Carp - one of the oldest fishing words, first mentioned in the Nikonian Chronicle of 1216. This fish leads a leisurely, measured life: it slowly digs in the bottom silt in search of living creatures, thoroughly relishes fresh shoots of grass or slowly swims along the coastal thickets.
At Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, in his own ponds at a dacha near Moscow in Melikhovo, there were crucian carp, "personally familiar to him." His frequent fishing companion, writer IABelousov, described Chekhov's relationship with crucians in his book "Writers' Nests":
“Anton Pavlovich knew all the crucians in his ponds and even called them by name:“ This is Vaska: he pulls like a float - I know his habit… And this is Grishka… ”.
And here is how S.T.Aksakov, an expert in catching this fish, describes crucian carp: “Its warehouse is wide and roundish: its figure is in the middle between the rudd and the bream, that is, it is wider than the rudd and narrower than the bream, covered with scales of silver or gold color. Both white and yellow crucians sometimes live in the same water ".
Carp, along with, perhaps, only with rotan, is the most unpretentious fish that can survive in the most incredible conditions. In support of this idea, I will refer to the classic of fishing L.P. Sabaneev: “Crucian carp lives in more or less significant numbers not only in all lakes and ponds, but it often occurs in semi-underground lakes, almost completely covered by bogs, and in small pits, where the life of any other fish is absolutely inconceivable. It can even be positively said that the worse the properties of the water in the basin inhabited by them, the more silty the pond or lake, the more numerous and faster the crucian carp develop. Tina is their element. Here they get food, consisting exclusively of organic residues and particles, as well as small worms ".
On my own I will add: crucian carp lives not only in lakes and ponds, which L.P. Sabaneev mentions, but also in peat and sand pits, in swamps, in river oxbows and even in ditches dug by man. Moreover, in dried up or drained ponds for cleaning, under a crust of dried mud, crucians are often found covered with mucus and fallen into hibernation.
L.P. Sabaneev writes about this again: “… There were examples that carps were dug alive from a completely dry pond, from the depth of an arshin (arshin is a Russian measure of length equal to 0.71 meters). Crucians, it would seem, do not show any signs of life, but as soon as they are in the water, they immediately come to life ".
In raw moss, crucian carp remains alive for three days. This ability to slow down life processes, almost completely stop the metabolism in the body, helps the crucian carp to survive even in frozen waters, where any other fish dies.
In the reservoirs of our region, there are two types of crucian carp: gold or common (fishermen call it red) and silver (white). The name of the fish reflects the characteristic differences of species in color. Golden crucian carp is golden yellow or brown-yellow, silver it is white. In addition to these two species, there are many more hybrid forms of crucian carp.
There are different opinions about the size of carp. The size of this fish largely depends on the reservoir in which it lives. In poorly fed reservoirs, poor in vegetation, overpopulated, the crucian carp is small, often reborn into a dwarf form. This is the case in most small enclosed bodies of water.
Of course, crucians also come in solid sizes. So, some experienced crucian carps claim that they caught carp weighing 3-4 kilograms. I don’t presume to judge whether this is so. It is quite possible that in bodies of water, where, as they say, the fisherman's oar did not step or row, there are such giants. However, the usual weight of the crucian carp caught by me and other fishermen rarely exceeded a kilogram.
Crucian carp is an extremely fertile material for breeding. It is this fish that, as a result of centuries of painstaking selection, has turned into a well-known goldfish. Further metamorphoses gave rise to very unusual, bizarre forms of a goldfish with huge spherical eyes, intricate trains of fins - a telescope, a veil-tail, a comet. Hundreds of varieties of these fish are kept by aquarists in their home reservoirs, continuing to breed more and more.
The lifespan of the crucian carp has not been precisely established, but it can be assumed that it lives no more than 10-12 years. Males are always smaller than females. This fish reaches sexual maturity in the second - fourth year of life. Spawning occurs in May-July at a water temperature of 17-18 degrees.
We will talk about where, what and how to catch crucian carp in the next issues of the magazine.
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
March 19, 2021, 13:04 Ramil Garifillin - Associate Professor of the Institute of Psychology and Education, Kazan Federal University, Candidate of Psychological Sciences
Name and surname affect the development of a person. This is a special code - the key information of self-identification of oneself with a certain sign or label. We are what we are called, how we are judged. And the psyche is naturally uncritical to these signs.
The most common manifestation of a complex of national inferiority is the change (disguise) of one's surname. For example, almost every second Moscow Tatar is susceptible to this: Sadykov suddenly becomes Sadikov. That is, surnames are either Russified or Europeanized. And Kazan Tatars are not lagging behind: 22 percent “deform” their surnames and names (Sagit - Sasha, Musa - Misha, and so on). Sometimes a change of name or surname can fundamentally change life, change the situation in successes and deeds, etc. Our "I" contains not only the function of an observer of thoughts, feelings and body, but is also filled with what it thinks itself and at the basis of this lies the phenomenon of the name, as the key to self-awareness and to your "I". Therefore, it is harmful to change the name and surname often. You can lose yourself, which is what happens with the gamblers-swindlers and repeat offenders.
Russians, especially upon arrival in another country, will not fail to change their surname, turning from Petrov to Petroff, and from Ivanov to Ivanovsky (to be honest, the Russians behind the cordon are not very attractive to the local population).
Artists easily abandon their real names and take on more sonorous ones - in the hope that they will compensate for their lack of talent. If a person is a person, then few people pay attention to what name he calls himself (although, perhaps, we would not have known the famous scientist and human rights activist Sakharov, if he had remained Zuckerman in his time).
The name is a special psychological phenomenon. Often names even influence the fate of a person, so it is fraught to encroach on them. Suffice it to recall the famous athletes: the runner Borzov, the fencer Krovopuskov, the jumper Bubka (reminiscent of an elastic sponge).
Our most important name and sound about us is the sound "I", and only then we call ourselves all sorts of more complex sounds. Whatever Vasya you are, do not lose, first of all, your "I", and only then instill Vasya in your soul. I say this to all stroke patients who forget their name and past life, starting to live anew, no longer being Vasya ...
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The lungwort is a herbaceous perennial plant, the height of which can vary from 0.08 to 0.5 m. The branchy rhizome is located horizontally. Fleshy roots, which have a cord-like shape, are extremely easy to injure, since they are very fragile, and they take a long time to fully recover. Basal rosette consists of many large leaf plates with long petioles. Solid leaf plates have a sharpening in the upper part, their shape depends on the species and varies from broad-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. Stem leaf plates in comparison with basal plates are very few, they are sessile and are small in size. On the surface of erect leafy peduncles, as a rule, there is pubescence, their formation occurs before the growth of basal leaf plates begins. The lungwort, the flowers of which are painted in pink, blue, white, lilac or blue, have a double perianth, a five-toothed bell-shaped calyx, and a five-lobed funnel-shaped corolla with a tube and an open throat, 5 hair bundles protrude from it. The flowers are part of the curl inflorescences, which are apical. Such a culture has one distinctive feature, for example, flowers and buds on the same bush have different colors, for example, when a pink bud opens, a flower of lilac, white, blue or blue color appears. Flowers of different colors can often grow on one bush. Experts attribute this phenomenon to the fact that the level of acidity of the cell sap in the corollas is gradually changing: in a pink corolla, the juice has an acidic reaction, and in blue or light blue it is alkaline. For pollination of lungwort, insects with long proboscis are needed, for example, bumblebees. The fruit is a nutlet that, after ripening, divides into 4 single-seeded lobes with fleshy seedlings that attract ants.
Before the construction of railways (in the middle of the 19th century), the potted grape culture in greenhouses was widespread. If you look at "The Complete Russian Experienced Gardener" by Ivan Tsigra (mid-19th century), you can find out that, for example, in St. Petersburg, the most popular variety was Large Astrakhan, which was cultivated in large quantities. The vine was led in two stems, distributed on two sides. Shoots were cut shortly, every year by 2-3 eyes before the beginning of fruiting. With the onset of fruiting, if the buds were poorly developed, cut off to 4–6 eyes. Pruning was the same for all vines that were grown in greenhouses, tubs and boxes.
Nowadays, polycarbonate greenhouses are very promising for growing grapes. If the greenhouse is directly connected to the house, the result is a winter garden. The greenhouse is economical due to the use of the accumulated heat of the walls, it reduces the cooling of the house and the cost of heating. The earliest grapes are harvested in such greenhouses. The vines are not covered for the winter.
Many people have heard stories about how vegetable gardens help to stay physically active in retirement and even prolong youth. But this "therapy" can be called free only conditionally.
- I'm already a pensioner, and it's already boring at home, but here is physical activity. Besides, it is beneficial. I just ran out of onions, my carrots will soon grow up. No, I will not say that it is profitable. Because we spend a lot of money on the road, we spend a lot of money on planting material and some kind of fertilizer. Sometimes you want to quit. A neighbor works with her husband, and I was left alone. And for a woman, you know, loads are not always useful. So it happens that you want to give up everything. And then you get over it - and it seems like nothing. We have been natural here, I have good neighbors. Sometimes we will work, then we will sit down together and talk about the gardener's business, ”says Nadezhda Degtyareva, the owner of the plot at the Farafonovskie dachas.
Some, for the sake of such therapy, decided to change their approach and take a smaller site, but closer to the city. Such dachas are located in close proximity to busy roads. For example, Valentina Kalashnikova and her husband bought a garden plot last year. And she has already put on it a small typical house, made to order. Advertisements for such buildings flooded all large summer cottages and newspapers with advertisements.
- A garden is the expectation of some result of one's labor. Now everything in stores is sold all year round, even cucumbers, which earlier in winter were only eaten in salted form. I planted apple trees, planted cherries. Small apples have already appeared. There is no desire to quit, we, on the contrary, have only been working on the site for the second year. I grew up in a village, for me labor on the ground is normal, a joy. Someone is fond of dancing, drawing, and someone gardening, - says Valentina.
Others, on the contrary, decided to sell their dacha. Vera Mukhamadieva, the owner of a garden plot and a small brick garden house, is retired but continues to work. She arrives at the dacha in her own car, but still wants to get rid of the site:
- I have already put up a garden for sale, because I have no strength - everything hurts. It must be processed from spring to autumn. The neighbor has two vegetable gardens, he is going to sell. The garden feeds: vegetables, berries. And I also want everything else: bread, milk, meat, at least sometimes.
She may have to wait for a sale for a long time. Taking into account the funds invested, her plot is not cheap. At the same time, less expensive "six hundred parts" can be unclaimed for years. Novgorod summer cottages continue to be overgrown with weeds and bushes - the demand for them turned out to be much lower than the supply.
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For several years on the Internet such a phenomenon as the "Mandela effect" has been circulated. Have you ever had such a situation that an event that you remember well did not happen at all the way you remember it? The HubInfo editorial team offers to take a break from the pre-New Year fuss and find out what the Mandela effect is, as well as take an interesting test on this topic. Check how susceptible you are to this effect.
On December 5, 2013, the world learned that the former South African president had died at the age of 95 after a long illness at home.Many people from all over the world began to report that they always believed that Nelson Mandela died back in the 80s in prison. This unexpected phenomenon has been given a name.
The Mandela Effect - this is the coincidence of a huge number of people, independently of each other, of the same false (?) Memories. These events are historically established facts and are not of an everyday nature.
The term was first coined by the paranormal hunter Fiona Broome, who also claimed to remember the death of Nelson Mandela in the 1980s. After the phenomenon was recorded, scientists and supporters of the idea began to study it. They have created various theories where this effect could arise. Some of these theories are quite adequate in nature, while others are mystical.
Some researchers, relying on the work of the American psychologist Elizabeth Loftus, say that the appearance of the phenomenon is associated with false memories, as well as with excessive trust in the press, which can sometimes misinform people by letting newspaper ducks and fake news. The mystical explanation of the phenomenon is associated with the existence of otherworldly universes, in which events proceed differently than in our reality.
Another interpretation of the effect can be self-deception - the suggestion to oneself that which in reality did not exist.
The properties of the human brain are still not fully understood, so it is not known why one event is replaced by another.
The most common explanation for the "Mandela effect" is that people unknowingly invented events or facts that they spread among themselves and convinced themselves that it was so. One of the advantages of studying the phenomenon without going into any theory is the acquisition of new knowledge, the elimination of understatement and knowledge gaps. We suggest you take the test and find out how susceptible you are to the "Mandela effect".
The Mandela Effect is still being studied and updated with new examples. But no matter how we deny its existence, every person at least once in his life has encountered this phenomenon. And gradually this phenomenon is gaining popularity, making people believe that not everything we believe and know is true.
Have you ever had any cases in your life similar to the "Mandela effect"? Share them in the comments! Surely there will be someone among our readers who have encountered the same.
"Life is more talented than us. Sometimes she comes up with such topics. Where are we before her! Her works are untranslatable, indescribable." © V. Nabokov