slope with slate.
  7. If necessary, cut the canvases protruding beyond the ridge and the side line of the slope.

When sawing and drilling asbestos-cement slabs, do not forget about personal protective equipment. It has been proven that asbestos dust is harmful to health, therefore it is strictly forbidden to work without a respirator.

Corner trimming installation

Laying slate by cutting corners is in many ways similar to the previous method, but only whole sheets are used. For this reason, after installation on the roof, even rows of canvases are clearly visible both horizontally and vertically.

Trimming corners will eliminate double overlap and eliminate large gaps between sheets of adjacent horizontal rows.

Laying pattern with trimming corners allows for a tighter fit of the slate

The very same installation technology looks like this:

  1. Laying begins on the side opposite to the direction of the prevailing winds in the area. First, the first sheet is aligned and fastened.
  2. With an overlap on one wave, the remaining slate of the first row is mounted. The upper left corner of each sheet is trimmed.
  3. When laying the first sheet of the upper row, it is necessary to cut off its lower right corner. When joining this sheet with the slate of the first row, a gap of 3-4 mm should remain between their beveled edges.

    When joining sheets, you need to leave a gap of 3-4 mm

  4. The canvases of the second and subsequent rows are cut from the upper left and right lower edges. The last right sheet is fitted only along the upper left corner.
  5. At the final row, only the lower right corners are trimmed. In this case, the extreme canvas must remain intact.

To make the slate more resistant to biological factors, its surface is covered with an antiseptic. In addition, you can paint the roof with a special paint.

Slate painting makes it more resistant to negative factors

Video: laying slate by trimming corners

Features of laying flat sheets of chrysotile cement slate

Under the roof of flat, short panels of chrysotile cement slate, a continuous sheathing is made of plywood, boards or OSB boards. Fastening is carried out with nails or self-tapping screws with preliminary drilling of the holes with a carbide-tipped tool. Rubber gaskets must be installed under the caps of the fasteners, otherwise the roof will leak.

Unlike corrugated slate, the installation of flat sheets can be started from either side, according to a triangular or rectangular arrangement. In the first case, slate tiles are located at an angle of 45 ° to the cornice. At the same time, they hang over him, forming a kind of jagged line. The lateral corners of adjacent tiles in the upper rows are trimmed to achieve a tighter adhesion of the elements. In addition, the bottom corner of each top sheet must cover the joint of the tiles, that is, the installation is carried out in a checkerboard pattern. Installation with triangles looks impressive and resembles a tiled roof, however, it requires higher costs.

Rectangular styling is easier and eliminates the need for clipping. The slate is mounted so that the overlap of the upper sheet over the joint between the lower tiles. The overlap should be such that not only the bottom row overlaps, but also the one below it. Since the installation is carried out without overlapping side tiles, only this method can be used to achieve complete tightness of the roof covering. The fixation is performed at the top of each canvas, using all the same nails or self-tapping screws. In the future, the attachment points are covered with the upper row slate.

When installing rectangular slate sheets, it is important to comply with the overlap requirements, since the tightness of the roof depends on this.

After the last row of slate has been laid, it is necessary to install the ridge elements and fix the wind and hem boards.

Installation errors

Novice roofers often make a number of mistakes, which in the future can lead to damage to the slate, leaks and other unpleasant consequences. In the process of work, you cannot:

  • start laying slate against the wind;
  • bend nails on the back of the crate;
  • fasten the slate without a gap between the sheet and the head of the hardware;
  • use knotty and defective lumber;
  • perform an overlap between the rows of less than 15 cm;
  • carry out installation without personal protective equipment.

In addition, unnecessary savings can be the cause of problems. One should not deviate from the requirements of the technology where it requires an exact correspondence of sections, overlaps, geometric and other parameters.

Video: why you can not bend slate nails

Slate roof maintenance and repair

The rough surface of the slate roof contributes to the accumulation of organic matter, which leads to the appearance of moss and lichens. Allocating a variety of acid-containing compounds, they gradually destroy the slate. In addition, small chipping due to physical impact can cause leaks, which eventually lead to the appearance of large cracks. To make the roof more durable, you should regularly inspect it for damage and clean the surface of debris.

Slate roofs, which have lost their former attractiveness, can be painted with special acrylic paint

Small repairs can be done with a mixture of two parts cement and three parts asbestos. This composition is diluted with PVA glue to the state of thick sour cream, and then applied to a crack or chip with a layer of 2-3 mm. After drying, the repair site must be painted over with slate paint or covered with a layer of cement laitance.

Video: secrets of installation and successful operation of a slate roof

Reviews about the slate roof and the features of its construction with your own hands

Roof installation is one of the most critical stages of construction. And although the slate coating is simple from the point of view of installation, it is still not worth neglecting the requirements of the technology. Only in this case, you can count on the fact that the roof will not only be reliable and durable, but also attractive.


How to make a shingle roof

Any small piece roofing materials should be overlapped. The following types of overlap are used in house roofing works: double overlap, which provides a roof covering in two or even three layers, a single overlap, which provides a roof covering in one layer.

We form a double overlap with slate, flat tape tiles and other flat materials of piece types. With a double overlap, the number of overlap layers depends on the overlap dimensions: the overlying rows should overlap the lower rows by more than half the length of the tile piece material.

The tiles are fastened to the crate with staples, nails, wire, clamps. These fasteners are passed through the holes in the tiles. Sometimes they just hold onto their own weight. Tape flat shingles are usually fastened with clamps or nailed. The already attached tiles have a horizontal cleat lapel on top. The adjacent tile rests under the vertical flap.

Clamp hooks from the attic side are nailed to the roof sheathing. The lapels of the clamps must be closed with the shingles placed above them. All tiles located on the gable and cornice overhangs, as well as on the ridge and on the edges of the roof are fastened with wire. Tiles, which are located at the pediment and at the cornice, can be fastened with special brackets. On roofs with a steep slope (35-45º), as well as on roofs that are located in areas of strong wind loads, the shingles need to be tied in one row. If the roof slope is more than 45º, then each shingle must be fixed with wire.

The arrangement of the tile tiles can be represented as an overlap pattern. In such a pattern, adjacent rows of tiles are tied in the same way as bricks are tied in the masonry of a wall in adjacent rows: the joint of a pair of tiles of one row falls in the middle of the tiles of the row below. To achieve this arrangement, odd rows should be started and ended with whole tiles, and all even rows must be supplied with half tiles at the beginning and at the end. The tiles must be laid from bottom to top - from the eaves to the ridge. The grooved tiles are laid in rows from right to left. Grooved shingles - from left to right. Flat tiles can be laid out starting from any pediment - both right and left.

Tile slabs are laid simultaneously in 3-4 rows. In this case, a certain sequence must be observed. First, in the row that adjoins the eaves of the roof, you need to put two whole tiles of tiles from the initial pediment. In the second row, they overlap (that is, so that the tiles of the second row lay on the tiles of the first row) from the beginning of the pediment, first half the tile, then the whole one. One whole tile is placed in the third row. Next, you need to go back to the first row and lay out another whole tile. Also, a whole tile is added to all the rows already started (in this case, to the second and third row). After the first (very initial) tiles in the first to third rows have been started and the second tiles have been added one tile at a time, you can proceed to add the 4th row. In the fourth row they put, again, one half (as for all even rows) and one whole tile. Then one whole tile is placed in the 5th row. Then again you need to return to the first row and add one whole tile to all the started rows - from the first to the fifth inclusive. Thus, we have such a ladder of rows of tiles formed, which gradually covers the roof to its entire height - from the cornice to the ridge itself. The ridge must be covered with ridge tiles.

To make the load on the walls of the house from the roof more even, it is recommended to lay the tiles simultaneously on both roof slopes: lay out 2-4 rows of tiles on one roof slope, then the same amount on the second. For greater protection of the tiled roof, it is highly recommended 2-4 months after the erection of the roof to coat the transverse joints of the tiles with lime mortar from the side of the attic or attic room. Also, astringent-fibrous materials should be added to the solution. For example, tow or chop. From above, the tiles will need to be coated with oil paint.

When covering roof slopes, the tiles must be laid in different ways depending on the shape of the tiles themselves. Tiles in shape are divided into flat, tape, groove, groove stamped, as well as grooved ordinary tiles made of cement-sand mortar or clay.

As a result, a fairly massive two-layer or three-layer roof is obtained from flat tiles. It can fit from any pediment. Such tiles are attached to the crate with clamps or nails. The extreme tiles are fixed with wire or special brackets.

The row adjacent to the cornice should be laid on a continuous crate, typical for the cornice overhang. In this case, the tiles should be attached to the edge of the cornice lathing. In the second row, the tiles are attached to the upper end of the tiles of the first row. All further rows are connected with the bars of the roof sheathing (just as the first row following the eaves row was attached). An exception is the ridge row. In this row, as in the second row near the eaves, tiles must be laid on a solid crate.

Tape groove shingles differ in that they have grooves along the tiles.These slots allow you to create more reliable and waterproof roofing with only one layer of roofing. Such tiles are laid from right to left. Begin laying from the hip or pediment edge. The grooves of the tiles must be firmly hooked to each other. In the case when the shingles were not fixed very tightly in the groove of the adjacent shingles, the junction must be thoroughly coated with lime-cement mortar.

Tape groove tiles are suitable for covering roofs with simple configurations.

Stamped groove and cement-sand tiles have both longitudinal and transverse grooves. Of these types of shingles, for a reliable roof, it is also sufficient to use one roofing row. Transverse joints provide excellent waterproofing and reliability in one more plane. Such tiles are laid from right to left and fixed to the crate with staples or wire.

Clay cement-sand and stamped tiles are the most waterproof types of tile roofs.

Grooved shingles are used both for covering ribs and ridge, and for arranging roofing rows. Typically, a grooved roof is used for roofs with a slope of 20-33%. If the slope of the roof is less, then water will seep at the joints. If the slope of the roof exceeds 33%, then there is a danger of the tiles sliding off the roof.

For grooved shingles, unlike other types of shingles, you need a solid wood base. It is attached to the wood with a lime mortar. Fibrous materials or clay mixed with straw cutting should be added to the solution. The gaps between the tiles and the base should be filled with tiled or brick rubble.

Grooved tiles require laying from left to right. In this case, the narrower edge of the tile slabs should be directed downward. The shingles of the superior row should fit with their narrow edges into the upper, more widened edges of the lower row.

Inclined ribs and ridge of the roof should be lined with special ridge grooved tiles. Each ridge tile has a groove rim. With this rim, the tiles cling to the adjacent tiles.

Ridge tiles are laid in the direction of laying the rows of tiles on the roof slopes: from right to left or from left to right. On the same ribs, the tiles must be laid from the bottom up. The places of the edge joints with the ridge must be sealed with a cement mortar or a roofing rosette, which is made of roofing steel. The ridge tiles are attached to the wooden lattice with wire. However, it must be laid on a lime mortar.

The gutters and valleys of the tiled roof must be covered with paintings made of pre-galvanized steel. Those places where the tiled roof is adjacent to the wall must be covered with an apron, which is also made of galvanized steel. The apron is fastened with clamps to the base of the roof under the outer rows of tiles and nailed to the foundation bar.

Arrangement of a collar for a chimney. On the roof, a so-called otter should be made of tiles around the pipe. The otter is made from a cement-sand mortar. The chimney collar is the most vulnerable part of the roof. Consequently, a poorly prepared solution or its poor styling can lead to leaks over time due to cracking of the otter.

The tiled roof around the chimney shaft must lie tightly on the crate. The gap between the roof and the trunk must be laid out with collars. The doorways are also made of galvanized steel. Then the gap is filled with a cement-sand mortar. This is done so that a collar is formed around the pipe, which protrudes above the roof. In its lower part, the collar should be widened and lie tightly on the tiles. The upper part should fit the chimney shaft precisely and tightly. For better moisture removal from the side of the roof ridge, a protrusion with a pair of inclined planes is installed on the collar.

To avoid damage to the already laid roof, it is necessary to use bridges. Bridges are made from plank flooring. Subsequently, these bridges will still serve their service when access to the dormer window or, again, to the chimney is required. It is rational to arrange such permanent bridges from the point of exit to the roof to the chimney, as well as along the eaves and the ridge of the roof.

Metal roofing is made of special type profiles made of hot-dip galvanized steel. Also, metal tiles, as a rule, are covered with a multilayer coating of colored plastics. Such a coating is resistant to the most destructive part of the solar radiation spectrum, as well as to a wide range of temperatures (from -50 degrees to +120). The service life of a properly made and laid metal tile is more than 30 years. Metal roofing is characterized by reliability and lightness. Such shingles are attached to the crate with special self-tapping screws, which have an auxiliary gasket in the cap, which makes such a connection waterproof and generally sealed. Installation of such a tile is very simple and does not require, in fact, any complex equipment.

Metal tiles are highly valued due to their cost-effectiveness, durability, lightness and ease of installation.


Applications

Liquid roof rubber has a wide range of applications:

  • Protection against moisture penetration of foundations (groundwater), floors between floors; waterproofing of floors (prevents the appearance of fungus, mold), pool tanks, metal, concrete tanks, roofs, etc.
  • On complex surfaces with different levels, "steps". On curly architectural forms, at the joints.
  • In places where there is an increased level of vibration (in particular, near ventilation openings, etc.).

Liquid rubber is indispensable when there is no time for large-scale construction, waterproofing and roofing: the composition can be applied to a prepared old coating. It should be noted: a seamless smooth multi-colored shell itself can serve as a decorative coating, as well as a basis for further laying piece materials on it.


How to cover, with ondulin or metal tiles: reviews, what is better to choose

Before making the final decision on what to choose: metal or ondulin, you should perform a comparative characteristic of these materials according to the main quality criteria.

These criteria include:

  • durability
  • simplicity of installation system
  • strength characteristics
  • fire resistance
  • the ability to block extraneous sounds

Metal tile with Bang profile

  • the cost
  • decorative characteristics
  • the ability to trap snow accumulations, etc.

Characteristics of metal tiles and ondulin: service life, reviews

According to the manufacturers of ondulin (France), this type of coating can last at least 15 years. This information appears on the warranty coupons.

Note! The periods indicated in the warranty reflect the period during which the coating will not leak water. As for the decorative side of the issue, in this case the service life is shorter, since the paint burns out much earlier under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.

In fact, the effective operational life of ondulin is almost three times longer and reaches a period of up to 40 years. The decorative properties of the surface will be lost only 10-15 years after installation. During this period, ondulin can only brighten.

It is worth remembering that the cover in the form of ondulin is a temporary measure for the roof of the house. In terms of durability, metal tiles are able to offer more.

In accordance with the technical information supplied by the manufacturer to the metal tile, its warranty service life is within a period of 10-50 years. This indicator depends on the type of polymer coating, the manufacturer, as well as on the thickness of the metal sheet.

Ondulin and metal tiles are materials that are easy to install.

The decorative coating is guaranteed for at least 3 years. During this time, the paint retains its freshness and saturation. In practice, high-quality metal tiles do not fade in the sun for almost their entire service life. The quality of installation also affects the durability of the coating.

The easier it is to cover, with metal tiles or ondulin: which is better to take into work

Due to the light weight of ondulin, the installation of this coating can be done independently without the help of specialists.

The positive qualities of the material manifested during installation:

  • material consumption, as well as the amount of construction waste, is less than when working with metal tiles
  • cheap components

  • ease of installation is ensured due to flexibility and elasticity (thanks to this, installation of the coating on roofs with complex configurations is possible)
  • no need for special tools.

When working with ondulin, you can limit yourself to using a hammer, tape measure, as well as a hacksaw, designed for working with wooden surfaces.

Helpful advice! Be sure to get your saw lubricant.

Working with metal tiles requires knowledge and experience, because metal is not so easy to handle, and the installation of the coating must be carried out in a certain order. Components and trims require special attention.

Ondulin consumption is usually less than metal tiles

Features of installation of metal tiles:

  • a clear control of the position of all elements is necessary (all measurements should be carefully taken and the location of parts should be checked using a building level)
  • the organization of roofs on roofs of complex shapes is unprofitable (a large amount of construction waste)
  • the use of special tools is required - a screwdriver, a construction level, electric scissors, capable of coping with metal cutting.

When installing metal tiles, you cannot do without calling a specialist.

Roof structure with insulation

The safer to cover the roof with ondulin or metal tiles: reviews

In terms of fire resistance, ondulin is considered an unsafe material. This type of covering consists of roofing board impregnated with bitumen. This roof option is able to withstand temperatures up to 110 ° C. The material belongs to a certain class of fire safety - KM5.

The properties of ondulin do not allow it to be used as a roofing material for hospitals, schools and kindergartens.

The metal tile is not afraid of fires, since the steel sheet does not lend itself to combustion and does not support it. This roof option is able to withstand temperatures up to 130 ° C. If this figure is higher, the combustion of the upper protective layer of polymers occurs. Therefore, in terms of fire safety, metal tiles are more reliable and better than ondulin.

Laying metal tiles on the roof of a simple form

Note! In addition to fires, there is another safety factor in the operation of the roof. With heavy snowfalls, precipitation accumulates on the roof, which can fall on your head at the most inopportune moment.

The problem of snow accumulation is largely related to metal tiles with a slippery surface. The snow load (the ability of the pavement to withstand a certain precipitation pressure) in this case is 1200 kg / m². For this reason, the coating without fail requires the installation of a snow retention system.

The surface of ondulin, on the other hand, has a rough texture; therefore, snow accumulations on it are well retained; there is no need to install a protective system. The snow load in this case is 960 kg / m².

Bright roof of a country house

Buying ondulin or metal tiles: which will cost less

The cost of material and all components is of interest to many developers, especially if the budget allocated for construction is limited.

Comparison of prices for the purchase of materials:

Materials (edit) price, rub.
Ondulin (leaf) 400-420
Ondulin (m²) 200-220
Metal tile (sheet) 360-500
Metal tile (lm) 190-250
Consumables for ondulin 250-280
Consumables for metal tiles (lm) 100-300
Installation of ondulin (work of a specialist, m²) 300
Installation of metal tiles (work of a specialist, m²) 500

Some manufacturers include consumables in the ondulin package, so you do not have to spend money on fasteners. Metal roofing is not able to offer such an advantage. The average cost of 1 self-tapping screw is about 3 rubles.

The cost of steam, hydro and thermal insulation materials for installing the roof in both cases is the same.

Standard roof fastening made of ondulin

The advantages of ondulin against metal tiles

Unlike metal tiles, ondulin is able to offer such beneficial advantages:

  1. Minimum material consumption when comparing machining of the same area.
  2. Due to the fact that ondulin is made by one manufacturer, product quality is guaranteed at all stages. On the other hand, the presence of a large number of companies engaged in the production of metal tiles increases the assortment and misleads buyers who risk buying a fake or low-quality product.
  3. The material is endowed with excellent sound-absorbing properties, so its operation does not bring discomfort to the residents of the house during bad weather or precipitation.
  4. Condensation does not form under the coating surface.

Roofing in blue is becoming more and more popular among owners of country houses

Note! In terms of decorative properties, only onduvilla can be compared with metal tiles, which can imitate the surface of Mediterranean tiles. Ondulin's palette is scarce and limited to a standard set of colors.

Advantages of metal tiles over ondulin

Despite some shortcomings, the metal tile has many advantageous advantages over ondulin:

  1. Due to its special composition and unusual design, the material is characterized by high strength indicators.
  2. A large number of suppliers provide the construction market with a huge assortment, including many colors, types of materials and coatings, profiles of various shapes and prices.
  3. During the production process, the material is endowed with useful properties such as fire safety, moisture resistance, resistance to low temperatures and temperature extremes, the ability to withstand operation in various climatic conditions.

Gray metal roofing

What advantages are more profitable: ondulin or metal tiles

This table briefly and clearly reflects the advantages and weaknesses of metal tiles and ondulin.

Comparative characteristics of materials:

Metal tile Ondulin
Benefits disadvantages Benefits disadvantages
Hard surface High noise level Excellent strength characteristics Surface bends in extreme heat
Long service life Condensation is forming Complete protection against moisture Limited service life
Light weight Light weight
Complex installation scheme Simple installation diagram
Wide range of colors The paint will fade gradually Saturated shades Gradual loss of color intensity

Taking into account the previously considered advantages of each of the materials, we can come to the following conclusion: ondulin is the most optimal coating if the construction budget is limited by rigid framework, and the use of metal tiles promises reliability and durability (subject to full compliance with the installation technology).


Pros and cons of different types of roofs

Homeowners in need of a roof replacement have several roofing materials at their disposal with varying life spans.In addition to durability, each of the different roofing materials has its own characteristics - both positive and negative, which can have a significant impact on your investment. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of some of the most popular roofing materials preferred by homeowners.

Expected service life of roofing material

  • Asphalt 3-Tab Roof Tiles: 20 Years
  • Asphalt architectural shingles: 30 to 50 years old
  • Timber shingles: 20 years
  • Metal roofs: 40 to 80 years
  • slate, concrete and clay tiles: from 60 to 150 years

Roof types and life expectancy

Asphalt 3-strip shingles have been the most popular roofing material for decades, a durable material consisting of an asphalt / fiberglass backing coated with protective granules for added strength and color. They are popular with homeowners due to their availability and ease of installation. The most common types of shingles last for about 20 years. High quality shingles are available that can last up to 50 years.

Architectural shingles are similar to asphalt shingles in that they are made from the same materials and are recyclable. During production, an extra inlay or layer is added to ensure both durability and aesthetic appeal. The average lifespan of architectural tiles is 30 years.

Wood shingles have been used for centuries and are still popular today. This durable roofing material is often made using hardwood or composite wood materials. In temperate climates, wood shingles and shaking can last for about 30 years.

Metal roofing materials can be stored for 40 to 80 years depending on regional climatic conditions. Traditionally, metal roofs have consisted of simple corrugated panels with little aesthetic appeal. Metal roofing products are available today that will suit almost any architectural style. Attractive panels are often made from steel, aluminum, or copper. Metallic cladding and painted finishes are added to steel panels during production to prevent rust and enhance aesthetic appeal. Aluminum panels do not require a metal coating as they naturally resist rust and corrosion.

Slate, concrete and clay roofing tiles are - according to the National Association of Home Builders - the most durable roofing materials with an expected lifespan of 100 years or more.

Advantages and disadvantages of roofing materials

Benefits of Asphalt Tiled Roofs

  • Asphalt 3-strip shingles are one of the most affordable roofing materials. The average cost of asphalt roofing is between $ 1.50 and $ 5.50 per square foot. Architectural shingles can also be offered at a higher price, ranging from $ 22 to $ 28 per square foot.
  • Asphalt shingles are available for installation. They can be applied directly to old shingles, provided the roof deck is in good condition.
  • Asphalt shingles are considered class A fire resistant - they can withstand burning for up to two hours. If you live in a fire hazardous area, discuss roofing options with your contractor, as many other types of roofing may be better than asphalt.
  • These shingles are readily available at most home improvement stores.

Disadvantages of Asphalt Tiled Roofs

  • Asphalt shingles have the shortest lifespan of the roofing materials mentioned in this post. Asphalt shingles should last 15 to 30 years, but other roofing materials can last 50 years or more.
  • Asphalt shingles are vulnerable to high winds, heat and storm damage.
  • Although asphalt shingles are recyclable and often used in road surfaces, they are not considered environmentally friendly. The production of these tiles generates many greenhouse gas emissions.

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Benefits of wooden roofs

  • Timber roofs have a longer lifespan than asphalt pavements - up to 25 years. The lifespan of your cedar shingles varies greatly depending on the local climate, the type of timber used and the thickness of the cut.
  • Timber shingles are aesthetically pleasing to homeowners while providing a natural look.
  • Cedar and wood shingles weigh less than other types of roofing, such as clay or slate, but still provide strength and moisture protection.
  • Wood shingles are environmentally friendly and made from natural, biodegradable materials.

Disadvantages of wooden roofs

  • Timber shingles can be more expensive than other types of roofing, ranging from $ 4.50 to $ 9.00 per square foot.
  • Timber shingles require additional periodic fire protection and may be banned in your municipality due to a fire. Talk to your contractor if you live in a fire hazardous area.
  • Wood shingles and collars require periodic treatment with preservatives and fungicides to prevent the roof from drying out, deforming, cracking and attracting mold.

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The advantages of metal tiles

  • Metal roofing is a broad term that encompasses a variety of materials including steel, aluminum, and copper.
  • Metallic materials are available in a wide variety of styles and over 100 colors to complement almost any architectural style. Factory installed metal coatings and paint can also increase durability.
  • Metal roofs are known for their lifespan of 60 years.
  • Metal roofing materials are fire resistant. Metal roofing can also lower your insurance rates because of its fire resistance, especially in states like Texas and California, which are vulnerable to fires.
  • A metal roof will also increase the home's resale value.

Disadvantages of metal tiles

  • Metal roofs are a significant investment for homeowners. Materials can cost anywhere from $ 7 to $ 9 per square foot, while installing a metal roof can cost anywhere from $ 21,000 to $ 50,000. Homeowners
  • you will need to find a highly qualified licensed and experienced contractor who specializes in metal roofing.

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The advantages of a tiled roof

  • The shingles are extremely fire-resistant and non-combustible. They are also resistant to decay and insects.
  • The tiled roof has an extremely long service life - up to 100 years.
  • An investment in a tiled roof can significantly reduce your monthly energy bill. Tiles are one of the only roofing materials that have inherent energy-saving qualities.

Disadvantages of a tiled roof

  • As with metal roofs, the cost of tiled roofing materials and their installation is significant. Materials can cost anywhere from $ 4.00 to $ 10.00 per square foot.
  • Tile roofing materials can be very heavy and can place significant stress on the structure of your home. It is important to discuss how shingles will affect your home with a civil engineer.

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Finding a Reliable Roofing Contractor

An experienced roofing contractor will also be able to explain the pros and cons of various roofing materials that are best suited to your home and climatic conditions. Choosing a reliable contractor is the most important aspect of any roofing project. The Contractors Retrofit Checklist is a free resource that helps homeowners screen a trusted contractor and you can relax knowing that your roof renovation or replacement project is in good hands. You can access the online checklist by visiting the Modernize Homeowner Portal. Portal or by downloading it here.


General device

A pitched roof is a roof that has two points of support, which are located at different heights with the formation of a slope. Its design is the simplest and does not require large investments. This type of roof is suitable for:

  • outbuildings
  • baths
  • garages
  • sometimes for living quarters.

A house with a pitched roof is very economical.

A pitched roof is ideal for European-style homes located in areas with frequent high winds. Houses with a pitched roof made of corrugated board are gaining popularity today and are in great demand.


Preventive methods

Roof cleaning has only a temporary effect, especially for roofs that are close to tall or flowering trees, pigeon houses and other potential sources of dirt. The greatest danger is posed by plant pollen, which provokes the development of mold and moss, while most other contaminants are washed away by rainwater.

There are a number of ways to prevent overgrowth in the future. The simplest is the treatment of the roof with a fungicide at intervals of 2-3 years. You can use any cleaning agent from the list above at a concentration of 1: 5. The treatment should be carried out until the contamination is clearly visible, the task is to etch the spores from the pores of the material with the help of a fungicide.

Another way is to eliminate the porosity and hygroscopicity of the coating, and hence the conditions for the formation of a nutrient medium for microorganisms. This is especially true for washed mineral roofs. A jet of water under pressure washes away particles of the material, making the surface even more porous. In such cases, glazing the tiles or painting the slate allows you to restore the attractive appearance of the roof and extend the service life of the coating by significantly slowing down the erosion processes.

There are several types of paints and varnishes suitable for application to the roof. The most budgetary ones are glyphtal and pentaphthalic enamels, which, when coated with slate, can have a service life of up to 10 years. Improved protective properties are characterized by rubber paints, which form a hydrophobic shell on the coating and give it bactericidal properties. The aesthetic properties are excellent: due to the fact that the rubber coating is 3-5 times thicker than that of alkyd enamels, uniformity of color is guaranteed even on very large roof surfaces, while the dullness makes the appearance of the roof attractive in any light.

The most advanced formulations make it possible to reproduce a protective layer of polymeric materials on the roof, which are used in the production of modern roofing coatings. We are talking about pural, plastisol, polyurethane - all compositions have a two-component formula and require careful compliance with the instructions for surface preparation and application technique.

However, there are roof coatings for which the above methods are irrelevant. For example, for bituminous shingles, the effects of both detergent chemicals and water jet cleaning can be detrimental. Paint for shingles is also not an option: the consumption is too high, and there is no guarantee of reliable adhesion. In this case, a copper mesh nailed along the entire length of the ridge will help get rid of the main types of pollution - moss and lichen. Copper oxides, dissolved in rainwater, are toxic to harmful organic matter, while the effect is permanent, in contrast to chemical treatment.

Copper slats and nets to protect the roof from moss

Finally, we must not forget about the timely cleaning of the roof. Any type of coating must be clean, which reduces the likelihood and rate of damage by greenery, and also prevents uneven fading of the decorative coating in the sun.



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