Read the previous part. ← Features of clematis, choice of planting site, pruning group
Clematis can be planted with annual or biennial rooted cuttings, seedlings obtained by layering or dividing the bush, which have been transferred to their own roots by grafted plants. The seedling must have at least 5 roots at least 10 cm long and 2-3 buds or shoots. The roots must be healthy, without dark spots, constrictions, swellings (nematode infection).
Parts of last year's shoots should have healthy buds, young shoots should not be too long and thin. In any case, they need to be etched in a disinfectant solution ("Maxim", HOM, etc.), it is useful to treat the roots with heteroauxin, root, zircon or microbiological preparations for treating the root system.
If the seedling is too small, the permanent place is not prepared for planting or is not quite suitable for an underdeveloped plant, it is better to first plant clematis in a “school” - in a special place where plants grow and where it is convenient to care for them. After 1-2 years, the seedling will be ready for planting in a permanent place. This is also useful from the point of view of compliance with quarantine measures.
In the conditions of the North-West region, it is better to plant clematis in early spring (late April - May) or early autumn (September).
Clematis has long roots, so the depth of the hole is more important than the diameter. An ordinary pit: depth - 60-70 cm, diameter - 50-60 cm. Soil - a mixture of garden soil, humus, peat, sand (on heavy soils). It should be rich in humus, moisture-absorbing, breathable, and have a reaction close to neutral. Lime or dolomite (1-2 cups), superphosphate (1-2 tablespoons), complete mineral fertilizer (1-2 tablespoons) are added to the pit. In the lower part of the pit, you can put semi-rotten manure or compost. Manure and humus should always be mixed with superphosphate, and peat with lime materials. Ash is a good fertilizer for clematis.
Unlike other plants, clematis can almost never be planted without destroying the earthen coma, which is in the container when you buy a seedling. Their roots are usually quite long, often they are specially bent when planted in a container, which is unacceptable when planting in the ground. For clematis, it is much more important to check the quality of the roots, and then correctly distribute them in the pit when planting, than to try not to break the lump. Roots that are too long or roots with dry tips should be pruned. It is best to cover up any wounds with brilliant green.
An important feature of clematis planting is the need to deepen them. In order to properly spread the roots and not be mistaken with the depth, it is convenient to make a mound at the bottom of a partially filled hole, squeeze it tightly. The depth of the center of tillering for a young plant is about 10 cm, taking into account the soil settlement, the top of the mound should be at a depth of 5 cm. You can check the depth using a planting board.
First, you need to pour water into the pit, place the seedling on a mound and distribute the roots, carefully cover the roots with soil, and the place of the neck with coarse sand, compact the soil. It is impossible to immediately deeply deepen not germinated buds and tender young shoots. It is better to add soil when the plant takes root and the shoots begin to lignify.
A small mound of sand at the base of the bush will prevent water from stagnating in the area of the center of tillering, will protect the most vulnerable place from damping out, infection with diseases. After planting, the plant needs to be watered, and when water is absorbed, mulch to protect the soil from drying out, shade the plant for 1-2 weeks.
If the seedlings have long, weak shoots, they must be pinched to improve tillering. In the first year, on small seedlings, you need to pinch all young shoots at a height of 20-30 cm and not let them bloom. The main work in the first summer is watering and controlling weeds, which can destroy immature plants.
Clematis varieties Luther Burbank (lilac) and John Paul
Spring. After the snow has melted from the plants covered with polyethylene, it must be removed. There is no need to rush to open plants covered with lutrasil and other similar fabrics. In May, when the ground is completely thawed, you need to remove the rest of the shelter.
If clematis has wintered shoots, it is necessary to remove the shelter gradually in cloudy weather, so that the buds that have begun to sprout do not dry out, do not burn in the sun. Hilled plants need to be undone in order to facilitate the germination of new shoots.
At this time, it is useful to water clematis with milk of lime, chalk, ash to reduce acidity and fertilize with calcium. A good fertilizer in the early period is calcium nitrate (solution), which supplies the plants with calcium and nitrogen. Clematis begins to germinate at a temperature of + 5 ° C, but active growth begins only at a temperature of 10 ° C.
At this time, clematis grow very quickly, they need all the nutrients for growth. During May and early June, they can be fertilized with dry mineral fertilizers on wet soil or combined with fertilization with irrigation, as well as watered with solutions of organic and mineral fertilizers.
An important technique in the spring is the shedding of the base of the bushes with microbiological preparations against root rot and wilting (see more in the section "Fight against diseases and pests").
Particular attention should be paid to the binding of clematis to the supports. The presence of stationary supports greatly simplifies the task: arches, screens, pergolas, gratings, etc. In some cases, it is necessary to install supports annually. It is necessary to attach young shoots to the supports on time, until they reach a height of 40-50 cm. If you are late with a garter, clematis begin to curl with each other, grow in the wrong direction.
After that, it becomes very difficult to tie them, the shoots break, it becomes difficult to distribute the shoots along the support. The overwintered shoots must be lifted onto supports immediately after opening and tied before the lateral branches begin to grow, so as not to damage them and give the correct direction. In the first stages of growth, shoots have to be tied to almost all supports, to direct them in the right direction, to distribute along the support. Subsequently, clematis themselves cling to the supports and rise up. But even during the summer they have to be corrected, sometimes tied up to achieve better decorative effect.
Clematis. Sort Saw
Summer. The main summer concerns are watering, fertilizing, weeding, disease and pest control.
Watering should not be too frequent, but abundant enough to wet the soil to the depth of the roots. Typically, a medium plant needs at least 1-2 buckets of water. In hot dry weather, you have to water the clematis every week. It is equally important to ensure that in a rainy summer, water does not stagnate at the base of clematis, and water does not drip onto the plant from the roof.
When watering, the center of the bush should not be poured and the leaves should not be heavily moistened, as this contributes to the spread of diseases. After watering, when the water is absorbed and the surface dries slightly, the earth must be loosened. It is very useful to mulch the ground around the plant with humus, and on top with peat. This will reduce the need for watering and loosening and provide the plant with the necessary nutrition.
Clematis are crops that take out a large amount of nutrients from the soil, which are necessary for the annual almost complete renewal of a large vegetative mass and abundant flowering. In addition to high-quality filling of the pit during planting, plant feeding is required, starting from 2-3 years after planting.
Clematis requires all the nutrients, both macro- and micronutrient fertilizers. The maximum amount of nitrogen is consumed during the period of rapid spring growth, but in summer (June - July) the growth of clematis continues. And during the period of growth and budding, they need to be fertilized 2-4 times with full mineral or organic fertilizer. These fertilizers should also include trace elements. Fertilization patterns vary.
You can alternate organic and mineral liquid dressings, you can limit yourself to mineral dressings when mulching clematis with humus, you can use dry fertilizers, combining them with watering. Foliar dressings are also useful, especially if there is a suspicion of a shortage of any nutrients. It is better to stop feeding during flowering.
In clematis that bloom twice on last year's shoots and young ones, after the first flowering, you need to cut out the faded parts of the shoots in order to remove the resulting fruits and enhance the second flowering.
Fall. If in the first half of summer clematis were sufficiently fertilized, especially with the use of dry dressings that retain their effect for a long time, in the second half of summer and early autumn, top dressing can be stopped. Nitrogen at this time can delay vegetation and worsen wintering. You can give top dressing with potassium and phosphorus, sometimes it is advised to feed clematis with superphosphate in late autumn, before the shelter, since phosphorus is little washed out of the soil and will be used next summer.
In autumn, many varieties of clematis bloom before the onset of severe frosts. Slight frosts, which occur in September and even sometimes in August, do not harm clematis. The timing of the shelter of clematis is not critical, but by the end of October - the beginning of November it is better to cover them, even if they are not frozen yet. In colder weather, cover them earlier.
Read the next part. Classification and varieties of clematis, shelter for the winter →
Tatiana Popova, gardener
Photo by Vladimir Popov
Read all parts of the article "Cultivation of clematis near St. Petersburg"
• - Part 1. Features of clematis, choosing a place for planting, pruning groups
• - Part 2. Planting and clematis care calendar
• - Part 3. Classification and varieties of clematis, shelter for the winter
• - Part 4. Reproduction of clematis, diseases and pests, use in garden design
A seedling of a future flower can be grown from seeds yourself. But here several factors should be taken into account in order for the venture to be completed successfully:
To grow your own flower, it is best to use the seeds of the current year. The seeds are soaked for ten days in water, changing it several times a day, so the seedlings will appear faster. After placing the seeds on the substrate, they need to be covered with glass or film and try to keep a stable temperature of 25-30 degrees.
In early May, it is necessary to loosen the soil in the near-trunk circles and remove weeds.
Treat the trunk circles carefully so as not to damage the root system - to a depth of no more than 7 cm.
It is especially important this month to moisten the soil, since during this period peonies actively grow, form buds, and also form dormant buds on the stems. Therefore, peonies are watered abundantly weekly at the rate of 3-4 buckets for each bush.
During the budding period, together with watering, it is necessary to carry out a second feeding: 8-10 g of nitrogen, 10-15 g of potassium, 15-20 g of phosphorus by the active ingredient per bush.
If you are growing peonies for cutting, then to form a lush flower, you should remove all the buds on the shoot except one.
Sometimes there are slight frosts in May. To protect the plants, cover them with lutrasil or any other nonwoven fabric.
Extra buds should be plucked out until they are the size of a pea
MOON AND ZODIAC SIGNS
There are four phases of the moon, the strength of its energy in each of them is not the same. This is due to the different distances between the Moon and the Sun. The closer she is to the heavenly body, the more dependent on him. Since ancient times, the four phases of the moon have been associated with four elements: earth - new moon, water - first quarter, air - full moon, fire - last quarter. The beginning of the lunar cycle is the new moon. For the entire cycle, the moon passes through twelve signs of the zodiac.
The change in the phases of the moon from new moon to full moon and again to new moon occurs in 29.5 days - the lunar month, which is shorter than the solar one and is called synodic. Lunar days, on the contrary, are longer than solar ones and are 24.5 hours. And, of course, the rising and setting of the moon do not coincide with solar time.
During the period of changing the phases of the moon, we experience four lunar seasons: spring - from new moon to first quarter, summer - from first quarter to full moon, autumn - from full moon to last quarter, and winter - from last quarter to new moon. The lunar month is a miniature solar year. If during a solar year the Earth makes a complete revolution around the Sun, then for a lunar year the Moon around the Earth. This occurs as a result of the influence of the Moon's gravitational belt, which causes changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure, the Earth's magnetic field, and the earth's biosphere. Not only living organisms in general or their individual parts are influenced, but also the soil.
It is well known that in spring, plants acquire foliage, they grow upward. Their vital energy is greatest in summer, on the full moon. Then there is a decline, the juices rush to the roots, etc. That is why greens, berries, fruits and vegetables growing above the ground acquire the highest taste closer to the full moon, and roots - to the new moon. In the first case, the "tops", and in the second, the "roots" are maximally saturated with vital juices, vitamins, mineral salts.
The Moon also affects humans, animals and all living beings, depending on its phase.
Many people, especially those who are weak, have symptoms of malaise, agitation, joint pain, headaches, etc. on the days of the moon phase change.
The change in the phases of the moon and plants are also perceived. Therefore, for example, the energetic roots of plants, damaged during the waning moon, are difficult to recover.
By performing certain work in the garden and garden, taking into account the movement of the moon, without additional effort and material costs, you can increase the yield by 20% and get products of higher quality. Plants planted in a favorable period acquire immunity, are less affected by diseases and pests.
You will be rewarded for your work, the golden rules of which were: sowing seeds, planting seedlings of plants growing above the ground (tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, strawberries, onions on a feather, leaf parsley, etc.) with the growing Moon of plants with fruits and the ground ( beets, carrots, potatoes, onions for a turnip, etc.) - with the waning moon.
A feature of growing plants is that on the new moon, on its peak three days - the day before the transition from one rhythm to another, the peak day and the day following it (if it is necessary to sow when the moon is growing, then two days) nothing should be planted and sow. 11e are the best for planting vegetables, berries, bushes, etc. and peak days of changing other phases of the moon.
Do not engage in any agrotechnical activities on Satanic days, the energy in which is unfavorable for humans and for all life on Earth, including plants. They do not sow even when the moon is visible in the sky, in the first hours of its rising and setting. Relax during this time. Sow, plant when the moon is over the horizon.
The growth and productivity of plants also depend on what sign of the zodiac the moon is in at the time of landing. Astrologers in the distant past came to the conclusion that the signs of the zodiac have different effects on the growth of plants, the safety of their fruits. They subdivided signs into productive and unproductive.
Productive signs of the zodiac - this is Taurus, Cancer, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn, Pisces. Of these, the most productive is Cancer. But it has a bad effect on fruits intended for snoring. The fruits collected in this sign, as a result of the active development of microorganisms, have poor keeping quality, they quickly rot.
Unproductive signs - Aries, Gemini, Virgo, Leo, Aquarius, Sagittarius. Of these, they are sterile, which should not be planted at all - Aries, Leo, Sagittarius, Aquarius. True, there is also a small individual peculiarity here. With the Moon in the sign of Aries, you can plant lettuce, spinach in the sign of Virgo - ornamental plants in the sign of Leo - trees and shrubs. But it is better not to take risks, but to engage in planting in productive signs.
For planting various crops, the best signs of the zodiac are recognized: tomatoes and cucumbers - Cancer, Pisces, Carrot Scorpio - Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra, Goat and garlic, pepper and onion - Scorpio potatoes la - Cancer, Scorpio, Taurus, Libra, Capricorn cabbage - Ra k, Scorpio, Pisces, Taurus, Libra of courgettes, pumpkins and eggplants - Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra.
It is recommended to plant trees immediately after the full moon with the Moon in the signs of Capricorn and Leo.
When choosing zodiac signs for planting, please do not forget about the phases of the moon. But what about when the landing time has come, and the Moon and the zodiac sign do not coincide, that is, either the sign is unproductive, or the Moon is in the wrong phase? In these cases, give preference to the zodiac sign.
The best period for watering crops is the time when the Moon is in the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Libra.
Plants are fed with fertilizers on a full moon or with a waning moon.
Trees should be pruned in productive signs and with a waning moon, and if it is necessary to increase the growth of shoots - with a growing moon.
Grafting and re-grafting trees in the first and second quarters with the Moon in Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Capricorn.
Cuttings are prepared for grafting trees during the growth of the moon.
They fight against pests and diseases of plants in barren signs - Gemini, Virgo, Aquarius - with the growing moon. At the same time, they are engaged in weeding the beds and destroying weeds. Weeding can also be carried out during the waning moon, but you need to be careful so as to less injure the root system of plants. And yet the best period for the destruction of weeds, pests, cutting of dead and diseased branches, shoots is the peak period of the new moon (three days).
An important point of work in the garden and vegetable garden is not only planting and growing plants, but also the period of picking fruits, picking berries, harvesting vegetables, which gardeners and gardeners often neglect. And on this depends the safety of the crop, its usefulness, taste, saturation with vitamins, microelements, etc.
Vegetables and fruits intended for storage in fresh and processed form are harvested during the waning moon for consumption immediately after picking - with the growing moon, closer to the full moon, when they are most saturated with juices. The best signs of the zodiac for collecting fruits during the waning moon are Aries, Leo, Sagittarius. Unsuitable for harvesting is the period when the Moon is in the signs of Virgo, Cancer, Pisces. The fruits collected at this time quickly deteriorate, they are watery, of low taste.
Since microbes in barren signs are on the decline of biorhythms and during this period they have little activity, it is better to harvest roots in the signs of Aries, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, Aquarius. As for potatoes, remember: harvested under the Moon in Scorpio, it is not only poorly stored, but also loses its taste. Don't dig it up in Cancer and Pisces.
Take care of preserving the fruits during the waning moon, closer to the new moon, in the signs of Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces. Fruit should not be preserved in the sign of Virgo, as the resulting products are prone to mold.
And most importantly, remember that like humans and animals, seeds and sprouts are sensitive to your state of mind. Therefore, under stress, irritability, one should not engage in sowing seeds, planting seedlings, planting trees, bushes and berry bushes. You can ruin the case. Relax, calm down and only then communicate with all living things.
Aries is a moderately productive, if not sterile, sign. The ruler is Mars. When the moon passes through it, plant and sow only fast-growing and immediately consumed vegetables: sorrel, lettuce. You can plant onions, garlic, peppers, gooseberries. It is good to carry out weeding, spraying, cultivation at this time. You can pick fruits and root vegetables.
Taurus is an earthly, productive sign. The ruler is Venus. Moon in Taurus has a good effect on cabbage, carrots, beets, radishes, onions, potatoes, garlic, green crops, trees. It is good to plant something that will winter. Plants gain more endurance.
Gemini is an airy, barren sign. The ruler is Mercury. You can plant climbing plants, harvest medicinal herbs, cut trees, bushes, cultivate the soil.
Cancer is a watery, productive sign. The ruler is the Moon. It has an especially good effect on crops saturated with juices: cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini. It is more expedient to use the grown products fresh. You can sow and transplant vegetables that are not intended for long-term storage, harvest herbs. Good for watering, grafting. It is best not to plant potatoes and vegetables growing in height.
Leo is a fiery, moderately productive sign. The ruler is the Sun. The sign requires special attention to plant care. You can weed, control pests, prune and cut trees. Only trees and shrubs can be planted with abundant watering.
Virgo is an earthly, unproductive sign. The ruler is Mercury. You can plant medicinal herbs and flowers, do weeding, cultivation.
Libra is an airy, unproductive sign. The ruler is Venus. Different plants can be planted, they will be resistant to diseases and unfavorable climatic conditions, but their productivity will be inferior to those planted in fertile signs. There he gives beauty and aroma. Especially favorable for planting plants during the waning moon.
Scorpio is a watery, productive sign. The ruler is P luton, but to a greater extent depends on the energy of Mars. Suitable for planting most crops. This sign gives good growth and strength to the stems. Plants will be disease resistant. With this sign, it is necessary to exclude the treatment of plants with pesticides. Inadmissible injury to plants. It is not recommended to harvest ai, cut and dig in trees.
Sagittarius is a fiery, unproductive sign. The ruler is Jupiter. You can sow only fast-growing vegetables, as well as vegetables with a pungent taste: onions, garlic, peppers. You can harvest fruits and roots, weed plants, cultivate the soil, but avoid using sharp tools.
Capricorn is an earthy, productive sign. Similar to Taurus, but drier. The ruler is Saturn. Plants with a well-developed root system are planted: onions, beets, carrots, potatoes, cabbage, gooseberries, currants. Plants acquire endurance, resistance to diseases and adverse conditions. Trees will be hardy and bear fruit for a long time. Grown products are well preserved in the off-season. The bulbs are planted with the waning moon.
Aquarius is an airy, sterile, sterile sign. The ruler is Uranus. During this period, it is good to deal with weeds and pests, to collect fruits and roots.
Pisces is an aquatic, productive sign. The ruler is Neptune. All plants are planted, but they require careful maintenance, the crop is poorly stored. The sign is similar to Cancer, Taurus, but is associated with a secret, therefore crops, planting should be done alone, unnoticed from "black" eyes.
The main causative agents of clematis diseases are various types of fungal (less often viral) diseases. The most dangerous of them is vegetative wilting, popularly known as "screw". It is caused by a soil fungus, penetrates into damaged shoot bases and affects one- and two-year-old plants in the first half of summer. Outwardly, the disease is manifested by wilting of the aerial part of the plant, drooping tops and leaves. The affected parts of the culture must be immediately cut off and burned, and the surviving bushes and soil must be treated with a solution of foundationol or potassium permanganate of pink color. To prevent all fungal infections in the fall (before shelter) and early spring, the soil and the bases of the shoots should be sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (100 g in 10 l of water) or foundation (20 g in 10 l of water).
Another dangerous disease - powdery mildew - affects all parts of the plant. To combat the scourge, the bushes are sprayed at the rate of 1 liter for every 10 sq. M. The process is carried out three times with an interval of 1 week. Effective means are a solution of colloidal sulfur (40 g of sulfur in 6 liters of water), Topaz preparations (4 ml per bucket) and Skor (2 ml per bucket).
Of the pests, the most active are slugs, mice and nematodes - small worms that infect the roots of clematis. The latter are especially dangerous because they lead to bloating and death of roots, crushing of the culture and death of the plant. Vines affected by nematodes will have to be destroyed, and the soil must be treated with nematacides. To save yourself from harmful neighbors, calendula, marigolds, dill, parsley, watercress and coriander are planted to clematis. To combat slugs, sifting of metaldehyde granules is used (about 40 g of the product per 10 sq.m. plot). And when putting clematis into "hibernation", it is worth putting a "Storm" pill next to it: it will protect the culture from the ubiquitous mice.