The herbaceous flowering plant Coreopsis, also called lenok, or the Parisian beauty, can be annual or perennial, it is a representative of the Asteraceae or Astro family. This genus unites more than 100 species, while they are divided into 11 sections. Approximately 30 species are native to North America, with the rest naturally occurring in Central and South America. Coreopsis and plants belonging to the genus Chereda are often mistakenly confused with each other. The scientific name of this kind comes from a combination of 2 Greek words, translated as "bug" and "species". The fact is that the fruits of such a plant are outwardly similar to small bugs.
The genus Coreopsis is represented by rhizome herbaceous plants and shrubs. The height of erect branched shoots varies from 0.45 to 1.2 m. Opposite leaf plates can be finger-split or pinnately dissected. In the middle of the inflorescence, baskets are collected in discs, consisting of tubular small flowers, painted in brown or yellow, they have long peduncles and are outwardly similar to chamomiles. Reed flowers of yellow, pink or brownish-yellow color are located radially around the middle. The fruit is an achene, inside of which about 500 seeds are formed.
Coreopsis - growing and care. Flowering in the first year
Planting and growing coreopsis is simple and easy. Annual species are sown in the greenhouse in mid-April, they can also be sown in open soil in May. As a rule, in species represented by perennials, the formation of inflorescences is observed only in the second year of growth. However, if you grow them through seedlings, then the bushes will bloom during the first season.
Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in the first days of March. Low drawers fill with fertile garden soil and moisturize it. Then, the seed material is evenly distributed over its surface, with the help of a plate it is slightly pressed into the substrate. From above, the container must be covered with glass (film), then it is transferred to a place where it is always warm and well-lit.
Crops need daily ventilation, during which accumulated condensate must be removed from the surface of the shelter. The seed material of such a plant has a very high germination capacity. The first seedlings should appear in about a week and a half. Shelters from the box are removed after the seedlings begin to appear en masse. If necessary, the seedlings need to be watered, after which the surface of the substrate is gently loosened.
Watering should be moderate and in no case should liquid stagnation in the soil mixture be allowed, as this can cause the development of such a fungal disease as black leg, which is detrimental to seedlings. A pick on individual cups is carried out after the first 2 true leaf plates are formed in the plants. You can also dive the bushes into a more spacious box, keeping a distance of about 20 mm between them, but in this case, after they reach a height of 10-12 centimeters, they will have to be replanted again.
Perennial species of coreopsis are planted in open soil in the second half of May after the soil warms up well, warm weather sets in, and return spring frosts will be left behind. Seedlings begin to harden half a month before transplanting into open ground. To do this, she is transferred to the street every day, while the duration of such procedures must be increased gradually.
For growing such a flower, well-lit areas are chosen. However, coreopsis pink and whorled can also be grown in a shaded area. The soil should be loose, light, water and air permeable, moderately moist and neutral. When choosing a site for planting, it should be borne in mind that some of the species of such a plant do not need fertile soil, since the bushes bloom poorly due to an excess of nutrients. If the soil is very poor, then during digging, humus or compost is introduced into it.
In the prepared area, planting holes are made, in which the seedlings are planted, while keeping a distance of at least 0.3 m between the bushes.When the coreopsis is planted, it must be watered, having previously tamped the soil surface around the bushes.
Coreopsis: planting by seeds
Not only an experienced florist, but also a beginner will be able to grow coreopsis in your garden plot. Such a plant needs to be provided with timely watering, weeding, systematic loosening of the soil surface on the site, it is also necessary to cut off the inflorescences that have begun to fade. When growing vigorous species and varieties, be prepared for the fact that the bushes may need support. To do this, a wooden peg or a rod of iron is installed near the plant, to which you need to tie it up.
Perennial species grow rather quickly. In this regard, once every 4 or 5 years, the bush is removed from the soil, divided into several parts, which are planted separately in a new area. It is possible to separate coreopsis even during flowering, but in this case, in order not to injure its root system, planting is carried out in a well-moistened soil.
It is necessary to systematically water such a plant only while it is young. Mature bushes are highly drought tolerant, so if it rains regularly during the season, then you can not water them at all. However, during a prolonged drought, coreopsis will have to be watered regularly using water heated in the sun.
If the bushes are grown in depleted soil, then during flowering they will need top dressing, for this they use a solution of complex mineral fertilizer. Coreopsis, grown in fertile soil or on a plot where organic matter was introduced during digging, is not fed this year. In the next season, they will need 2 dressings, which are carried out after the beginning of flowering, and when the bushes are cut in the autumn.
When the bushes have faded, they are shortened by ¼ of the height. Before severe frosts, annuals should be dug up and removed from the site, while in perennials, the aerial part is completely cut off. Coreopsis is quite frost-resistant and does not need shelter during the cold season. However, if the coming winter is snowy and frosty, then it is recommended to mulch the area with flowers with dry soil or loose leaves.
If you water the bushes too often and abundantly, then the risk of their defeat by fungal diseases increases significantly, the same is observed during prolonged rains. In this case, coreopsis can affect spotting, rust, or fusarium. As a rule, the first symptoms of such diseases appear on the foliage. Leaves affected by the disease are pruned, and the plants are sprayed with a fungicide solution. If the flowers are very badly affected, then they must be dug up and destroyed as soon as possible. The same must be done with those bushes whose peduncles have curled up into a tube, which indicates their defeat by a viral disease, which is currently not being treated.
Aphids can very much harm such a plant, such a pest sucks out cell sap from the aerial part of the bush. All folk remedies recommended for combating aphids are ineffective in this case, so it is better to immediately treat coreopsis with an insecticidal solution. In some cases, various beetles can settle on the flowers, in order to save the bushes, in this case, the pests will have to be collected by hand.
As mentioned above, both annuals and perennials are found among the coreopsis species. Below will be described those annual species and varieties that are most popular with gardeners.
This species has a fibrous root system, the height of its strongly branching stem varies from 0.45 to 0.6 m. The shape of the leaf plates is pinnately divided. In diameter, single terminal baskets reach 50 mm, they are discs consisting of tubular flowers of dark brown color, which surround ligulate flowers of a yellow shade with a brownish-red spot at the base. This species has a variety with a dark brown center and ligulate flowers of a dark red hue. The following varieties are considered the best:
This species comes from western and central North America. Its branchy shoots are relatively thin, and their height varies from 0.3 to 1 meter. The leaf plates are double pinnately dissected into linear or filiform lobes, most often they grow in the lower part of the shoots. In diameter, single terminal baskets reach 35 mm, their center consists of tubular flowers of a dark brown color, around it in one row are velvety marginal flowers of a dark red, yellow or golden yellow hue, their base is dark brown. Most often, the following varieties are grown by gardeners:
Today this species is rarely grown by gardeners of middle latitudes. It is represented by annuals and biennials. The height of the bush is equal to its diameter and can vary from 0.5 to 0.9 meters. Powerful and strong stems branch strongly immediately from the root collar; dissected leaf plates of a dark green color grow on them. In diameter, the baskets of a golden hue reach about 40 mm. This species has several garden forms:
Perennial species and varieties are also popular among gardeners. Below will be a description of the best of them.
This species is native to North America. The height of the strongly branching bush is about 100 cm, the lower leaf plates are solid, and the upper ones are pinnately dissected. The height of powerful peduncles is about 0.8 meters, they are strewn with a large number of single baskets of a golden yellow hue with a dark yellow center. The species has been cultivated since 1826. Popular varieties:
The homeland of this species is the central regions of North America. The height of the branching shoots is about 0.6 meters. The shape of the leaf plates is lanceolate or almost linear, they are petiolate, as they approach the upper part of the bush, their number is significantly reduced. In diameter, drooping inflorescences-baskets reach about 60 mm, they consist of dark yellow median and golden yellow reed flowers. Such a plant has been cultivated since 1724. This species has a large number of hybrids and varieties that were born thanks to the work of breeders:
The homeland of this flower is the southeastern part of North America. Such a perennial plant has highly branched shoots, the height of which can reach up to 100 centimeters. Greenish sessile leaf plates have a needle-like shape. The bush is decorated with a large number of inflorescences, which are radiant star-shaped baskets, reaching about 30 millimeters in diameter, their tubular flowers are yellow, and the reed flowers are narrow and pale yellow. Such a flower has been cultivated since 1750. This plant has a large-flowered form and the following varieties:
This species is a perennial plant that reaches a height of about 0.4 meters. Single inflorescences-baskets open on it, reaching up to 20 millimeters in diameter, the color of the reed flowers is deep pink. The most popular variety is Emeriken Dreams: the height of the bush is about 0.35 meters, the baskets include yellow tubular and pink reed flowers.
The height of this type is no more than 0.6 meters. The stems are covered with foliage only to ¼ or ½ part. The rich yellow baskets are very similar in appearance to daisies. Most often, gardeners grow the following varieties:
Coreopsis for beginners and busy florists