To grow a rich harvest of carrots it must be protected from various diseases and pestsotherwise the plants may die or bear deformed fruits. In this review, we will talk about the most common pests of this vegetable (carrot fly, aphid, leaf flies and others), the reasons for the appearance of diseases on it, how to protect and fight them.
There are many types of carrot diseases that can affect the plant throughout its growing period. The main task of the gardener will be to carry out preventive measures or if the disease still struck the plantings, it must be correctly identified and all the necessary measures to be taken as soon as possible to protect the plant.
Phomoz is also called dry rot.which is caused by a dangerous fungus. The disease affects the plant in the final stages of the growing season. In the initial stages, the disease can be recognized by the elongated gray-brown spots that are located on the leaves or petioles.
In addition to affecting the aerial part, phomosis is actively developing on fruits and continues to be active during storage, especially when the crop is in a room with an air temperature above 10 degrees. Initially, black-brown depressions with a whitish bloom appear on the upper part of the fruit, which gradually grow and affect the whole vegetable.
It will not be possible to save the plant, since it is almost impossible to cure a disease that has already appeared, all affected plants must be removed. As a means of prevention, it is necessary to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers before planting and remove the tops in a timely manner.
The disease affects the fruits of carrots, which become soft during storage and gradually become covered with a white fluffy bloom. The final stage in the development of the disease will be the appearance of a crust with black dots.
White rot spreads through the soil, so you need to remove all weeds in a timely manner and follow all the rules for planting and caring for plants.
The fight against the disease occurs through increased application of potash fertilizers, spraying plants with preparations containing copper. Also it is necessary to regularly disinfect the storage room.
This disease forms wet rot on the fruit during storage and results in a large loss of yield. Initially, the surface of the carrot is soaked, after which it darkens and covers the entire area of the fruit. After a while, a gray mushroom bloom appears on them.
To protect against the development of white rot, the soil should be fed with nitrogen fertilizers in time, periodically spray with a 1% solution of Brodsky liquid... It is recommended to store the crop at a temperature of +2 degrees.
Most often, this disease is called felt rot, it affects fruits both during their active growth and after harvest during storageI. The ailment can be recognized by the dark gray inner spots, on which a felt bloom of a purple hue subsequently forms. The last stage is characterized by the appearance of black dots.
Treatment of the disease carried out by spraying plantings with chemicals containing copper oxychloride.
The second name of the disease is black rot. The disease can manifest itself at any stage of plant development. On young carrots, the main symptom will be blackening of the stem. On adult plants, you can see the curling of the leaves, which eventually turn yellow and dry. The petioles go limp and sink to the ground. Dry black rot forms on the surface of the fruit.
Black rot can spread both through the soil and through the seeds. The disease is capable of destroying most of the plantings in a short time.
You can get rid of the disease by spraying with the drug Rovral.
Bacteriosis is one of the most common diseases, and it can be recognized by the following signs:
If the disease has spread strongly, then the plant will begin to emit a pungent and unpleasant odor.
It is impossible to get rid of the disease, so the affected plantings will have to be removed. Prevention will be keeping the seeds in hot water before planting and timely spraying with Hom.
Initially light brown spots with a light center are formed on the leaf plate, which gradually grows. The edges of the leaves begin to curl. If the humidity is high, then the spots will be covered with bloom. Formations on petioles and stems are oblong. Subsequently, the green part of the plant dies off completely, and the fruits become small and lose their original shape.
Pre-treatment of seeds will be preventive measures in hot water and spraying young shoots with a weak solution of Brodsky liquid.
Brown spot affects carrots at all stages of development and is therefore very dangerous:
To prevent the development of brown spotting in rainy weather, regularly loosen the aisles... Also, plants can be treated with a decoction of celandine, nettle or horsetail.
Pests living on carrots are very dangerous for planting, this is due to the fact that under the influence of these insects, the complete death of the plant or its partial withering away may occurthat leads to loss or decrease in yield. The fight against insects should be started immediately after they are discovered, in which case there will be much more chances to get rid of them.
The carrot fly hibernates in pupae underground, which is why the root crop of the plant most often suffers from such an insect. You can determine the presence of pests by the state of the tops, if a carrot fly is present, then the leaves acquire a bronze tint, after which they dry out and die off. Carrots damaged by the pest become unfit for consumption.
As a measure of control and at the same time prevention of the appearance of such insects it is necessary to plow, loosen and clear the soil from weeds in a timely manner. Treatment with chemicals Aklellik, Decis Profi, Tsiper, Sharpey and folk methods - pour with ammonia also helps well.
The beetle is a very small insect, which, like fleas, has jumping legs. Females of such pests lay eggs on carrot tops.... Soon, larvae appear from the eggs, which in turn will begin to feed on the leaf juices, thereby causing the plant to completely dry out.
You can get rid of insects by collecting eggs. and treating plantings with tobacco dust or soapy water.
This insect looks like a small butterfly the brown moth is considered especially dangerous, which affects the testes and fruit of carrots. You can notice the pest by the cocoons that he weaves. The plant gradually darkens and begins to dry. Most often, the umbrella moth is found in late June - mid-July, after which it turns into a pupa and does not pose a threat to the future harvest.
In order to get rid of insects, it is necessary to mechanically clean the plantings, that is, cut off the aerial part of the plant and collect the caterpillars, which must subsequently be destroyed. You can also spray carrots with lepidocide, entobacterin, etc. Preventive methods include deep digging of the soil before planting.
Naked slugs are considered the most common pests in the garden., this is due to the fact that they live in a variety of places, which include soil, sod, fallen leaves, stones or any other area with high humidity.
Both adults and young slugs can seriously damage yields. They actively eat up foliage and eat out large pits in the fruits themselves.
You can identify a slug by the white, shiny trail that it leaves behind.
For the prevention and control of insects the beds are treated with superphosphate or 10% salt solution.
A wireworm is a yellow worm, which is actually the larva of a click beetle. On average, the length of such an insect is 3 centimeters.... The wireworm feeds on root crops, eating them and leaving characteristic point passages. In this case, the vegetables will be unfit for human consumption.
You can get rid of such pests by feeding, which includes ammonia. The drugs Aktara and Bazudin also help well.
External signs of the appearance of carrot aphids are visible immediately. Clusters of small green insects are observed on plants... The leaves begin to curl and dry out. Such pests feed on stem juice, as a result of which carrots are poorly formed or stops developing. This factor can negatively affect the yield.
You can get rid of insects by spraying the plantings with soapy water., infusion of ash or tobacco. For prevention in summer, on hot days, carrots are sprayed with warm water as often as possible.
The most serious consequences occur after the appearance of butterfly caterpillarsrelated to this species. They feed on the root part of the stems and directly on the root crops themselves, leaving behind holes and passages.
You can effectively deal with an exclamation scoop using special chemicals (Decis, Politrin and Fury) and folk methods (infusion of chamomile and burdock).
In order to prevent the appearance of diseases and pests, you need to adhere to a whole range of measures, which includes the timely implementation of work on weeding and loosening, regular application of the necessary fertilizers and preliminary disinfection of planting material and soil. Also aboutit is very important to carry out preventive treatments:
A disease or pest can very often be found on carrots, which is why you need to carefully inspect the beds and the harvested crop at the time of defects and shortcomings... In order to face such a problem as rarely as possible, it is necessary to follow the rules regarding agricultural technology and plant processing.
9.1 Sowing table carrots, significant harm to the cause
- diseases - bacterial rot, brown leaf spot, alternariosis, phomosis, white rot
- pests - carrot fly, carrot flies, carrot aphids.
9.2 When diseases or pests appear on carrot crops, spraying with the following preparations is carried out (Table 5).
Table 5 - Chemicals against pests and diseases
|Accounting terms||Conditions||Drug, consumption rate,|
|Disease,||and ways||waiting period|
|by phases of development|
|pest||holding||and maximum fold|
|Carrot||During||Placement||ZhKL-P, yellow glue|
|(by alarm)||for signal||with VAN-11 glue - 2 lo|
|the appearance of||vushki (15x25 cm) on|
|pest||1 ha sticky tape "Su|
|1st color - 2 traps|
|ki (15 x 25 cm) per hectare|
|End of Table 5|
|Also||Spraying||Actellik, 50% e. -|
|one of the insects||1l / ha (30/2) arrivo,|
|ticides for||25% e. -0.5 l / ha (20/2)|
|the phenomenon of harm||extra decis, EC -|
|bodies on the rise||0.06 l / ha (20/1) cymbush|
|niyah (two||EC - 0.5 l / ha (20/2) wool|
|processing with in||PA KE - 0.5 l / ha (20/2)|
|at intervals of 8-10||sumicidin, 20% ae. -|
|days)||0.3 l / ha (30/1) tsipi,|
|25% e. -0.5 l / ha|
|(20/2) citric acid, 25% ae. -|
|0.5 l / ha (20/2) ziper-|
|kill, 25% ae. -|
|0.5 l / ha (20/2) ziperon,|
|EC - 0.5 l / ha (20/2)|
|sharpei, ME - 0.5 l / ha|
|(20/2) groan, VRK -|
|0.25 l / ha (20/2)|
|Carrot||The same drugs as|
|beetle||and against carrot|
|flies baciturin, ps,|
|titer 45-60 billion lives|
|incapable disputes / r -|
|3 kg / ha|
9.3 Consumption of working solution during spraying - 200-300 l / ha.
9.4 Carry out constant control over the uniformity of the spray solution with all nozzles.
9.5 Requirements for the implementation of chemical treatments against weeds, pests, diseases and methods for assessing the quality of work are given in Appendix 1.
10.1 Harvesting of carrots begins in the technical ripeness phase and ends before the onset of stable frost.
10.2 Methods of harvesting: manual, manual with partial mechanization and mechanized.
10.3 Manual harvesting with partial mechanization is used on loamy stony soils using root-lifters.
10.4 For mechanized harvesting, top-lifting harvesters or harvesters with an attachment for harvesting with
loading of root crops into containers and delivery by container to a vegetable store.
10.5 The technological complex for harvesting root crops should include: harvesting machines, container trucks, a sorting line or a sorting station consisting of several lines.
10.6 Requirements for performing technological operations during cleaning and methods for assessing the quality of work are given in Appendix 1.
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Most often, during cultivation, the culture is affected by fungal diseases, as well as those of a bacterial nature. The causes of infections are different:
Carrots get sick with thickened plantings, waterlogged soil. The ground part of plants and roots are affected.Some diseases are hidden, infected vegetables are placed in the cellar. During storage, rot begins, spoilage, as a result, the vegetable loses its taste, becomes unsuitable for eating.
On a note! Fungal infections in the cellar can easily spread to other vegetables stored in boxes or nets.
Preventive measures, folk remedies and chemicals will help protect green mass and crops.
The insect eats the tops and lays the larvae in the ground. The larvae penetrate the roots and eat them away, which leads to rotting of the fruit. Suitable breeding conditions for carrot flies are shaded areas, high humidity.
Preventive control measures: planting root crops in an open, well-ventilated and illuminated place, regularly thinning the planting, mixed crops of different crops. In the fall, be sure to dig deep into the beds so that the pupae cannot overwinter.
The small insect lays eggs on the undersides of the leaves. Larvae and adult insects suck out plant sap. The affected foliage slows down growth, acquires a red-yellow tint. Root crops are formed small, with a bitter taste.
Spraying plantings with special preparations: "Actellik", "Inta-vir", "Tsitkor" helps to fight the pest. You can use a folk remedy: the tops are treated with a saline solution (a glass of salt is dissolved in 10 liters of water).
The caterpillar of the pest damages the testes of the culture: it eats flowers, gnaws at the pedicels. During periods of weak flowering, caterpillars eat foliage. The carrot moth hibernates in the crevices of buildings, in cracks in the ground.
Preventive control measures: removal of wild umbrella plants (especially hogweed) around the carrot beds, feeding the carrots with nitrogenous compounds. In case of massive damage to the beds by carrot moth, the plantings are sprayed with insecticides "Entobacterin", "Lepidocide".
The pest spoils adult plants and young seedlings. Slugs prefer moist soil, so they gather under stones, fallen leaves. Abundant rains provoke the reproduction of the pest. Slugs are especially active on cloudy and damp days.
The main preventive measures are drainage of ditches, weeding, cleaning of torn tops from the beds. The site needs to be treated with 30% lime mortar, to which wood ash is added. The carrot beds can be sprayed with 10% brine.
A hard, yellowish worm makes winding passages in root crops, which leads to rotting of carrots. The wireworm can easily move along the ground, in dry weather it can sink into the ground to a depth of 1 m.
When growing carrots, regular loosening of the soil, weeding the beds (especially the removal of creeping wheatgrass), and attracting birds are of great importance. Chemical preparations "Bazudin", "Aktara" have proven themselves well.
Caterpillars gnaw the petioles of the carrot tops, which leads to a deterioration in the quality of the fruit or to the death of the plant. One caterpillar can destroy 10-15 plants per night. Caterpillars overwinter in the soil at a depth of 20-25 cm. The butterfly is frightened off by the smell of yarrow, chamomile, and burdock. Therefore, the tops are periodically sprayed with plant solutions.
Agrotechnical measures: deep digging of the soil, destruction of weeds, if the beds are watered abundantly, then most of the caterpillars die. A good result is given by spraying the beds with chemicals (insecticides, organophosphorus compounds).
Small transparent worms parasitize on the root system of plants, reproduce well in sandy soils. The pest easily tolerates cold, but low temperatures prevent reproduction. When plants are damaged, the tops have a sluggish, drooping appearance even after watering. The carrots stop growing and gradually dry out. It is difficult to protect plantings from pests.
Several methods of struggle are used:
Popular methods are popular: plots are watered with calendula infusion, marigolds and calendula are planted in the garden.
The gluttonous pest gnaws through the underground parts of the plant, eats the sown seeds, and gnaws at the roots. Favorable conditions for the breeding of the bear are sandy well-lit areas, soil rich in humus. Medvedka leads an underground lifestyle and gets to the surface mainly at night. Comprehensive pest control measures are considered effective:
The natural pests of the bear include birds (starlings, rooks), as well as rodents (moles, shrews), anathem larra - a wasp that penetrates underground passages.
A harmful insect appears in wet weather and lays eggs on the tops. The larvae suck out the sap of the plants, while releasing a sticky sweet liquid in which sooty mushrooms multiply. Black bloom on the foliage surface interferes with photosynthesis and carrots die.
A set of measures helps to get rid of pests:
When small areas are affected, plants are sprayed with garlic infusion, soap solutions.
Agrotechnical techniques (weeding, loosening, uniform moistening), the use of healthy seed, storage of crops in dry, ventilated rooms will help to avoid the appearance of pests and diseases in the beds with carrots.
No less damage to the crop is caused by harmful insects and their larvae, which damage root crops.
A large (5 mm) light brown insect begins to spoil the carrots immediately with the emergence of seedlings, since by this time the larvae of the pest have already appeared, gnawing deep passages in the roots.
Damaged carrots become bitter, friable and unusable, so action must be taken urgently. As a preventive measure, deep digging and disinfection of the soil is recommended, when pests appear - insecticides Aktellik, Decis, Aktara.
These small (about 1.5 mm) jumping insects lay their eggs directly on the leaves and petioles of carrots. Flea colonies, consisting of larvae and adults, suck the juices from the plants, as a result of which the tops begin to smolder and dry out. Root crops stop growing, and dry carrots become hard and tasteless. From a flea, carrots can be sprinkled with ash, tobacco. With a strong spread, the garden bed is sprayed with tobacco infusion or insecticides (Aktellik, Intavir).
Gray butterflies 15-18 mm long lay their eggs mainly on carrot stems, inflorescences and buds. In the middle of summer, brown caterpillars up to 1.5 cm long appear from the eggs, which eat up the greens and entangle the inflorescences with cobwebs, thus infecting the seeds. Spraying the beds with a decoction of tomato tops helps to fight pests; insecticides are used for severe damage.
Light, small (about 15 mm) worms live in the soil and spoil root crops. When pests appear on carrots, multiple seals on the root are noted, in which the larvae are located. Sick root crops are undeveloped and unsuitable for consumption. The only way to fight a nematode is to disinfect the soil with insecticides. Diseased plants need to be dug up with a clod of earth and burned.
A rather large (up to 5 cm) insect with a powerful shell and front jaws lives in the soil and damages carrots by gnawing at the roots and stems. In the beds, you can find underground passages of the pest, and in the ground there are larvae, which also spoil the roots.
The most common method of dealing with a bear is traps with Medvetox granular bait; in advanced cases, the Antimedvedka insecticide is used.
Yellow worms 3 cm long are the larvae of the click beetle, gnawing root crops, making multiple small passages in them. Wireworms are especially active in moist and warm soil, but drying out of the soil can lead to the death of pests. The period of transformation of the larvae into the beetle stage takes 3-4 years, so it is not so easy to deal with them. It is necessary to carefully dig up the soil, remove weeds and roots, thin out the garden in time. Before planting, it is advisable to water the soil with an insecticide; wireworms also do not like fertilizers containing ammonia.
Slugs are the most common vegetable pests. They appear in the garden when the humidity rises: with night dew or after rain, they live under stones, in wet foliage, compost heaps. Both young and adults harm carrots, gnawing holes in the leaves, roots, and leaving behind a slippery white coating in the form of tracks. As a rule, to scare away pests, it is enough to sprinkle the beds with ash, tobacco, salt or pepper. Insecticides will help solve the problem more radically: Metaldehyde, Ulicid, Thunderstorm.
Caterpillars of brown color can ruin the entire crop, gnawing leaves and petioles, making uneven moves in root crops.
The moths are incredibly fertile - during season 1, the butterfly lays up to 2 thousand eggs, so special attention should be paid to the fight against the pest. Before planting, the soil must be dug up and disinfected, weeds must be removed during the cultivation process, the plants must be sprayed with decoctions of burdock, chamomile, celandine.
When pests appear, it is recommended to use pyrethroid insecticides (Decis, Fury, Arrivo).
These are the most common pests of carrots that gardeners meet most often. In rare cases, aphids may appear on carrots, but these microscopic insects do not cause significant harm to the crop, in addition, they can be easily washed off with soapy water. And in order to prevent parasites from appearing on your beds, observe crop rotation, clean the areas of weeds and plant debris in time, plant plants next to carrots, the smell of which repels insects: mustard, elderberry, onion, garlic.
Just two waterings will save carrots from pests and diseases
Every gardener wants to grow a crop of delicious, sweet carrots. Getting a crop, keeping a root crop from the effects of pests and diseases is not an easy task.
Carrots are a very unpretentious crop, but getting a generous harvest is not so easy. To do this, you need to know what and how to water it. So that the carrot does not get sick and grow big, you need to water two times per season as a preventive measure.
We do the first watering immediately after thinning the carrots. To do this, we prepare a special solution, which includes two grams of potassium permanganate and boric acid, which are diluted in a bucket of water. This volume will be enough for an area of 3 sq. m. landings. If the weather outside is wet and rainy for a long time, this watering should be repeated after two weeks.
This will protect the carrots from rot and various fungal diseases. Also, this solution will reduce flowering, which will give more growth for the root crop, even if the seeds are not of the best quality.
Another problem that can prevent you from harvesting a good harvest is the carrot fly. The larva of this insect lives underground and feeds on the root crop of carrots, exactly what we so diligently watered, fertilized and cherished. These caterpillars will not touch the carrots if you water them with a solution of ammonia. To prepare the solution, take 2 tablespoons of ammonia in a bucket of water. I want to remind you about personal safety equipment, because ammonia vapors are poisonous and dangerous to humans - wear a protective mask.
The chemical industry offers a variety of insect control products. Folk remedies are no less effective against them. If you find harmful insects on carrots, take the following measures:
Insecticide Decis infects insects through the integument and during feeding
Knowing how to recognize diseases and pests in carrots will help you find the right remedies to fight them and provide you with a tasty and healthy vegetable until the first spring months.