How to use elements of landscape architecture: arches, trellises, pergolas in the garden landscape

Elements of vertical garden decoration

The time has come when many owners of suburban areas have taken a fresh look at their traditional six acres. Growing potatoes is no longer relevant - I want to turn the site into a great place to relax. And no matter that the site is small, practice has shown that it is possible to create real beauty in small areas.

Professionals recommend using elements of landscape architecture when designing the design of their summer cottages. It is believed that the vertical design of the garden is of great importance, including in a small garden. It is not necessary to place all tall elements and plants along the borders, leaving the central part of the site flat and deserted. In vertical design, you can use low trees, shrubs planted against the walls and garden decorations such as pergolas, trellises and arches entwined with plants, which can give the flower garden a complete style.

Arches, trellises, pergolas made of PVC plastic have been produced for many years, and our clients, both gardeners and landscape designers, come to us with interesting options for gazebos and plant supports. The most successful products begin to be produced in series. This is how a whole line of small architectural forms for garden improvement appeared, created on the basis of real projects. We know the readers' interest in this topic in the annual Flora-Price competition "Envy, your neighbor!", To which we provide sponsorship. We hope that the interesting findings of our clients will find practical application in you.

Let's start right at the entrance to the site: the gate can be decorated with an arch entwined with clematis, rose or grapes. The path to the house on both sides can be marked by flower baskets. Above the porch to the house, we will fix the semi-arches entwined with maiden grapes so that the porch and stairs are in the cool shade in summer, and blaze crimson in the fall. A pergola with a bench can be placed in a sunny meadow. Such designs look very nice and cozy when they are wrapped in greenery. We can recommend different options:

- openwork "shell" with a bench inside;

- an arch of the "Design-Constructor" series, in which a bench is installed, and a high straight trellis will serve as the back wall;

- quadrangular columns, back wall and top are assembled from the "Design-Constructor" series sets.

If space and means allow, you can arrange a gazebo in the meadow. Four metal racks, lathing of the walls in whole or in the middle, put benches and a table inside - in such a green house it will be possible to dine on hot days.

Often, when decorating a site, it is required to separate one a functional area from another, for example a garden from a flower garden. For this purpose, you can use various trellises, creating an openwork wall entwined with flowers. From the sets of the "Design-Constructor" series, you can assemble a screen of any length, straight or set by corners or niches, and build an arch for the passage.

If you have an ugly pillar on your site, we can share an interesting recipe for turning it into an elegant garden composition. It is enough to collect three or four interconnected straight trellises around it and you will get a nice column of the height you need. Plant clematis next to it, and the post will be entwined with flowers.

Our company often faced a problem: if the client is not rich, then usually there is no way to deliver a large non-separable structure to the dacha. Therefore, arches and pergolas often remained inaccessible to people. Last year this problem finally found its solution in the "Design-Constructor" line. These are lightweight sets of different lengths that can be connected to each other using special connectors.The minimum that can be assembled from one set of "Design-Constructor" is one straight or one fan-shaped trellis, or a flower stand.

By connecting the sets together, you can assemble a pergola, a column, a screen, and a trellis.

Since the Design-Constructor kits are assembled by the buyers themselves, the prices for these durable products are relatively low, which means that summer residents have the opportunity to use a large number of trellises in the design of the garden without resorting to significant material costs. Trellis made of PVC plastic do not rust, do not dry out. PVC material is durable, resistant to heat, frost, dampness, ultraviolet light.

PVC gratings, unlike metal ones, do not threaten plants with frost or sun burns. Plants do not need to be removed as the trellises do not need to be tinted. For the winter, the grates with plants can be removed from the mountings, laid on the ground and covered, and reinstalled in the spring. The wind does not swing the grates like a net or ropes, and does not break off delicate shoots.

When buying tapestries or making individual orders, our clients often discuss their improvement plans with us. We hope that at the end of the season they will bring photos and new interesting and successful ideas, which we will be happy to share with our readers.

A. Kovalev, consultant

Parade zone

Each site has a front or entrance area. This is the first thing that your guests and you see, so special attention should be paid to the front area. Usually, the front area takes up little space, even if there is a parking lot for a car, this is no more than 6% of the total area of ​​the garden plot.

The main functionality of the front door is the entrance to the personal plot and the entrance for the car. Here it is worth paying attention to the convenient path leading to the house, as well as the area for the car.

When planning, you should take into account the relief of your area, this will avoid stagnant water, you need to immediately think about the places for drains. The path leading to the house should be wide and comfortable.

Decorative elements are placed along the entire fence, starting from the road to the house and remaining after planning the entrance for the car. Based on the capabilities of the personal plot, you can create a flowering flower bed behind the fence. To decorate the site from the street side, a hedge of evergreen thuja and barberry is perfect. If you are planning an open area for your car, then do not plant fruit trees near this place.

The front area is a great place for a flower garden and any landscape composition. If the size of the infield does not allow you to create a blooming flower bed, you can plant blooming ivy or climbing roses to decorate the aisle by the fence.

Modern landscape design: trends 2019. A-Academy

3. Human harmony with nature

Probably, they have never paid so much attention to the unity of man and nature as the last few years. Apparently, a too busy social life and the need to combine many roles every day is very exhausting for a person. In addition, large-scale industrialization of cities reduces the number of parks, forests and small natural reservoirs. And all this cannot but affect the general emotional background of a person's life. Not to mention health!

Therefore, one of the trends in landscape design is the attraction of living beings to the site. For example, butterflies, birds (create feeders for them), hedgehogs (you can try to build a nest), etc.

4. Experiments with landings

All sorts of experiments with mixborders are still in trend. And the more natural they are in design, the better.

But the novelty of this year was the cultivation of unusual edible plants. This will diversify your site and introduce new flavors, for example:

  • lamb chickpea
  • Mary is giant
  • sweet potato
  • mexican cucumber
  • anguria
  • edible amaranth varieties, etc.

5. Refusal from the usual metal and wooden fences

This season introduces a western trend - hedges instead of iron and wooden fences. Firstly, it will allow the space to "breathe", and secondly, it will make your garden design easier visually.

Of course, this is a bold decision and you may not be ready for it. But take the idea to study and, if you trust your neighbors - be brave!

6. Scandinavia in the garden

The Scandinavian style is primarily characterized by minimalism in design. Refusal from everything unnecessary and what you do not use for its intended purpose. The trend of minimalism has already touched all spheres of human life: design of clothes, interior design, make-up, and now landscape design.

The components of this trend are:

  • white furniture
  • aged wood
  • gray / beige / brown colors in the decor
  • warm colors of fabrics and natural materials
  • big candles
  • colors of light shades or just dense greens

Landscape architecture and green building | Totalarch

The dictionary includes basic terms and concepts of gardening art. In addition to the traditional range of terms and their definitions, the dictionary contains some new words that have entered scientific and practical use in connection with the problems of restoration of historical parks, their inclusion in the structure of a modern city, the tasks of nature protection, and the organization of mass recreation of the population. Compiled by: Vergunov A.P., Gorokhov V.A.

Outline - 1) the linear outline of an object, the outline of a tree or shrub 2) a plan of the territory, made by hand, indicating on it the planting places of plants, the location of structures, roads, etc. Openwork is a property that characterizes the number of gaps in the crowns as individual trees and shrubs and plantations in general.

Agraf - a stylized floral motif in the decoration of garden parterres of the 17th-18th centuries. Usually it looked like a bunch of branches, leaves, petals emanating from one point at the edge of the parterre.

Aqueduct - a bridge for transferring a water conduit over a ravine, gorge, river valley. As an element of decorative design, it was introduced into the romantic gardens of the second half of the 18th century.

Accent - in gardening art, emphasizing details (a group of trees, trees or shrubs) in a general landscape picture. A sculpture, a gazebo and any other architectural form can be an accentuating detail of a landscape.

Alley - a pedestrian or transport road in the park, planted on both sides by trees, shrubs or their groups equally spaced from each other in a certain rhythm.

“First of all, in the arrangement of the alleys, only the order was observed that they were planted with a long and straight line and in two rows with trees, placing them so that one tree was directly opposite the other. But finally, they noticed that such a situation is very far from the natural, and the garden, which has nothing in itself except straight alleys, looks uniform and not very pleasant, then in order to correct this deficiency, they stopped making the alleys continuous in the newest gardens, and began to cross them platforms, shrubs and other decorations. Regularity and Symmetry can most of all be interrupted by the fact that sometimes a straight line interferes with a curvature. Moreover, this intention can be helped by the difference of trees, in reasoning their distance, height, growth and leaves, and therefore trees can be ind closer to each other, and ind farther, in one place higher, and in another lower, ind mixed with small and weak shrubs, and ind shy in heaps, connect their tops and make them under him as if a vault or a covered road in another place to have an open top and be bright, finally, in places to have nooks and corners, and in places to stretch straight and a beautiful devil ”[Osipov, 1793. Part I. S. 53-55].

Rock garden - a rocky garden reflecting the beauty of the mountain landscape and its flora. It is characterized by a combination of undersized alpine plants with rocks and water.

Altanka - see Arbor

Ampel plants - R. with curly or flowing stems. They are grown in amples (hanging flowerpots, baskets, etc.). Used to decorate gazebos, trellises, awnings, etc.

Amphitheater - in ancient Roman architecture, a spectacular elliptical structure with staggered rows of seats, in the 18th century. appeared in parks as a decorative structure for shows.

“Amphitheaters mean the spectacles located on the slopes of the hills. Slopes of small steepness can be made with ledges in several rows in a semicircle convex or convex, these ledges can be strengthened with piles and then covered with turf: an amphitheater will remain. Such amphitheaters are decorated with figured trees, statues, vases. For sprouting on them, in conspicuous places, stairs are made from hewn stones, wooden or from steps, dressed with turf ”[Levshin, 1805-1808].

English park - see Landscape Park.

Ensemble - in gardening art, a spatially and functionally related set of structures, vegetation, reservoirs and other elements of the landscape, forming an integral architectural and artistic composition.

Entourage - environment, external environment, background. Plant compositions in gardens and parks are often the entourage in relation to the architectural structures and monuments located in them.

Enfilade - in gardening art, a number of separate enclosed spaces delimited by plantings, connected to each other by passages located along the same axis. The alternation of large and small glades often takes the form of a suite (for example, in Trostyanets, Voronovo).

Arrangement - the art of making bouquets of individual plants, branches, green garlands, wreaths, flowers, leaves and placing them in vases and baskets in order to decorate the interiors and facades of park pavilions.

Arboretum - see Arboretum.

Architectonics - in decorative dendrology means the structure of the crown is determined by its size, shape, the nature of the branching of shoots and branches, the beauty of their mutual arrangement. The architectural and planning organization of the park is the procedure for placing the main park centers, functional zones, pedestrian and transport communications, a compositional scheme reflecting the relationship between the artificial and natural components of the ensemble (plantings, reservoirs, buildings, monuments, etc.).

Architectural elements of the park - buildings and structures (pavilions, amphitheaters, colonnades, gazebos, arches, stairs, retaining walls, balustrades, etc.), harmoniously combined with the natural elements of the landscape. Dominant in parks of the XVIII-XIX centuries. usually there was a palace, the main house of the estate, sometimes a religious building.

“Different types of buildings have their own location and appearance, which distinguishes them from others, which is what architecture teaches. This art supplies, if necessary, information on how to use different types of arrangement and decoration, decent for each building, teaches how to build stone and wooden structures, temples, civil houses and other buildings, gazebos, grottoes, galleries. Each building has its own outline. Beauty delights and attracts the sight, and the advantageous location between all the buildings gives great pleasure, for which significant decorations are needed. In all these, whatever their genus, one should observe the strength, firmness, convenience and beauty that come from the arrangement of large and small parts.

The structures are used in the garden for shelter and shelter from the rain and for shelter from the wind, while serving as a pleasant distance for those who love solitude. In the garden, all architecture befits from Greek to Chinese, and the choice lies in power: one should know that delicate buildings, presented to the eyes in an open place, are not so pleasant as those that are visible from one side, extended and surrounded by forest, because they are shown between the trunks of trees.The building should be mated with other such objects that would make it more visible. A sublime location usually has more grandeur. If a building is placed in the middle of a very spacious large overhang, then it will seem bare, separated and little mated with a landloop, not naturally surrounded by a forest. It is better to build it on the slope below, so that it can be in conjunction with a large number of touch points surrounding it. "[Lem, 1818. Part IV. P. 1 Part III. P. 7].

Asymmetry - a combination of volumetric-spatial elements, characterized by the absence of an axis of symmetry, a widely used method of park composition, especially in landscape-style parks.

Ah-ah - an external fence hidden in a recess, a technique common in gardening art of the 17th - 18th centuries. An unexpected opening of the view from the park to the surrounding landscape (for example, an exit to the river canyon), causing admiration (exclamation ah-ah!). A balustrade is a through fencing of terraces, stairs, retaining walls, consisting of a number of figured posts - balusters in gardens and parks are often decorated with flower vases, sculptures (for example, in the Arkhangelskoye estate).

Baroque - the artistic style in European art from the end of the 16th to the middle of the 18th century, was reflected in the creation of gardens and parks in France, Italy and other countries, including Russia. Characterized by decorative splendor, plasticity, and sometimes pretentiousness of the composition, the desire to give natural materials (vegetation, water, relief) architectural forms (bosquets, fountains, terraces, retaining walls, etc.). Baroque compositions have been partially preserved in the Summer Garden, in Pushkin, Petrodvorets, etc.

Bersot - see Bypass roads.

Alcove - garden and park structure, which is an open building for recreation, shade, protection from rain.

“The structure and location of the pavilions depends for the most part on the Architect and also belongs more to the Architectural art, but it’s not bad for the gardener to have an idea about them, so that he could, if necessary, make them alone by himself, without requiring the help of the Architect, but especially in places where you can't find it. And besides, as leafy and tree arbors belong directly to the gardener, then for this purpose some brief and general rules about them are offered here.

Leafy and tree arbors should never be made too small, for they not only mean nothing to themselves, but very soon they deteriorate from the growth of trees and lose all their appearance and shape. On the contrary, the bigger they are, the better and the more famous the figure in the garden can be. Pergolas of this kind are made in many different ways and serve both to give the garden the best beauty and comfort, and to provide calmness and cool refuge and relaxation. They are round, oval, four-sided, polygonal, solid, half, hidden and half-hidden, that is, they have large holes, and moreover, others are made up of some herbs, and others from trees and grasses. Finally, there is also the difference between them that others are made in such a way that human art is visible in them, while others are arranged as if they were produced by nature itself. "[Osipov, 1793. Part I. S. 90-92].

Gazebo - a tower, a superstructure on a building, a gazebo on a dais, from which a view of the surroundings opens (for example, in Arkhangelsk).

Bandage - See Bend roads.

Curbs - narrow (10-30 cm) linear plantings of one or two rows of low (no more than 50 cm) flowering shrubs or decorative deciduous grasses of a certain type. Serve for framing flower beds, ridges or paths, highlighting patterns in flower beds and parterres.

Bosquet - a closed area with plantings, of the correct geometric shape, bounded by trees and shrubs in the form of a hedge. The spaces inside the bosquets (during the Baroque era) were called offices or green rooms.Historically emerging types of bosquets: sheared walls with open lawns inside, filled with freely growing trees, located inside a green theater, a labyrinth, a pond, fountains, flower beds, etc. The predominant range of species when creating bosquets in Russia: small-leaved linden, spruce common, yellow acacia, common barberry, blue honeysuckle, hawthorns, brilliant cotoneaster, Tatar maple, golden currant.

Brodery - see Lacy parterre.

Bulengreen - a special sports-type lawn, the middle part of which is lowered in the form of a flat pit. B. is used to enhance the impression of the spaciousness of parks and gardens.

“Bulengrin is nothing but a part or a piece of a lawn, that is, a grassy place, distant and deepened in front of another place. Bulengrins are called simple ones that have no other decoration, except for the platform of the sod part, which make up the bulengrin itself, are arranged with some pattern, with which the sod area is cut through. Sometimes narrow paths and platbands with crown trees and flowers are added to this. These are made in open places and among the garden woods they are often planted with a circle of tall trees. Bulengrins should not be consumed too much. Ten vershoks of depth is enough for small bulengrins, but an arshin is enough for large ones ”[Bolotov, 1786a. P. 156].

Buffer zone (monument park) - a part of the peripheral territory of the park or an additionally developed adjacent territory, where mass recreation and services for visitors are organized in order to reduce the excessively high recreational load on the cultural and historical zone of the park.

Bouquet landing - the method of forming tree groups by planting several seedlings in one nest in order to create compact plantings as quickly as possible. The creation of a bouquet group is possible by special planting "on a stump" of a young tree or by creating conditions for the development of lateral shoots.

Fan composition of the plan of the park - junction of ray paths usually at the main entrance to the park, from where they diverge throughout its territory. Architectural and landscape construction develops along all rays in the direction from the center-entrance to the periphery. Semicircular roads connect the rays with each other. The fan composition is formed by both regular and landscape-picturesque elements on flat or rough terrain. It is used as the basis for the planning of the park as a whole or part of it (Sokolniki Park).

Vertical gardening - a type of landscaping using vines or clipped trees, the purpose of which is to decorate, decorate the facades and walls of buildings, to protect against overheating, noise, dust, the creation of green walls to isolate individual sections of the garden from each other or from the external environment.

Vertical layout - a set of measures aimed at transforming the relief for technical and compositional purposes, includes the organization of surface runoff from the territory. Its specificity during the reconstruction and restoration of historical parks is the need to preserve the valuable existing vegetation and soil cover of terraces, stairs, retaining walls, descents to the water and other elements of the ensemble.

Vertograd - the old Russian name for the garden.

Vertugaden - a small terraced elevation of the amphitheater type with semicircular convex steps on the foyer of a sheared green wall. Used as a stage, decorated with sculptures, vases, etc.

View - part of the landscape. A term widely used in landscape architecture. Skillful disclosure of individual artistically expressive views in a landscape is an important aspect of the design and restoration of gardens and parks.

". the more lively a species is, the more beautiful it is, and there is no more worthy name for gulbisch, which was given to it because of the pleasure produced by art.It often happens that nature creates beautiful carpets of greenery, surrounded by groups of trees and various bushes, near a building or a pleasure house. Here there are places illuminated by the sun, here its rays can barely penetrate, and there dense trees give a gloomy, cool shade. Opposite the house itself there is a view of meadows and fields, along which a narrow path winds "[Collection of new thoughts. 1799. Book XVI, description for drawings I and VII].

Viewpoint - a certain place on the territory of a forest park, park, garden, most convenient for the perception of the opening view, is usually outlined in the artistic analysis and sketching of the object as part of a whole series of visual "frames" following one after another.

Vista - a view, a narrow perspective, directed by the framing planes towards the outstanding element of the landscape - the focus of perspective. It includes a point of view (a place from which perception is optimal), a framing (a "landscape frame" that fixes the view), a middle ground (usually curtains made of plants that should not distract attention from the main thing) and the culminating object of observation that completes whist. A visual focus can be, for example, architectural structures, monuments, a lake, a hill, a tree of an unusual shape and color, a sunlit glade at the end of a clearing or a shaded alley, etc.

Hanging garden - a small garden located on the roof, gallery, special stone supports. Has a loose soil layer for the growth of herbs, flowers, ornamental shrubs, and sometimes trees. Instead of a continuous soil layer, special portable containers for plant soil, small pools for aquatic plants are also used. The prototype of the modern hanging gardens is the gardens of Babylon in ancient Babylon, which were located on multi-stage stone terraces. Hanging gardens are known in the Moscow Kremlin in the 17th century, on the terraces of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo near the Cameron Gallery, in the Winter Palace. The Old Russian synonym for the term is "Horse Garden".

Waterfall - natural or artificially arranged falling water flow between two reservoirs located at different levels. Nestles in gardens and parks on the differences in relief. It is especially typical for romantic landscape-style parks (Alupka, Sofievka, etc.).

“A waterfall that has a fall of several feet in height, is narrow and well-arranged, makes more pleasant, while a wide one will constitute a threshold and will attract laughter, unless it is divided into different currents in its latitude. Many waterfalls are small, one after the other following the fall of water, preferable to a large body of water, whose image and respect are all too correct. If a great space is divided into many parts and the length is more important than latitude, then a large stream will barely give way to the river, because its inclination is more noticeable and continues more uniformly this is beneficial for waterfalls following one after another, moreover, less work and waste when the river falls from a certain height, then it is sufficient to decorate and revitalize a large stream along the entire length of its course, when we examine the low-falling waters, we will see that they are in a revitalizing form, which they give to a secluded place ”[Lem, 1818. Part III. P. 51 (see also Cascade).

Air line - in perspective, denotes the general upper outline of trees in a group or array (it can be clearly delineated, indented, vague, etc.).

Railway station - the outdated name of the concert hall in the park (by analogy with London's "Vauxhall"). After the first railway was built to the “Vokzal” in Pavlovsk, the word acquired a modern meaning.

Volute - ornament in a classic garden parterre in the form of a curl, a spiral. As a rule, it was located in the corner or at the edge of the parterre.

Habit - the appearance, shape of various trees and shrubs (see. Architectonics).

Lawn - artificial turf, an area sown mainly with cereal grasses in order to create a uniform green-emerald background for sculpture, architectural structures, flower arrangements and tree-shrub groups, depending on the purpose of use, is subdivided into decorative G. (including parterre) , sporty, blooming (Moorish), special

Harmony - in gardening art, the proportionality of individual elements of the composition, specific unity in diversity (for example, harmony in proportion, in color, texture of plants, etc.).

Geoplastics - architectural and artistic transformation of the relief, a kind of vertical layout.

Germa - widespread in parks and gardens of the 18th century. a kind of sculptural image in the form of a head or a bust on a tetrahedral support (for example, in Ostankino, Arkhangelsk). They first appeared in ancient Greece.

Heroon - memorial grove with statues, "memorable" trees.

Nesting plantings - groups of 3-5 trees, planted at a distance of 0.5-1 m from each other, forming a common crown of large diameter ("bouquet" type).

Glorietta - a structure in the form of an open columnar pavilion, usually located at the entrance to the park, on a hill or closing a deep perspective, appeared in the second half of the 17th century. in France. Gloriettes in the form of solemn gates and triumphal colonnades are typical for Russian parks in the late 18th - early 19th centuries. (Tsarskoe Selo, Kuzminki, etc.).

Grotto - a decorative park structure created in places where rocks emerge at the foot of a hill or in piles of stones near a waterfall, pond, stream with cascades, etc.

“The grottoes are made in secluded places of the garden or in the woods. The appearance of these in the outside should represent savagery, but the inside requires decoration with various shells, mirrors, crystallizations and other shiny stones. The entrance to them, to multiply the cold, is located on the north side. However, the frequent repair of the grottoes brings difficulties ”[Levshin, 1795. Ch. 8, p. 163].

Group (plantings) - woody or shrub plants, planted at a close distance from each other, playing, in accordance with the designer's intention, a certain compositional role in the construction of the landscape of the garden, the park is usually provided along the edges of the massifs, on lawns and glades, at the turns of the paths. G. n. are subdivided: by species composition (single-breed or multi-breed), by size (small of 3-5 trees, large from 11 or more trees, but with an area that usually does not exceed the height of trees), by compactness and delicacy (compact, bouquet plantings, transparent, loose planting, etc.). One of the best examples of the creation of G. n. Is the area of ​​White Birch in Pavlovsk.

Palace and park complex - a large, historically formed ensemble, which includes a palace, a park, household and religious buildings. As a rule, it is a complex monument of architecture and landscape gardening, used as a museum-reserve (Petrodvorets, Kuskovo, Livadia, etc.).

Ornamental qualities of plants - the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of plants that determine their appearance, constant during the period of formed leaves, flowers, inflorescences or changing during the year, life (size, appearance, crown architectonics, etc.). D. to. R. taken into account when selecting an assortment, placing plants, forming groups, curtains, arrays.

Dissonance - violation of harmony, manifested in the inconsistency of the form and content of objects and phenomena. Unsuccessfully selected groups of plants in terms of size, architectonics and color, disharmony of architecture and landscape, contradiction in the external appearance of new and historically established elements of the park, etc.

Dominant - in a park landscape, the main, most expressive element, to which other elements are subordinated.The dominant can be expressed in size and position, shape, rich color, etc. For example, the dominant of the Vorontsov Park in Alupka is the top of Ai-Petri, the ensemble in Petrodvorets is the Grand Palace and the Main Cascade.

Recreational capacity - a value characterizing the ability of a park or recreation area to serve a certain number of visitors, provided there is sufficient psychophysiological comfort, without degradation of the natural components of the environment and damage to cultural, historical, architectural and artistic objects located on the territory.

Hedge - planting from formed or freely growing trees or shrubs (or a combination thereof) in order to obtain closed impermeable plantings. They are usually cut into the shape of a green wall. Based on the purpose, hedges are one-, two-, three-row and different heights. Plants are used that lend themselves well to shearing, curly (hawthorn, gleditsia, oriental biota, privet, brilliant cotoneaster, etc.).

Thickened pellets - the method of forming a park landscape with the aim of the fastest creation of compact plantings with straight trunks. Subsequently, they require mandatory thinning.

Menagerie - forested area, usually with specially arranged glades, set aside for hunting in parks of the 18th century. (Gatchina, Kuzminki).

Green theater - a facility for outdoor performances is set up in parks and gardens using the natural terrain. A fence made of hedges or climbing plants on special supports or frames is used as walls.

Water mirror - a shallow decorative reservoir of usually regular geometric shape with a low side-"frame". Calculated for the effect of reflection (from an architectural structure, sculpture, trees, etc.).

Zoning (functional) of the territory - the allocation of areas in the park that are different in their functional purpose, for example, zones for entertainment events, sports, walks and quiet rest, cultural and historical, etc.

Plant introduction - the introduction of plants in areas where they were previously absent. A method of enriching our fields, vegetable gardens, botanical gardens and parks with valuable plant species.

Historical and architectural zoning - zoning of the territory of cultural monuments, identification of the historical planning in order to create environmental conditions close to the original state.

Historical park - an example of the culture of park construction of the past. As a monument, it is subject to state protection.

Bosquet cabinet - a closed space formed by sheared walls made of linden and other plants. Typical for regular gardens and parks in the 17th-18th centuries. some offices were decorated with pools, sculptures, gazebos (for example, in the Summer Garden in St. Petersburg).

Cascade - a special multistage structure made of stone or concrete, serving for the flow of water jets at the places of rapid flows of natural rivers and streams, as well as on the paths of artificial watercourses from a successive row of small terraces. One of the elements of a park composition, especially terraced parks (see Waterfall).

Cartouche - an ornament in the garden parterre of the 17th-18th centuries, resembling in shape a half-unfolded scroll with curls. In the center of the cartouche there was a monogram, the emblem of the owner of the garden.

Rolling mountain - typical for Russian parks of the 18th century. an artificial structure with a ramp for sledding (in the parks of Lomonosov, Pushkin, etc.).

Quarter - 1) an element of landscape gardening, introduced in the Middle Ages, with flower beds, gazebos, sculptures 2) a part of the forest-park area, limited by glades.

Kencons - a method of planting trees in shifted rows in a checkerboard pattern, with crowns trimmed along one line, with trunks open at the bottom.Forms one volume and provides visibility in diagonal directions between the trunks, the technique was used even when creating gardens in ancient Rome.

Chinese grove - planting trees, reminiscent of the location of an amphitheater (used at the end of the 18th century in Moscow - in the estate of the Sheremetevs. Ostankino).

Classicism - the artistic style of the 18th - early 19th centuries, referring to antiquity and ancient art as a norm and an ideal model. In Russian park construction it is identified with the landscape style of planning, the rejection of regular constructions, as contrary to nature. Examples of park structures in the style of classicism - the Temple of Friendship in Pavlovsk, the Cameron Gallery in the Catherine Park in Pushkin, the Flora pavilion in Sofievka, etc.

Flower bed - a group of trees and bushes in open meadows in landscape parks. Later, from the middle of the 19th century, K. was called a flower garden of a regular geometric (round, convex, flat, concave, or rectangular) shape, usually placed in parterre compositions. C. differ both in color and in the assortment of planted plants: C. from annuals, biennials, and perennials, simple (from one plant species) and complex (from 2-3 species), monochromatic and multicolor.

Compartment - a separate landscape gardening composition in the gardens and parks of the 17th-18th centuries, from parts of which the entire ensemble was created, for example, a parterre compartment, consisting of identical flower carpets, symmetrically placed around a sculpture or a pool.

Compositional zoning of the park - zoning on the basis of planning and architectural and artistic organization based on the determination of the principle of the formation of various areas or areas of the park.

Composite node - a site or part of a garden or park that unites and connects together several sites or parts, resulting in a single composition. For example, a body of water that connects the viewpoints of the banks, from which different perspectives are revealed, or a clearing that unites individual views in a landscape.

Composition in landscape art - construction (structure) of a separate landscape of a garden, a park or the entire territory in a certain artistic system, ensuring the interconnection of the constituent parts (plantings, relief, water surfaces), due to the artistic conception and purpose of the object. Various means and methods of composition are used among them - highlighting the main and the secondary, scale and proportionality, proportionality, rhythm and change of impressions, symmetry and asymmetry, contrast and similarity, orientation, light and color, material texture, etc. (see Landscape composition Free layout Regular style).

Conservation of ancient parks-monuments - preservation of the existing planning and spatial composition, valuable vegetation, architectural structures and small forms of the park to prevent further destruction. Measures are being taken to stop the decay of the preserved plantations, erosion processes, a security construction regime is introduced, etc. Conservation is the first stage of park restoration work.

Contrast - comparison of objects or phenomena that are opposite in their properties, for example, small is opposed to large, low - high, smooth - rough, dark - light, etc.

In landscape gardening, when creating the effect of artistic contrast, objects are usually compared with each other in some features, but opposite in others: the weeping shape of the crown of a birch is favorably set off by the dense pyramidal shape of the crown of a fir or spruce. Not only trees of different types are opposed to each other, but also vegetation of different tiers, buildings, reservoirs, relief lines, etc.The so-called sequential contrasts perceived in time are also taken into account, for example: a wide panorama of the Moskva River valley, which opens after a walk in a regular garden in Arkhangelsky Park.

Guardhouse - the building of the guardhouse at the entrance to the estate. Often plays the role of the first architectural accent, preparing a consistent perception of the palace and park ensemble along the main compositional axis (Sofiyivka, Gorenki, etc.).

Cross plan composition - a composition based on the intersection of two planning axes and the allocation of the center of the ensemble at this intersection or near it. Architectural landscape construction develops from the periphery to the center in both directions (main - longitudinal and subordinate - transverse). It was widely used in gardens of the regular type (Peterhof).

Red line - a conditional line that separates the territory of the park from the street and buildings. Has a regulatory value.

Covered road - see the Bypass road.

Xist - a small space in front of the house in the form of a flat garden divided into squares or rectangles with a clear axial structure, the predominance of lawns and borders.

Backstage - groupings of trees or shrubs (massifs, clumps, groups), located in space parallel to each other in order to create a multifaceted perspective, cover the insignificant or overly conspicuous, reveal the main thing in order to improve the perception of a part of the park or the surrounding landscape. They also serve to shade other plants from the sun or to protect them from trampling.

Climax - the point (place, moment) of the highest rise in the development of the composition. In gardening art, it can denote both the strongest visual impression obtained during successive movement along the main compositional axis (for example, when entering a spectacular viewing platform or a sudden disclosure of a view of the facade of a building, a complex of fountains, etc.), and the highest degree of development of the ensemble in time, the stage of its greatest architectural and artistic completeness.

Cultural and historical zone of the monument park - all or part of the park territory where objects of historical, architectural and artistic or botanical and dendrological value have been preserved or will be restored.

Kurdoner - a front yard in the form of a partially open U-shaped space, surrounded by buildings and separated from the street by a through fence.

Curtain - 1) a separate area of ​​a forest, a botanical garden, an arboretum 2) a large group of 20-90 or more specimens of trees and shrubs of the same species 3) a turf-lined flower bed.

Maze - intricate passages, appeared in the gardens of the Renaissance, became widespread in Russian parks of the 18th-19th centuries, in parks they are usually arranged from high sheared hedges (using hornbeam, linden, laurel). Until the 18th century. had a symbolic religious meaning (difficulties on the way of the pilgrim), later acquired educational or entertainment values ​​(for example, the labyrinths of the Summer Garden with sculptures on the themes of Aesop's fables, arranged under Peter I).

“By this name is called a part of the garden, which consists of a party filled with many crooked, twisted and entangled roads. These festivities are usually done with those thoughts so that the walker could not reach the middle without great difficulty, and having reached it, it would be impossible to get out soon without being entangled several times in various moves.

Labyrinths are made of two genera: the same is planted in one row with thorns or some other frequent shrub. Or double, which is planted in rows of two or three different trees, in the middle of which it is planted entirely with shrubs ”[Osipov, 1793. Part 2. P. 30-31].

Landscape - 1) a natural territorial complex, an area of ​​the earth's surface bounded by natural boundaries, within which natural components (relief, soil, vegetation, reservoirs, climate, fauna), as well as artificial, i.e. anthropogenic (buildings, roads, farmland etc.), are in interaction and are adapted to each other 2) general view of the area, landscape.

Natural landscape - 1) a landscape that has not been transformed by human activity, and therefore has a natural development 2) relatively little transformed by man. The second meaning of the term is used mainly in relation to suburban and other developed territories, where natural landscapes in the full sense of the word have not been preserved. Some botanical gardens and large parks include individual tracts of the natural landscape, for example, a juniper grove (Nikitsky Botanical Garden), an oak grove (Main Botanical Garden), etc. and was even created artificially (for example, in Gatchina).

landscape architecture - architecture of open spaces, a branch of urban planning, the purpose of which is the formation of a favorable external environment for life and recreation of the population in cities, suburban and resort areas, rural areas, taking into account functional, aesthetic, technical and economic requirements. The specificity of the industry lies in the fact that it deals mainly with natural materials and objects - the relief of the earth's surface, vegetation cover, reservoirs in the design of parks, gardens, squares, forest parks, suburban areas of public recreation. The tasks of landscape architecture also include landscaping and external improvement of residential yards, industrial enterprises, transport and agricultural facilities. Historically, it arose at the junction of landscape gardening and modern urban planning. Landscape plot - an allotment, part of a landscape area, identified by landscape analysis in the territory, characterized by a uniform visual appearance. It is caused by the same type of vegetation, species composition of trees and shrubs, age and bonitet classes, closeness and layering of stands, relief, etc.

Forest park - a landscaped forest area, organized in a certain landscape-space-planning system by the gradual reconstruction of plantings, the organization of driveways, walking alleys, pedestrian paths, lawns, gutters, etc. is intended for free short-term recreation of the population in an environment close to natural.

Forest park belt - part of the suburban area adjacent to the city boundaries and used for mass recreation. Includes forests, meadows, forest parks, country parks, summer cottages, as well as orchards and some other agricultural land. It has an important health-improving, aesthetic, planning-regular and environmental significance for the city.

Loggia - a room open on one or more sides, usually in the form of a large covered balcony, decorated with arches, columns, balustrade or parapet. Connects the interiors of a building with an adjacent garden, park or other open space, is often used to place sculptures, mobile flower arrangements, etc. (for example, in the parks of Pavlovsk, Alupka).

Lusthaus - a garden pavilion such as a large gazebo, usually with lush architectural decoration. The term was widely used at the beginning of the 18th century. (for example, the lusthauses of the second Summer Garden in St. Petersburg are known).

Macro relief - large relief forms that characterize the appearance of a large territory of the earth's surface: mountain ranges, ridges, river basins, intermontane plateaus, plateaus, etc. Often are the object of external spatial orientation of the park composition.For example, parks in Alupka and Gurzuf, Nikitsky Botanical Garden, etc.

Small architectural forms - artificial elements of a landscape gardening composition: gazebos, rotundas, pergolas, trellises, benches, arches, plant sculptures, kiosks, pavilions, playground equipment, awnings, etc. (see Park facilities)

Parkovy array - a section of the park with an area of ​​more than 0.5 hectares, consisting of trees and shrubs of horizontal or vertical closeness. Distinguish between clean (pine, spruce) and mixed massifs, for example, birch-spruce in parks, massifs of 0.5-4 hectares are accepted, in forest parks - up to 10 hectares.

Spatial scale - the degree of size of the architectural and natural forms that make up the landscape gardening composition, the degree of their size compliance with their purpose, the environment and man. One of the most important means of artistic expression of the ensemble. The spatial scale changes depending on the nature of the environment (some monument parks surrounded by modern multi-storey buildings seem to change their architectural scale, for example, Ostankino).

Memorial Complex - the territory on which the monumental architectural structures are located - mausoleums, pantheons, sculptural groups, obelisks of glory and monuments dedicated to outstanding events in the history of the people. Usually it is solved as a park with a strictly regular layout, including large parterres, wide alleys. Trees with a weeping or pyramidal crown are often used (for example, the Piskarevskoye cemetery, the Field of Mars, etc.).

Menagerie - a house for keeping birds. In parks, it has not only utilitarian, but also decorative value, usually located on the shore of a reservoir.

"Dead" materials - colored sand, crushed tiles, broken glass, crushed marble, anthracite and other materials, with the help of which the drawing of garden parterres is carried out in nature. They are combined with "living" materials in the form of: lawn grasses, low sheared shrubs, flowers.

Microrelief - small relief elements in the landscape of the park, garden. They occupy small areas up to several hundred square meters. m, with fluctuations-differences in marks within 1-2 m, for example, the relief of a curtain, flower bed, hillock (positive forms) hollow (negative form).

Milovid - in Russian parks of the 18th-19th centuries. a gazebo, from which a particularly picturesque panorama opens, a viewing platform (park in Tsaritsyno).

Mixborder - a type of flower arrangement, characteristic of multiple changes in flowering during the growing season, created by the selection of flowering herbaceous, mainly perennial plants.

Versatility - a series of successively replaced visual plans in parks, forest parks, separated from each other by the wings and perceived at a sufficient distance.

Modular garden - a technique for decorating a flower garden, a small space in a garden or a fragment of a park, built on a geometric system of modules, repeated at regular intervals. For example, squares lined with tiles at the edges, with different or uniform filling (flowers, ornamental trees and shrubs, lawn).

Sheet mosaic - the pattern of the arrangement of leaves on the plant, determines the formation of light and shade effects under the crown of the tree, gives picturesqueness and originality to the appearance of the plant.

Monosads - gardens (rosaries, georgiaries, sirengaria, etc.), in which any one plant is the leading one.

Park bridge - a structure that has not only utilitarian, but also decorative value as an element of the park landscape and a point from which views open along the river, pond, ravine, etc. Vasilevo).

“It would be tiring for the eyes if all bridges were built according to the same model. Nature and art provide many occasions for the invention of change.Sometimes bridges can be simple and without any embellishment, sometimes smart and decorated ”[Levshin, 1805-1808. Part IV. S. 383].

Upland park - a park located on the slopes of a mountain or hill, characterized by the complexity of the volumetric-spatial solution, the presence of terraces at different levels on which the park structures are located, stairs, ramps that allow to overcome the difference in elevation serve as a connecting element (for example, Vorontsov Park in Alupka).

Recreational load - the maximum number of visitors per unit area of ​​the park, recreation area, which ensures the preservation of the natural components of the environment and its cultural and historical (architectural, etc.) values. In case of exceeding the permissible load, degradation of the park landscape, deterioration of the psychophysiological comfort of visitors, partial destruction of small architectural forms, sculptures, plant compositions, etc., is observed (observed in the most visited parks-monuments, for example, in Pavlovsk, Kuskovo, Abramtsevo).

Wall garden - a decorative structure made of folded stones in the form of slopes, retaining walls. Vegetable soil is clogged between stones in crevices and ornamental herbaceous plants (xerophytes, less often dwellers of wet rocks) are planted.

National park - a state protected area with a strict visiting regime, possessing exceptional natural features, the presence of rocky mountains, forests with a rich floristic composition, lakes, geysers and other objects of national value. Designed for nature conservation, tourism, research. Some national parks include in their boundaries historically established parks, manors (for example, "Gauja" in Latvia).

Neutral landscape - a part of the park area that does not attract attention with its appearance, design.

Nymph - a sacred grove at the source, decorated with sculptures, colonnades, stele, etc. It is characteristic of the garden art of Ancient Greece, where it was considered the habitat of nymphs and muses. In Russian landscape gardening art of the era of classicism, this form was used, for example, in the works of N. A. Lvov.

Nuance - a shade, a barely noticeable transition in shape, color, size, surface texture, drawing of individual elements that make up the park composition. With the help of nuance relationships, you can enhance or weaken the meaning of this or that element, bring it closer to the background, "dissolve" in space. With a nuanced solution of a group of trees and shrubs, the differences between them are smoothed out, and the similarity is more pronounced, which makes it possible to emphasize the single character of this group. Nuance differences appear in different ways under different weather conditions, depending on the illumination, etc.

Obelisk - a rectangular, usually monolithic stone pillar, tapering upward, with a pyramidal pointed top, was characteristic of Ancient Egypt. It is used as a decorative element of a park composition - a monument in honor of significant events (parks Kuskovsky, Pavlovsky, Yaropolets, etc.).

Trickery - "deceptive" types. In Russian parks of the 17th century. picturesque images placed at the end of the walking alleys and creating the illusion of a distant perspective, the facade of a magnificent architectural structure, etc.

The image of the park - a specific form of reflection of reality inherent in gardening art. In the composition of gardens and parks, the image is created by different means, but most often it is associated with some outstanding monument, structure, expressive and characteristic panorama of the landscape. The symbolic meaning of such an object is correlated with one or another meaningful phenomenon, historical event, significant achievement, etc. The uniqueness of the artistic image of the park is due to the socio-historical context, the natural characteristics of the day's territory, and the specific town-planning situation.For example, the artistic image of the park in Petrodvorets found its fullest expression in the grandiose panorama of the Grand Cascade and its central sculptural composition "Samson tearing apart the lion's mouth", dedicated to Russia's victory in the war with the Swedes and its access to new sea frontiers. Here, the architecture of the palace and pavilions, the plastic of the coastal terraces, the sea canal, water jets, flower parterres organically merged into a vivid solemn artistic image.

Bend road - in Russian gardens and parks of the 18th century. a covered alley, arranged on a frame of wooden arches connected by longitudinal ties, while the branches of trees (birch, linden, hornbeam, etc.), tied with a wire to a wooden base, formed a green vault. Decorated with trellis pavilions, entrance arches.

“As the trees grow, one should bend them in arcs between each two pillars and untie the branches along the lattice arc made. After that, cut the unnecessary and exposed branches and, however, keep the posts and arcs in an incessant haircut. It is possible, however, to make such galleries from linden, cornelian and other trees, but they come out most beautifully from grape vines ”[Levshin, 1795. Part 8. P. 140].

Garden - one of the names of the garden at the Russian estate of the 15th-17th centuries, in which mainly fruit trees and shrubs, as well as vegetables and flowers were grown.

Garden and park fence - a structure designed to restrict free access to the site of people, animals, vehicles. In addition to stone, metal, wooden, low hedges, trellises and walls of climbing plants are used. Garden and park fences have not only a utilitarian or decorative value, they play a role in the architectural composition as elements that give the first visual representation of the richness of the ensemble as a whole, its stylistic characteristics, as well as determining the degree of visual connection between the inside and outside of the park space.

Plain parterre - flower decoration of the parterre, characterized by the dominance of one color, the selection of plants with similar shades (for example, light green, green, dark green).

Window - a gap in an array or curtain in order to make the landscape more picturesque. Usually free of trees and shrubs, but has a grass cover of up to 1 hectare contributes to a change of impressions when the visitor moves from an enclosed space to an open one.

Edge - plantations bordering woodlands, clumps, large tree and shrub groups along the perimeter. It is an important element in the composition of lawns and meadows. Requires careful selection and combination of rocks in order to create coloristic effects, smooth transitions from open spaces to closed ones.

Greenhouse - a building under a glass roof with an artificially created climate, designed to grow a collection of subtropical [hence the name "orange" (orange)] and other exotic plants for the purpose of exhibiting them. Sometimes it becomes an important element of the architectural composition of the park (Kuskovo, etc.).

“By the name of greenhouses we mean buildings built for the maintenance and upbringing of foreign plants, which, without the help of the art produced by the warmth of the local winter cold, cannot endure” [Osipov, 1793. Part 2. P. 107].

Ordinary - see Tapeworms.

Orientation - 1) placement of individual planning elements (alleys, sites) depending on the exposure of the slope and the position of the longitudinal axis relative to the cardinal points (north-south, east-west, etc.) 2) spatial orientation of the composition of the park, garden on objects of the external environment - river valley, mountain peak, outstanding architectural structure, etc.

Axial composition (park) - such a construction of the system of the main roads of the park, in which one clearly expressed direction dominates.The beginning, culmination and completion of the ensemble develops along the main axis; the main architectural structures, ceremonial alleys, fountains, pools, sculpture, etc. are concentrated here.Often along the axis there are terraces, balustrades, stairs, marking the rise of the terrain to the planning center of the park (palace, main house estates) for example, in Arkhangelsk, Kachanovka.

"Island" - a place in the park intended for secluded and contemplative relaxation, reflection. A particularly popular technique in romantic parks of the 19th century.

Island (artificial) - an earthen or stone structure placed on a reservoir and serves to revitalize the park landscape, create a variety of perspectives (for example, in a park in Gatchina).

Protected zone of the monument park - the territory adjacent to the park, designed to create a favorable environment and protect the park from the negative effects of the urbanized environment. The boundaries, the nature of the landscaping and the improvement of the security zone are determined in accordance with the urban planning situation, the size and significance of the monument, and the conditions for its visual perception.

Pavilion - 1) a small covered building in gardens, parks, located in places of quiet rest on sites, bends of alleys 2) a separate exhibition room.

“The summer pavilion should stand on a place lined with trees and arranged according to the exact rules of good taste, with the utmost diligence, whether there is a need for the avenue to correspond to it. Thick and cool shadows, pleasant greenery, trees planted in various ways, but always in such an order that they make a majestic and noble appearance, a vast pond, and all of them, without any empty decorations, will present a picture that will correspond to the splendor and splendor of this building ... Places and alleys nearby should be located so that this building could be seen from everywhere, but always from a different point of view and if there is a place that allows, then it is necessary that it can always be glanced around only when you come close to it »[Collection of new thoughts. 1799. Book XIV, description for drawing VI.

Palisade - 1) lightweight wooden trellis hedge. Installed at the edges of rectangular or square bosquets 2) A palisade made of logs buried in the soil is used to anchor the slopes. Palmetta is a stylized palm leaf, one of the decoration elements of the garden parterre.

Ramp - a structure representing an inclined plane that replaces a staircase and serves for transitions or entrances from one terrace to another, with a longitudinal slope of the surface of no more than 8 °. Introduced in terraced parks of the 17th-18th centuries.

Panorama - a wide (sometimes circular) and multi-faceted perspective, allowing a free view of a large open area, usually from a height. It is calculated on the perception of it in its entirety and successively fragment by fragment, which are separate compositionally complete paintings. High-rise dominants, accents, compositional pauses stand out in the panorama. With an increase in the vertical angle of view, which depends on the difference in heights of the point and the object of observation, the strength of the emotional impact of the panorama increases.

Paradise - an ancient Persian garden, a characteristic feature of which was the abundance of roses, fountains, and reservoirs.

The park - a vast (usually more than 10-15 hectares) green area, landscaped and artistically designed for outdoor recreation. The term penetrated into the Russian language in the 18th century. from England and originally meant a natural grove or a section of forest with picturesque alleys, glades, free-outline ponds, gazebos, sculptures, etc. , nature conservation functions.Parks are subdivided by purpose into parks of culture and recreation, children's, sports, walking, memorial, parks-museums by location and use by the population - city-wide, district, suburban by the nature of the relief of the territory - floodplain, ravine, upland, etc.

Park of culture and rest - a new socialist type of park, city or district, cultural and educational institution in the open air among the plantings. The main purpose is mass recreation along with political and educational events, exchange of best practices, cultural entertainment. The layout of the PKiO includes a green theater, a library, a sports complex, a dance floor, and a children's sector. The planning basis for the entire territory is made up of plantations, meadows, reservoirs, lawns. The first PKiOs were opened in our country in the 1920s and 1930s, many of them on the basis of estates and other historically established parks (named after Gorky in Moscow, named after S. M. Kirov in Leningrad, etc.).

Memorial park - an old park of memorial, historical, architectural, artistic, scientific significance. To be protected and restored by methods of conservation, restoration or reconstruction.

Manor park - a historically established park at a city or country estate. The ensemble of the manor park usually includes the main manor house (palace, mansion), residential outhouses, outbuildings, ponds, orchards, etc. It is smaller in comparison with the palace and park complex.

"Parnassus" - an embankment in a park with a view path and a platform at the top, open to the surrounding area, the symbolic abode of Apollo and the muses - patrons of arts and sciences (for example, in the park in Ostankino).

Parterre - a decorative open geometrically constructed composition of low plants in a horizontal plane, forms the front part of a regular park, breaks up near the main buildings, near monumental structures and monuments. A large place is given to a lawn, a flower garden of carpet plants, which, in combination with reservoirs, sculpture, decorative paving, etc., form a single ensemble. It is characterized by the severity of lines and shapes.

“Parterre is a kind of flower garden, lying out of the blue and decorated with flowers, herbs, bushes and other things. Discussion of one's distinction is divided into many different genders. Grass parterre, consisting of low grasses, is considered the best and most convenient way of thinking about its simplicity and little labor required for it. As for the arrangement of the parterres in general, the oblong quadrangle is much more convenient for it than the others, and so that it is twice as long against the width, but never three times. Parterres are usually made in gardens at the first entrance to them and occupy a whole area. Paths should be created near the parterre, two-thirds wide opposite the real garden. Their decoration depends on the will and taste of the owner or gardener, but the simpler it is, the better ”[Osipov, 1793. Part 2. P. 119].

“Since there is a real place for them near the house, the width of them should be at least the entire length of the building's facade, and the length should be proportional to the possibility of observation so that from the windows of the house it was possible to discern the entire pattern of their outline with the eye. Whether there is space, the length of the parterre should be twice or three times their width: for the oblong forms are rather reduced in the eyes through the distance and are more pleasant in the form of perfect quadrangles. Moreover, it is necessary to inform the parterres of a figure and form, decent for the place and structure of the house, dividing them into two or four parts. "[Levshin, 1795. Part 8. P. 14, 15].

Lace parterre - a view of a garden parterre with a complex pattern made of "dead" materials, usually against a background of sand. Typical for the heyday of classical gardening art of the late 17th - early 18th centuries.

Ornamental parterre - a kind of lace parterre, combined with the surfaces of the mowed lawn. The background was usually crushed tiles.

Parterre english - a type of classic garden parterre, characterized by a relatively simpler pattern, made with lawn and sand, sometimes with flowers.

Cut parterre - a kind of classic garden parterre, in which flowers against a background of sand are of prime importance (for example, at Monplaisir in the Lower Park of Petrodvorets).

Parterre garden - a regular style garden dominated by lawns, flower beds and ponds. Trees and shrubs are usually placed along the periphery of clumps and flower beds, plants are regularly trimmed, they are given the shape of a ball, cube, square, etc.

Patio - a small garden of Spanish-Moorish origin, enclosed by walls or high stone fences. Compositionally connected with the interiors of buildings and includes elements such as a fountain, a decorative pool, stone paving, etc.

Scenery - the general view of the area, the visually perceived part of the landscape, the park, bounded by certain limits, evokes feelings and moods similar to the artist's canvas. According to the spatial principle, it is classified into open, half-open, half-closed, and closed.

Landscape art - the art of creating garden and park compositions, as a rule, based on natural, free landscape planning. In a broader sense - the architectural and artistic organization of urban and suburban landscapes, improving the external appearance of the area by operating mainly with natural landscape components (vegetation, water, relief, as well as roads, individual structures).

Landscape layout - a technique in gardening art, which originated in the ancient gardens of China and Japan, developed in England, France, Russia and other countries of the 18th-19th centuries, is distinguished by the picturesque groups of trees placed on glades and lawns, winding paths, free outlines of reservoirs , watercourses, preservation (or imitation) of the natural, rural character of the area.

“A man really with taste, who lives in order to live, and who enjoys himself, knows how to arrange a garden for himself, so that he can like it and be pleasant at all hours of the day, but together he would be so simple and natural that it seems that he has not done anything here, he connects the earth, water, shadows and chills, for all this is also connected by nature. He does not produce symmetry anywhere, because they are an enemy of nature and multi-intelligence ”[Bolotov, 1786, p. 93].

Landscape park - a park (or part of it) for walking and contemplating pictures of "natural" nature. It is distinguished by the free arrangement of roads, alleys and other planning elements, usually includes vast reservoirs, meadows, groves, organized in a certain spatial system. Many palace and manor parks (Pavlovsk, Gatchina, Tsaritsyno), arboretums (Trostyanets, etc.) can be classified as landscape ones.

Pergola - a garden and park building, consisting of a wooden or metal frame, with a flat or vaulted surface supported by pillars or stone columns, is entwined with climbing plants (vines), forming a closed gallery. It settles down at the entrance to the garden, over a part of the alleys, etc.

Blending spaces - in gardening art, the method of compositional connection of adjacent spaces (for example, meadows), in which one of them naturally and imperceptibly for the viewer passes into another. This technique was especially widely used in landscape-type parks (for example, in Sofievka, Trostyanets, Voronov, Bogoroditsky, etc.).

Peristyle - a courtyard with a swimming pool, a fountain and a flower garden, surrounded by a colonnade, is distinguished by its regular composition and seclusion. In ancient Rome, the walls of the peristyle were often painted with park landscapes to create an illusory space.

Aerial perspective - the property of the surface layer of air to paint more distant objects in cold (bluish, blue) tones, to soften their actual color and outlines. With the appropriate selection of plants, it is possible to illusoryly enhance the depth of space, for example, using in the background of a landscape painting a variety of trees with a bluish-green color of foliage, needles or with soft and smooth outlines of crowns (Weymouth pine). The opposite effect is achieved when trees with light colored silvery or golden foliage are used.

Linear perspective - visual reduction of objects as they move away from the observer. This is the basis for the construction of deep multifaceted views of the park's landscape along the axis of view. Park builders in the past used the technique of an illusory perspective, when alleys, glades seemed longer than they really are (the side rows of trees were planted not on parallel, but on gradually converging rays). The distance between the viewer and the distant object is reduced if the area lying between them is hidden, on the contrary, the creation of new visual plans between the observers and the object seems to move him away. Large objects that needed to be hidden were covered by smaller ones, but standing closer to the point of view. These techniques were used to create parks in Pushkin, Pavlovsk, Kuskovo, etc.

Pylons - monumental foundations or columns at the entrance to the park, in the central square and in other solemn places.

The layout of the park, garden - the territorial structure of the object, its spatial and functional structure, the location of centers, roads, plantings, entrances, etc. It is determined by specific landscape, social, architectural and construction, economic, engineering and construction and other conditions.

Platband - flower framing of the garden parterre.

“Platbands, or flower hailstones, serve to circle the parterre, which is decorated with flowers, yew and other undersized trees, so as not to obscure the parterre drawings. In the discussion of which, many advise to establish platbands between the house and the parterre, in this case deducing from them light figures, such as shells, sheets and the like, as if scattered over a place strewn with sand. Small platbands are made with a width of one and a half arshins, while the larger ones are two and three arshins. "[Levshin, 1795. Part 8. P. 19].

Polyana - open space in a park or forest, mostly free from trees and large shrubs, but with a grassy cover. They are divided into small, medium and large (the width is, respectively, 1, 5-2 2-4 4-6 heights of the surrounding trees and shrubs). They are united in groups, suites and "chains". The space of large clearings and the outcrops to them are marked by tapeworms and groups of highly decorative trees. The outlines of the glades in the plan are usually given jagged contours (wings). For better insolation, the longitudinal axis of the glade tends to be positioned in a direction close to the meridional (glades in Pavlovsk, Voronov, Tsaritsyn).

Portico - the open gallery protruding in front of the facade of the building, formed by the columns carrying the ceiling, usually marks the main entrance to the building and supports the pediment or attic. It plays the role of a transitional link, compositionally linking the interiors of the building with the ceremonial courtyard - courtyard, street, square or adjacent park; it is often the architectural completion of the spatial axis passing through the central part of the palace and park complex (Mikhailovsky Garden in Leningrad, in Ostankino, etc.) ...

Belt road - a road along the perimeter of the park, a circular walking route. Typical for city gardens and parks of the second half of the 19th century.

Nature Park - a territory characterized by pronounced landscape features of the area (forest, steppe, mountains, rocks, river, waterfalls, interesting flora and fauna), subject to special protection and at the same time accessible to tourists and vacationers.

Propylaea - monumental gates in the form of a colonnade, arcade or a group of structures marking the front entrance to an architectural ensemble, a palace and park complex (for example, in Pushkin, Sofievka, Ostankino, Marfin).

Proportionality - proportionality, harmonious relationship of the components of the park ensemble with each other, an important condition for achieving its compositional unity. The proportionality is predetermined by the general proportions of the plan, the sizes of alleys, parterres, glades, massifs and other open and closed spaces. In regular parks (for example, in Petrodvorets), the so-called golden ratio was widely used, which is an equation where a larger segment of a straight line relates to a smaller one in the same way as their sum to a larger segment.

Pseudo-gothic - an artistic style, a kind of romanticism that spread in Europe in the late 18th - early 19th centuries. Influenced the architecture of park structures that imitated medieval Gothic buildings - "knightly" castles, fortresses, etc. (for example, in Alexander Park in Pushkin, in Alupka). In Russia, it acquired specific features under the influence of ancient Russian architecture (in the park in Tsaritsyn, etc.)

Rabatka - a flower garden in the form of a narrow long strip, placed along the alleys, paths is arranged by a multi-row planting of one or several types of summer houses, bulbous.

Equilibrium - one of the principles of constructing full-scale landscape paintings, according to which objects on one side of the visual axis must be balanced in one way or another by objects of the opposite side. Regular planning is characterized by symmetrical balance, while landscape planning is asymmetrical or dynamic. In this case, in addition to the aesthetic value of objects and their semantic meaning, also the visible dimensions of objects, their color and illumination, texture density, etc. are taken into account. For example, a powerful oak is balanced by a young birch grove. The construction of balanced landscape paintings involves the fixation of certain points of view.

Radial-star composition of the park - the intersection of several planning axes at one point, at which the center of the park ensemble (or one of the areas of the park) is formed. Architectural and landscape construction develops in all radial directions from the periphery to the center. Usually, ring connections are also organized, connecting the planning axes with each other (Pavlovsky Park).

Garden of Eden - the name of a small garden inside the walls of the monastery, which in ancient times had a symbolic meaning and was planted with "paradise" plants - apple trees, grapes, fragrant flowers and herbs.

Foreshortening - an unusual angular perspective on the object, when the axis of view is directed from below, above or to the side of it, creates the impression of dynamism in the garden and park landscape. Several successively opening angles allow you to more fully connect architectural structures, monuments, individual groups of trees, etc., with the surrounding background.

Plant community - a set of plants occupying a homogeneous area of ​​the earth's surface and are in close interaction with each other and with environmental conditions (phytocenosis).

Regular layout - reception in gardening art, which originated in ancient times (in Babylon) and was widely developed in the XVI-XVIII centuries. first in the gardens of Italy, France, Spain, later in other European countries and Russia, it is distinguished by the use of correct geometric contours, straight alleys, roads, symmetrical compositions, terraces, ordinary plantings of clipped trees, an abundance of sculpture, water devices (Upper Park in Petrodvorets, in Kuskovo, etc.).

Regular garden - the basis for the solution of such a garden is the method of regular planning.

Redina - a park massif with a low vertical crown density, which does not have undergrowth, is used for transitions to an open space (for example, around a meadow).

Reconstruction of ancient parks-monuments - partial reconstruction of the planning and spatial composition and individual structures in accordance with the new purpose of the park.The preserved green spaces are being renewed and new green spaces are created, developing the spatial organization of the park in relation to modern use. In addition to the old ones, new roads and alleys, engineering networks, reclamation systems are being laid, water bodies are being improved, etc. The appearance of the park is being restored according to the existing elements of the composition, special archaeological research, available descriptions and iconographic materials.

Recreational area - a specially allocated area in a suburban area, in the city, intended for recreation in order to restore strength and health. Urban recreational areas are gardens, suburban parks: forest parks, recreation areas. They are also considered as "buffer", that is, protective areas that reduce the excessive recreational load from the intensively visited historical parks-monuments (in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Riga, Tallinn and other cities).

Restoration of ancient parks-monuments - restoration, if possible in its original form, of the general planning and spatial composition of the park, its green spaces, architectural structures and small forms of historical value. Alleys and roads are being recreated with the organization of sightseeing routes and the improvement of surfaces, water spaces are being restored, partially preserved plant compositions. If necessary, instead of destroyed elements, new ones similar to them are created.

Rhythm - uniform alternation of elements of the composition, the order of repetitive visual and other impressions when moving through the park or consistently contemplating a landscape picture. The simplest manifestation of spatial rhythm is the alternation of trees, shrubs, sculptures, benches along the path of a pedestrian. Techniques for enriching the rhythmic pattern are diverse - increasing the number of elements participating in a multiple repetition (including both natural and artificial components), introducing a complicated rhythm, in which repetition is accompanied by a gradual increase or weakening of one or more features, the use of unpredictable compositional effects, "knocking down" the usual order of arrangement of objects, etc. Although in parks with landscape planning, rhythmic constructions are less pronounced than in regular ones, they also manifest themselves there by alternating meadows, groves, characteristic river bends, hills. For example, a certain compositional rhythm is "read" when moving along the banks of the river. Slavyanka in Pavlovsky Park, where architectural accents are linked to natural surroundings.

Rose garden - 1) a collection or decorative area (part of a park, garden) intended for growing and exhibiting various types and varieties of roses 2) thickets of wild rose hips.

Rosetta - a stylized drawing of a flower in a classic garden parterre.

Rose garden - a garden dominated by roses, the layout of such a garden is decided in a regular style. Known since ancient times (Persian paradises).

Rockery - a landscape gardening structure, which is a rocky area of ​​the park, where ornamental plants are combined with stones.

Romanticism - a style in gardening art, imitating idyllic rural and "heroic" landscapes. The romantic parks are characterized by artificial ruins, stone "chaos", "antique", "Gothic" buildings. Found reflection in gardens and parks of the 18th-19th centuries. in Russia (Pushkin, Pavlovsk, Tsaritsyno, a little later - Sofievka, Alupka, etc.).

Rotunda - a structure round in plan, covered with a dome and supported by stone or wooden columns. An element of decoration of landscape gardens and parks (for example, in the Nikolskoye estate).

Grove - an array of plantations, an element of a park landscape with an area of ​​1-1.5 hectares, consisting of trees, mainly of the same species (pine, beech, oak, birch groves), taking into account the mandatory visibility of the space between the trunks.

“Amusement woods are a great adornment of the garden, and no garden can be called perfect, if it does not have one or more. The amusement woods serve not only to decorate the garden, but also to cool down during the great heat of the sun: for they form a shade when, in hot hours of the daytime, other parts of the garden are inconvenient for a walk ”[Levshin, 1805-1808. Part I. S. 28].

Ruin - an element of landscape design in romantic parks of the 18th century, representing artificially created (rarely "real") ruins of ancient temples, tombs and other buildings (for example, in parks in Tsaritsyno, Sofiyivka).

“The ruins are objects that make up great beauty in the gardens and very expressively, especially contribute a lot to it in combination with other random decorations, consisting of various heaps, representing the irregularity of the landmaker, which, when they are disorganized, make considerable beauty: trees and woods, and their discontinuity also brings benefits. In general, however, the ruins pique our curiosity about the ancient state of the building. The imagination of an ancient dwelling brings to mind the immaculate pleasures that were enjoyed in those centuries ”[Lem, 1818. Part III. P. 8].

"Nothing excites our thoughts so conveniently, nothing makes our solitary reflections so useful, as the sight of such a structure, which time could not completely destroy" [Collection of new thoughts. 1799. Book VI, description to drawing I].

Rust - roughly hewn stone, was widely used in monumental garden and park structures. Rustic masonry - "rustic" resembles natural stone and thus, as it were, brings architecture closer to the natural environment.

Garden - a plot with cultivated plants. In the modern sense, an object of landscaping, which is an area of ​​at least 5-10 hectares, occupied by trees and shrubs, alleys, lawns, flower beds, small architectural forms. Usually it includes a stage, playgrounds, a children's sector, water bodies is a certain planning composition. Designed for short-term rest.

Winter garden - the space in the interior of buildings (hall, annex, heated galleries), artistically decorated with various, mainly tropical, plants in tubs, containers or planted in the ground or special pallets, also includes decorative elements: ceramics, stone, miniature pools, sculpture (for example, a garden winter in the Vorontsov Palace near Alupka).

Continuous flowering garden - a specially designated area in a park or botanical garden, where plants are arranged - herbaceous perennials, shrubs, trees, selected according to the timing of flowering throughout the year.

Garden and park system - a geographically and compositionally interconnected group of parks, gardens, forest parks, reservoirs, embankments and other open spaces that together with the surrounding buildings form a single architectural and landscape ensemble (for example, a park in Ostankino, the Main Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences, VDNKh, a television center complex, etc.) in Moscow, Summer Garden, Field of Mars, Mikhailovsky Garden, etc. in Leningrad, the water-green "diameter" of Kiev). Monument parks often become the historical nucleus of a developing landscape gardening system.

Gardening art - the art of designing and creating parks, forest parks, gardens, squares, boulevards and other landscaping objects. It is based on the ability to use the laws of composition, perspective, the theory of light and color when using natural (plant, soil, water, stone) and other materials as the field of art expresses a certain ideological content in artistic images.

“Garden art captivates our attention with a multitude of pleasant objects arranged in a shape combined with beauty: alleys, portals, idols, sculptural statues, gazebos, grottoes and other decorations produce such actions in us that the garden seems to extend beyond real objects.A skilled gardener, when arranging plants, imitating nature, produces by his order the beauty that, captivating us, delights us ”[Lem, 1818. Part III. P. 1].

“The art of decorating nature purely achieves its goal, is it possible together to excite our thoughts. The most beautiful solitude has its disadvantages: our weakness and lack of strength require that we mix rest after long reflections with those feelings that the spectacle of nature instills in us ”[Collection of new thoughts. 1799. Book VI, description to drawing I].

Garden and park landscape - a kind of cultural or natural landscape, transformed as a result of directed human activity, within which spatially organized natural elements (relief, water, vegetation, soil) in combination with artificial (small architectural forms and structures), rationally placed, form an interconnected and interdependent unity ...

Portable, mobile gardens - landscaping objects, representing small areas, decorated with portable containers, vases made of ceramics and concrete of various sizes with plants planted in them, mainly summer, climbing, shrubs.

Chiaroscuro - the ratio of light and shadow on objects, revealing their shape and affecting the perception of the landscape as a whole. The necessary ratios between light and shadow are achieved by the appropriate arrangement of tree and shrub groups, individual trees, lawns, reservoirs, buildings. Water spaces, glades, flower beds form light spots, trees (for example, spruce, fir) contribute to the creation of dark spots. The combination of light and dark spaces, the distribution of falling and own shadows leave a certain imprint on the nature of the composition, emphasize or hide the elements of the landscape. The correct organization of chiaroscuro is one of the leading tasks of creating a park (for example, a statue illuminated by the sun at the end of a dark alley, a wide shadow of a tree on the lawn as a frame for a distant landscape illuminated by the sun). Distinguish between the conditions of morning and evening lighting, radically different from each other (in the length and direction of shadows, lighting intensity, tonality, etc.).

Free layout - the technique of planning gardens and parks is characterized by the free placement of plantings and structures in space with the maximum use of the terrain, reservoirs, vegetation, assumes a landscape style in general, but may also include elements of regular compositions.

Serpentine - winding tracing of roads on steep slopes, in forest parks, parks, on the pass sections of hills and mountains.

Nurse - a garden chair for secluded observation of nature in Russian gardens of the 17th century. Iron wrought-iron armchairs - "sofas", "thrones" were preserved in everyday life in parks in the 18th-19th centuries.

Silhouette - a generalized outline, the outline of individual specimens of plants, groups, clumps against the background of the sky, water surface or urban development.

Symmetry - the reception of such a balanced arrangement of the elements of the ensemble in space, in which one half of it is, as it were, a mirror image of the other. It assumes the presence of a central axis in the form of alleys, parterre, canal, etc., which usually connects the space of the garden or park with the main building. Especially typical for compositions in a regular style (for example, in Petrodvorets). In landscape parks, the technique of dynamic symmetry is used more often, when the elements of the ensemble are balanced without mirroring the sides.

Sculpture - a type of spatial art that creates a three-dimensional image, carved from stone, cast from bronze, etc. In parks it has not only decorative, but often symbolic meaning, inspiring the landscape, giving it a certain ideological and artistic meaning (for example, in the Staraya Sylvia in Pavlovsky Park).Some types of sculpture are specific to parks, including fountain complexes, figures from clipped plants (see Topiary art).

“Touching monuments excite us. love of the arts constitute the best decoration of gardens, but in the choice and use of them one must act very judiciously. It is necessary that the objects surrounding the monument and the location it occupies correspond perfectly to the feelings that it can arouse in us. And therefore, only in gardens of extraordinary size, replete with various paintings, can several such monuments be erected, but where there are too many of them, we will always notice an unpleasant and often ridiculous contradiction ”[Collection of new thoughts. 1799. Book VIII, description to drawing IV].

The change of aspects is seasonal - changes in the appearance and state of plantings during the season, for example, the color of leaves from the beginning of their blooming to autumn leaf fall.

Tapeworm - the technique of placing single plantings in an open space (trees, shrubs or large herbaceous plants), which are distinguished by their architectonics or attract special attention.

“One standing tree distant from others has the greatest value in the eyes of the artist, for trees are the main materials that he must use to form his landscapes. Trees can be interesting separately, both by the variety of their size, thickness, beauty and flexibility, as well as color, and growth, and fluctuations. Each tree, in addition to its characteristic beauty, borrows a new pleasantness from the place in which it grows, and itself imparts beauty to the place itself. The benefit that one tree can deliver to the artist is not limited here, it connects distant places of the landscape and covers them with its shadow, there it closes unsightly and uneven avenues or stops the scattered gaze of the viewer there, gives variegation to a large meadow, separates pieces of trees there and connects them again. Many trees, planted next to each other or one after the other not so close as to almost represent the group, make different views, depending on the place in which they are planted, and pleasant decorations of a spacious meadow, and for this neither a meter nor a rope is needed. Curved lines are then preferred to all others, for they produce variety. A majestic tree, separately from others, surrounded by young trees of the same kind, can make pleasant impressions in us ”[Collection of new thoughts. 1799. Book XVIII, description to drawing I].

Style - in gardening art, a stable set of compositional planning, construction and agrotechnical principles and techniques prevailing in this historical period. It reflects the aesthetic ideals and artistic tastes of society. It is customary to distinguish between two main traditional styles: regular and landscape ("French" and "English").

Texture - the characteristic of the deciduous cover of trees and shrubs, determined by their size and location, the method of attachment to shoots and branches, the shape of the leaves. Large leaves form a coarse texture (oak, some poplars), small cut, clawed, feathery leaves - a finer and more graceful texture (willow, gledichia, sophora, ash, white acacia, larch). The degree of leaf mobility also affects the nature of the texture (aspen, willow). Textural differences between plants allow them to be grouped using contrasting or nuanced juxtapositions (trees with a fine texture of leaves against a background of foliage with a rough texture and vice versa, their alternation, equilibrium arrangement, etc.).

Terrace - a horizontal or slightly inclined platform of natural origin or artificially arranged, forming a ledge on a slope of the terrain, typical for gardens of antiquity, parks of the Renaissance and Baroque, located on the slopes along the ravines, in mountainous conditions (on the relief).

“Terraces in gardens are called planes raised up to a certain elevation and places at which the edges instead of a ledge and slope are surrounded by a stone wall in case of steepness, and in sloping ones they are covered and wrapped in turf. These walls are made partly for beauty, and partly so that the scarf does not take up space, which is sometimes very necessary. Is there a ledge not stone, but earthen, then it must be made of clay, not sandy soil and much more to kill and then, mowing, properly cover it with sod more closely, and mow it more often ”[Osipov, 1793. Part 2 S. 175-176].

Identity - one of the means of harmonization of a landscape gardening ensemble, in which the complete similarity of commensurable features, linear and volumetric dimensions of a certain spatial composition comes to the fore. The identical alternation of the architectural and other components of the park (for example, sculptures, fountains, molded trees along the alley, the pattern of flower beds, etc.) establishes their metric regularity in space, gives the composition the properties of balance and staticity. It is used mainly in the central and most solemn parts of garden and park ensembles, designed in a regular style.

Topiary art - the art of curly shearing of trees and shrubs that arose in antiquity, giving them geometric and fantastic shapes (for example, animals, architectural structures, etc.). Used, for example, laurel noble, biota, privet and other plants with a small texture of the crown, well tolerated haircut.

Point of perception - see viewpoint

Herbalist - pharmaceutical garden of the 17th century. (often at the walls of the monastery)

Trellis - vertical planar support (frame) for climbing plants (roses, clematis, etc.) It is made in the form of an openwork lattice made of wood, metal with various sizes of nests. bridges, stairs, at the same time serves as a fence.

Antennae - a small detail in the design of a garden parterre, which looks like a stylized stem, an elongated and curved leaf.

Crown texture - feature, structure of the structure of the surface of a tree, bush. Depends on the size of the leaves and their placement on the branches. For example, boxwood is characterized by a small texture of the crown, a large snowberry - catalpa, gray walnut, aromatic sumac.

The physiognomic principle of the composition of plant material - a harmonious combination of shape, texture, color and other external features of plants included in certain compositions, as a result of which they differ in aesthetic unity. When selecting plants according to the physiognomic principle, their ecological compatibility is also taken into account. In this case, one of the species should occupy a dominant position, and the others - concomitant or subordinate.

Flanking - symmetrical placement of any objects on the sides of the central compositional axis (for example, garden pavilions at the main house of the estate). The technique was widely used in regular park compositions.

Fleuron - one of the leading motives in the drawing of a classic garden parterre, resembles a whimsically curved branch of a plant and is located in the central part of the parterre.

Background - a surface or space on which the main elements of the composition, the external environment, the environment of the object stand out (in the park, architecture is revealed against the background of trees, a flower garden against the background of a lawn, etc.). An important compositional requirement is, on the one hand, a sufficient color, textured contrast of the background in relation to the object, and on the other, its relative homogeneity, which makes it possible to reveal the silhouette of the object, to emphasize its significance, without distracting the viewer from the main thing.

Molding - the type of trimming, haircuts in order to give the plant a certain habit that is not inherent in the plant (haircut in the form of a ball, cube, one-three-row hedgerow).

French style - see Regular style.

Functional organization of the territory - division of the park, recreation areas into parts intended for different types of use (see Zoning).

"Chaos" - a disorderly heap of wild rocks, large boulders. In romantic parks of the 18th-19th centuries. symbolized the abyss, the initial state of the material world, from which all that exists (for example, the Big and Small chaos in Alupka Park).

Flower arrays - large-scale flower arrangements with an area of ​​80-150 m2 and up to 1000 m2 in glades, in meadows, created from perennials. Arrays are usually performed in one tone (fiery red, white, golden yellow). Contrasting combinations of 2-3 tones are practiced. They are often located in the parterre of the park, in front of public buildings.

Cyclopean masonry - masonry of large stones, gigantic stone blocks. Monumental compositions with the use of such masonry are characteristic of parks of the period of romanticism of the late 18th - early 19th centuries. (Sofievka, Vasilevo, Mitino, etc.).

Circumference - low (sometimes semicircular) buildings for service purposes, surrounding the front yard in front of the palace and separating it from the park or street (for example, near the Catherine Palace in Pushkin).

Tea garden - the garden adjacent to the tea house is adapted for relaxation and tea ceremony (originally in Japan, China).

Attic (in Russian gardens of the 17th century) - an open wooden garden gazebo, usually on pillars.

Chalet - a country house in romantic parks of the 18th century, a garden pavilion that brought a pastoral tint to the landscape (Pavlovsk).

Trellis - a row of densely planted low-growing trees or shrubs, clipped into a wall or on supports. The support is a wooden or metal lattice or a wire stretched in several rows, attached to the posts.

“Trellises, both high and low, constitute an essential thing in gardens. They can be made from different trees and shrubs, and the more different and varied trellises in the garden, the better. Tall trellises are best of all spruce trees, because they do not lose their greenness even in winter. They are followed by lime, which is more common than all others, and then birch and mountain ash, made from acacia or pea tree and sometimes from bird cherry. Finally, they can be made from the most fruitful trees, that is, apple and pear trees, and require special education, supervision and diligence. All trellises are planted in dug ditches, and usually from young trees, which are cut very low for the thickest base of the trellis. However, in order to get more trellises in all perfection, one should use trees of two ages and plant tall with low ones through a tree, and then cut off their tops equally, that is, the tall ones are higher, and the lower ones are lower. This shearing should be repeated every year unchanged, and both in the top and in the fatness do not allow them to grow, otherwise it will not be possible to cope with them soon. All the beauty of the tapestries depends on a clean and diligent shearing ”[Osipov, 1793. Part 2. P. 203, 204].

Stam - leafless and branch-free part of the trunk from the root collar to the first skeletal branch of the crown. As a rule, standard trees are formed for alley plantings or as tapeworms.

Cracker - an entertainment device in the form of a fountain with a "surprise", was especially popular in Russian gardens of the 18th century. (for example, at the Monplaisir Palace).

Exot - a term used for introduced plants (usually subtropical or tropical) that do not grow wild in the area and are distinguished by valuable ornamental qualities (for example, araucaria in Alupka Park).

Emblematic sculpture - a sculpture that has an allegorical, conventional (sometimes moralizing) meaning, a symbolic image of an abstract concept, idea, natural phenomenon, etc. In the gardens of the 17th-18th centuries. it was customary to install whole complexes of such sculptures, for example, in the form of mythological creatures, nude human figures (for example, in the Summer Garden, Peterhof, Pavlovsk).

Hermitage - a building characteristic of the era of development of garden and park and palace art of the 17th-18th centuries, representing an architectural building located in the depths of the park, far from the palace, the main house of the estate and intended for secluded relaxation, reflection, as well as meetings, demonstration of collections, organization of concerts, etc. The original meaning of the term is the hermit's habitat.

Esplanade - wide undeveloped space in front of public buildings in squares, in large parks. On the esplanade, parterres, wide alleys with fountains and sculptures are arranged.

Ephemeris - temporary light structures in parks of the 18th century, designed for an illusory or fleeting effect (for example, a tent depicting a stone structure, a footbridge made of living trees, etc.).

Japanese garden - a traditional work of landscape gardening, characteristic of symbolic reproduction of nature in small spaces, fine elaboration of details, creating a certain state of contemplation for the visitor.

Landscape. Garden styles. Site design, planning. Photo. -

Style in landscape design is a certain interpretation of the basic rules and techniques of planning, equipment, and color of a small garden. The concept of style includes the planning solution of the garden, the use of certain plant forms and their combinations, the type of decorative paving, etc.

The choice of the style of the garden depends on the characteristics of the site (its configuration, environment, size) and is determined by the architectural style in which the main structures are built. But to a greater extent, this is a matter of taste and reflection of the lifestyle of the owner of the garden, and even more - a reflection of his worldview.

Modern styles of a small garden only come into contact with the style of gardens of the past. The boundaries of the great styles are blurred: trees grow slower than buildings, and the monuments of garden and park art of the past today include elements of different styles, and the regular style is adjacent or absorbed by the landscape. Growing up and aging, the garden passes not only through age boundaries, but also across style boundaries, acquiring national features in each country, since the garden, and especially the small garden, is associated with the way of life and the life of society.

It happens that it is no longer possible to create a garden, create gazebos, patios and a house in the same style. But you can supplement them with separate details, having achieved a certain unity.

Let's see what styles exist in the design of the garden.


Classic garden

Classics are classics: everything is clear, correct, time-tested. This style is suitable for those who love geometric lines and angles, as well as a sense of order. Usually, this style implies the presence of symmetry in the arrangement of individual components and planting of plants, which in one way or another imitate natural communities.... It is convenient to arrange such gardens in suburban areas, traditionally rectangular in shape. Very often there is one dominant in classical gardens. For example, there are herbaceous gardens. There are rose gardens, which are complemented by beautifully flowering plants and flower beds with bright annuals. There are also cobbled gardens, in which most of the space is decoratively lined with tiles, stones or bricks, and the plants are planted in tall flower beds or in containers. The traditional design of a classic garden provides for rectangular lawns, flat rectangular or round flower beds in the middle, colorful annual plants. With this design, the main attention is paid to vegetation, and not to structural elements, this option will appeal to lovers of decorative flowering, decorative deciduous plants and fragrant herbs.

Parterre gardens and labyrinth gardens

They resemble the famous French and Italian gardens of the 16th century. A parterre or flower garden contains many fanciful flower beds and decorative elements that create an intricate ornament that rises above ground level... Usually it was created in order to admire from the windows of the upper floors of the house. The maze garden was also originally invented for viewing from above, in which low-cut hedges form geometric or twisting patterns. The free space between evergreen shrubs is filled with beautifully flowering plants or, from a historical point of view, more correctly, colored sand or gravel.

There are many lovers of wildlife who are attracted not by the correct organization of space and clarity of lines, but quite the opposite - simplicity, naturalness, freedom. In this case, you should pay attention to the so-called free style gardens. A romantic wild corner, and even more so even a whole garden in a natural style, involves a minimum of work in the beds or in flower beds and a maximum of rest... Gentle human intervention will in no way spoil the lovely picture of the wild.

Rural garden

This type of garden is also called a summer cottage; it is decorated using natural, natural materials for paving and choosing plants in a special way. The landscape, as a rule, is not altered or made minimal.... Usually, everything is limited to the construction of a garden path, a staircase made of ordinary stones. The composition of plants is dominated by "old-fashioned plants" and even vegetables, which create a somewhat casual but very colorful effect. Here you can see a mixture of annuals and perennials, especially those that reproduce by self-sowing and grow in a motley mess.

The garden is a corner of wildlife

Despite the seeming contradiction, the concepts of "garden" and "corner of the wild" are quite compatible. Lovers of this style sometimes do nothing with their sites. Plants grow wildly, various living creatures settle in them, for example, birds, bees, butterflies, lizards. Water plays an important role in attracting birds, mammals and insects, as well as flowering annuals and perennials. Animals are also willing to visit orchards. However, even such a corner can be quite well-groomed.

We reproduce the forest landscape on a large plot. This is a good solution for long and narrow plots where the "classic" will not fit. For this purpose, fast-growing deciduous trees with a light, thin crown, such as birch, are best suited. Preference in such gardens is given to plants that bloom violently in spring, and the gaps between trees are filled with groundcover and bulbous plants. The forest landscape allows you to obscure the unsightly view of the neighboring houses or utilities surrounding the site... Another positive feature is that it is undemanding to care for. The imitation of the natural landscape allows you to create many different habitats, from dry gravel flower beds to wet shores of water bodies. Such gardens change their appearance from season to season and exist as long as there is a harmonious balance between all its parts, including between wild nature and cultures, interspersed into the overall picture by the will of man.

Thematic gardens

Themed gardens are spreading faster as more people travel the world. We mentally transfer much of what we notice while traveling to distant countries into our garden. Meanwhile, the gardening traditions of distant countries have found their way to us since ancient times. Often, we do not even suspect about the foreign origin of some plants from my grandmother's garden. Each style has its own charm, special charm... Of course, climate constraints are inevitable. But the various accessories that are sold everywhere as souvenirs can do a good job for your garden.

The undisputed leaders among themed gardens are Japanese, with their harmony and sense of peace. They, like the Chinese, are classified by subject matter in East Asia. Another popular topic is the Middle East. Noble grace, seasoned with a spicy blend of heavy, sweet aromas of jasmine and roses, combined with light decoration - this is what we used to call the spirit of the East. We recognize the Mediterranean by the walls made of flat natural stone, semicircular benches, clay ovens, an abundance of sunlight and warmth. South America is a siesta, calmness and equanimity on the one hand and overflowing temper on the other. The Latin American character is also reflected in the garden design: the calm green of the ornamental yucca leaves, the function of both pelargonium and daylily, combined with unexpected effects from the bright spots of flowers. Mauritania - here the mysterious exotic of the East is mixed with the features of the European-Andalusian garden art. This garden caresses all senses: sight - with bright colors of flowers, sense of smell - with tart and sweet aromas of incense and roses, taste - with fragrant pulp of strawberries and olives. The geometric shapes of straight paths and stairs, round flower beds and rectangular pools give the garden a clear structure. Scandinavia is for those who love nature and prefer a simple yet cheerful design. Green lawns and endless distances are characteristic features of the Scandinavian landscape. And also a hedge, tall grass on the lawn and undersized birches or pines along the edge of the lawn, a cheerful splash of fountain jets.

It is sometimes difficult to choose "your" style, because there are many factors that cannot be ignored: climate, soil, relief, size and configuration of the site... Turn to the professionals and they will help you make your garden unique and unlike any other.

Let us dwell in more detail on the various types of thematic gardens.

French garden

The garden, made in a regular or French style of landscape design, is planned along the main single axis of the composition, the arrangement of all its elements and structures is subject to strict geometry and symmetry.

This type of garden is characterized by an indistinct relief, the whole composition is located in one plane.... It is also typical that the territory is decorated with terraces ending in retaining walls. The terraces are connected by stairs, which are one of the main decorative elements of the garden. The main entrance of the park is located at the bottom of the garden, so that the grandeur of the entire composition is revealed to the visitor right from the entrance. The garden is dominated by plants that lend themselves well to shearing and retain their shape for a long time. In the conditions of central Russia, they are suitable for these purposes from conifers: thuja, gray spruce, prickly spruce from deciduous: privet, euonymus, hawthorn, barberry, cinquefoil, cotoneaster, spirea, maple, decorative plums and apple trees, small-leaved linden.

The use of the French garden layout is appropriate if the country residence is intended to receive guests who need to amaze with sophistication, taste and prosperity... However, it should be borne in mind that creating a garden in a regular style requires relatively large spaces and the continuous work of a professional gardener in landscaping and landscaping.

English garden

An English or landscape garden assumes naturalness in the placement of elements and great smoothness of lines, imitating the natural landscape: winding paths, picturesque ponds, "natural" compositions of plants that are planted in tiers (trees, shrubs, undergrowth, flowers).

This style of garden design is characterized by a pronounced alternation of flat areas, hills, slopes, ravines, natural reservoirs, the absence of straight lines and axes... Of paramount importance is the thoughtful organization of the composition of trees and shrubs, the combination of the color and texture of the leaves, the distribution of light and shade in the garden. Mainly used species of trees and shrubs growing in the area. All reservoirs, even of artificial origin, should have a pronounced natural character: an uneven coastline, natural framing (pebbles, sand, near-water plants). The winding paths unite the individual elements of the garden. The paths are made of natural materials: wild stone, cuts from tree trunks, a lawn that is resistant to trampling.

The landscape style is most often used by landscape architects when planning the landscape design of modern country estates... The creation of a park in a landscape style requires delicate taste, a sense of proportion, and a good knowledge of the native nature.

Chinese garden

The Chinese garden is characterized, first of all, by the fact that all of its individual architectural forms bear symbolic meaning. All buildings must be inscribed in a skillfully crafted natural landscape, including lakes and hills. In the Chinese garden, a central composition is built, around which all the others are placed, as if obeying it... The main task of the creator of such a garden is to find the starting point from which the most beautiful landscape opens up. The most expressive elements of the landscape are distinguished by characteristic curved bridges, gazebos, pagodas, zigzag staircases, always painted in bright colors (red, emerald green, yellow).

In China, the basis of a harmonious society is obedience to the laws of the universe. The study of these laws and their systematization were later formulated as the laws of Feng Shui, which are very popular in the modern world. These laws are reflected in landscape design.

The construction of the landscape design of a Chinese garden using the feng shui method is based on the projection of psychological portraits of the owners onto the landscape around them.... A constructive foundation for the garden is being created, which will be visible both in winter and in summer: paths, terraces and retaining walls, fountains or artificial reservoirs, sculptures and benches, rotundas and gazebos. For greater beauty, the surface should be embossed. Placing small architectural forms, the territory is divided into certain zones, accentuating certain moments of the garden. All elements of garden architecture should correspond to the style of the house and the site, compositionally combining and complementing them.

Balance is key in feng shui. Mountain, water and plant elements should be located fairly close to each other. It is undesirable to place sharp objects or landscape elements next to paths, as, according to the laws of feng shui, this creates tension and leads to stress. Winding or circular paths in the garden are preferred over straight, elongated paths. To organize a garden according to the laws of feng shui, three elements of landscape design are necessary and sufficient: mountains, water and vegetation itself. Mountains can be replaced with mounds of beds, tall trees and shrubs. Water, symbolizing wealth, can be embodied in streams, ponds and fountains, and, in extreme cases, in a "stream" of stones.

Muslim garden

The plan for the organization of a Muslim garden is formed from one or more squares. The use of the number four in the layout of such a garden is mandatory.... The larger square is divided into four smaller ones. The strict geometry of the layout is emphasized by paths, plants and water channels.In the centers of the squares, there are often small fountains or pools lined with marble, multicolored ceramic tiles and glass, which are the main decoration of the entire garden. Islam gives a special, sacred role to water. Water is the source of life, it nourishes life and gives purification. For Muslims, water symbolizes paradise, and without it the Garden of Eden is unthinkable.

This form of the garden is a reflection of the legend of the Garden of Eden, from which four rivers flow in four directions. Thus, the garden is divided into four parts. The squares of the Muslim garden should symbolize the presence of Allah and his blessings.
In Spain, which was under the influence of the Arabs for several centuries, a new type of garden was formed on the basis of Muslim canons, which later became known as Moorish. The relatively small internal courtyards (patios) were original rooms in the open air. Often, such a garden was framed by galleries entwined with grapes or climbing roses. Like Muslims, in Moorish gardens, water became the main decoration of the garden, enclosed in a variety of forms.... Trees and shrubs were not trimmed and planted freely. A large number of flowers and herbs were a feature of the landscape design of the Moorish gardens. Ornamental paving of spaces free from plantings was widely used, which gave the gardens a special grace and sophistication. In general, the sophistication of Moorish gardens is based on the harmony between bodies of water and decorative architectural elements within an often complex ensemble of enclosed courtyards.

Japanese garden

Since ancient times, the Japanese have been in awe of flowers, and it is not surprising that they created gardens of extraordinarily exquisite beauty. Today, Japanese gardens are divided into three types: hilly, flat, and tea.

The purpose of a Japanese landscape garden is to create a miniature model of a landscape, flat or hilly, always with ponds, an island on the lake, with bridges, originally placed stones and decorative stone lamps that create unusual lighting... Dwarf pines, junipers, rhododendrons against the background of moss, stone and water attract the eye for a long time, the beauty of the landscape reveals itself to the viewer gradually. Another feature of the Japanese garden is luggage - winding chains of stones for crossing streams and channels. An amazing scenic effect results from the thoughtful reflection of the most interesting places in the landscape in the water.

Garden of fragrances

This is a special kind of garden with a very interesting history.... In the old days, on the territory of Western European monasteries, square courtyards with a cruciform articulation of paths and a geometric pattern of plantings were broken. Naturalists and naturalists used these places for the cultivation of medicinal and later aromatic herbs. The four sectors of the courtyard were planted with plants either according to the cardinal directions that were their homeland, or according to the use of herbs: medicinal, spicy, beautiful, and pleasantly smelling. This tradition has predetermined the emergence of not only rabatki, but also a closed "garden of smells".

And today you can equip a cozy fragrant corner in a well-lit part of the garden. To emphasize the chamber spirit of the territory of pleasant smells, it is necessary to isolate it with a high hedge or a garden wall.... The selection of ornamental plants is dictated by the principle of continuous flowering, as well as the ability of some flowers to emphasize each other's aromas.

The presence of such a corner in your garden will testify to the owners' love for elegant exoticism.

Gazebos as part of landscape design

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Landscaping is a new concept.

The word design in translation from English means drawing, drawing, project, but at the same time the design process itself, and, moreover, its result is a project. Together with the term "landscape" known from geography, landscape design involves the design of the landscape, the organization of space in the open air and is part of the broader concept of "landscape architecture" - the level that determines the thoroughness of detailing, the possession of various methods of use natural materials: earth, water, vegetation. Landscaping is also the design of garden structures, artificial turf and small architectural forms.

By purchasing a plot, we get, at best, a plot of land with wild plants. Time passes and this site turns into a cozy corner, created on the basis of design ideas and in accordance with the tastes of the owner. There can be many options for landscape design, and they depend on various factors. The nature of the area, the traditions of the region, tastes, design skills and financial capabilities of the owner play a dominant role in these issues. There is no and cannot be an ideal garden, and there should not be two similar individual gardens. This would make life much more boring. Therefore, such a concept as landscape design appeared, which is firmly included in our vocabulary. Unfortunately, not everyone understands the seriousness and significance of this issue, which occupies a noticeable place in the modern culture of many countries of the world. Developing intensively, taking into account the aspects of the culture of individual nations and peoples, landscape design acquires a certain trend of international orientation.

What rules must be followed so that the garden plot does not turn into a chaotic set of unrelated or unsuccessfully connected parts-elements? What are the laws, techniques, secrets of craftsmanship that a landscape designer uses when operating with natural materials?

There are two options for design search. The first option is to design a new site, where it is supposed to erect buildings, build small architectural forms and plant fruit and ornamental plants. That is, to create a complex "house and garden" - to make your long-term dream come true. In the second case, the owner acquires a plot with a built house and auxiliary premises and complements it with a cozy garden, while creating a single complex that can brighten up our not always easy everyday life. After all, a house without a good garden with its cozy design becomes boring and destitute, turns into an objective necessity - a roof over your head. "The garden," as the English philosopher Francis Bacon wrote in the 16th century, "is the purest of all human pleasures. It refreshes the spirit of man most of all. Without it, buildings and palaces are just rough creations of his hands." And whichever way a landscape designer goes, he must necessarily use four basic principles of organizing garden architecture: using three-dimensional space, using the materials used to the maximum advantage, understanding human needs and taking into account local fauna.

The purpose of this work is to find out what landscape architecture is, to study the laws and techniques of landscape design, to get acquainted with some elements of garden design.

In preparing this work, books on landscape design were used (the list is given at the end of the work).

1 Landscaping as garden art

As you know, the beginning of garden design is associated with the representation of paradise on Earth, therefore, the desire of a person to create a paradise near his home does not fade away. Each nation has its own idea of ​​paradise, depending on religious trends and trends, the natural conditions of a particular country.And no matter how a person calls his house, from ancient times to modern times, "castles", "fortresses", "palaces" or cottages - they are all inextricably linked with Nature, with the desire for beauty. We can judge the beauty of the ancient gardens by the old paintings and frescoes that have survived to our time. For example, the painting in the Garden Room in the House of Libya in Rome, executed in the 1st century BC, reflects the idealized image of a heavenly place. With the change of eras, the idea of ​​beauty also changed. Gardens are no exception here.

The high level of gardening art in the ancient period was based exclusively on the developed culture of gardening of the ancient East, which was one of the foundations of the world culture of gardening art in general. The ancient Romans and Greeks used the garden as a dwelling place as often as the house itself. The Gothic understanding of imagery was not very conducive to the further development of the art of the garden. A characteristic feature of the spatial solution of the Gothic gardens was their geometric division into areas of regular shape.

The Renaissance was of great importance for the development of gardening art. New tendencies arose in the development of thought, in the striving of the individual for freedom, for the joys of life. The views on understanding the place of the garden in human life have also changed. Gardens become not only a natural component of the magnificent estates of feudal lords, but also occupy a significant place in urban developments. Instead of hard-to-reach fortresses, the construction of castles begins. And the limited space, cramped medieval fortress gardens are now being replaced by extensive castle gardens and parks.

The Renaissance gardens were reminiscent of "green offices" in which one could retire among the fragrant plants in a beautiful gazebo. Each such site was planned according to a single theme intended only for him. Such "offices" were connected by decorative passages with alleys, stairs, arches and other garden structures.

During the Baroque period (late 16th and early 17th centuries) sculptures (including those formed from green plants) became fashionable in gardens, and more attention was paid to the color scheme of the garden landscape. This period is remarkable for its magnificent forms, rich decoration and luxury. One of the most important contributions to garden art from the Baroque period is the transition of the garden into the surrounding landscape. This was achieved either through the creation of special viewing platforms overlooking the corresponding site, or by the actual merging of the garden with the surrounding landscape by arranging alleys, paths, etc.

The era of classicism in garden buildings and planning is distinguished by strict geometric shapes and restraint. It should be noted that the change in styles did not happen spontaneously. Styles piled on top of each other, gradually replacing older trends. Especially such a jumble of styles became apparent in the 19th century, where "materialism" and adaptation to a particular style began to prevail. A distinctive feature of the architecture of this era was the Art Nouveau style. And only when the spirit of the English style of gardens and parks took possession of Europe, the correct attitude of man to nature was formed.

The 20th century (especially its end) is distinguished by revolutionary transformations in the architecture of buildings and the garden landscape. New, absolutely fantastic designs appeared in garden architecture. The home interior began to approach the garden landscape, the boundaries between them shifted and became less noticeable.

Traditions and cultures of various peoples had a great impact on the formation of styles. Especially often, architects resorted to oriental architecture, in which China and Japan played a dominant role. Japanese bonsai (the art of growing plants in vessels) and Chinese landscape Feng Shui have been used by designers of all times and peoples.The secret of this art (or a whole science) lies in a deep knowledge of the laws of nature, which are used in the formation of a landscape site. Competent planning of premises and garden plots, the close relationship of their placement and location relative to the cardinal points, the choice of shape relative to the terrain - these are the hallmarks of Feng Shui.

This knowledge of the laws of nature helps to use them as correctly as possible in the formation of the landscape. For example, a place where nettles and thistles grow are considered very bad, as these plants usually germinate in unfavorable conditions. An important role is played by the direction of the entrance to the house or to the site relative to the ends of the world, the orientation of the main luminaries and natural phenomena is taken into account.

Special attention is paid to the entrance to the territory of the site, as it separates two conventional zones. Crossing this border, an ordinary citizen becomes a master. Therefore, the gate is a symbol of his well-being and luck. It is good when the gate is made in the form of an arch, that is, rounded at the top. The arch symbolizes a rainbow - "heavenly gates" and brings good luck to the owner of the site. The arches separating the individual zones of the site have exactly the same meaning. They can be stone, wood, metal, or green spaces. It all depends on which sector of the site the arch is located in. In the southern sector, the arch is made of wood, in the southwest - brick or stone, and in the western sector - it is desirable to make it of metal.

Placing a house on a plot is also very important. Its facade should look to the south, east or southeast, the less favorable direction of the facade to the southwest or west, and undesirable north and northwest direction. Beneficial energy penetrates through the entrance to the house, therefore, its splendor and solidity are important.

Garden buildings and flower beds are an important attribute of the site. Flowers should have a different shade, but they should also be placed in zones. So, red flowers in the southern sector of the garden bring good luck, and white and yellow colors are better for the west and northwest. In the east and southeast, any plants are appropriate, except for thorny plantings, which can bring unwanted (thorny) changes.

Probably, now it is impossible to determine exactly where the first gazebos and other garden structures intended for recreation appeared. It is known for certain that in Ancient Egypt, wooden gazebos were built many centuries BC. Small, lightweight garden houses with sliding doors, reminiscent of gazebos and awnings, have been built in China and Japan for many centuries. Sheds, gazebos, pergolas, which helped to shelter from the rays of the scorching sun, have always been popular among the southern peoples. Such structures were especially popular in the Mediterranean countries, which were reflected in the Greek porticos and Roman colonnades of the Renaissance. Pergolas without walls, having the shape of a square or octagon, have been built for many centuries in England and the Netherlands. As a rule, they were built in the most prominent place and were the center of a luxurious garden or park, decorating it with their forms and architecture. Such gazebo gazebos were borrowed by many European countries and became widely known throughout the world.

From Europe, the architecture of the pavilions migrated to America along with the first settlers. Initially, they were placed in gardens and manor parks of only wealthy people as a symbol of prosperity and connection with Europe. The pavilions were also not spared from Russia, which was greatly influenced by the culture of France and England. Almost no rich manor could do without a garden pavilion, in which our noble ancestors spent their leisure time. Together with gazebos, decks, awnings, terraces adjacent to the house or built on a hillside and having a boardwalk were widely used. Famous architects worked on these structures, creating truly works of art.We can judge the appearance of the garden structures of that time by the numerous art canvases that have survived to this day. And nowadays there are many lovers of architectural forms of the past centuries. But in the architecture of the 20th century (especially in its second half), a revolutionary shift took place. This was facilitated by the emergence of new modern technologies and materials in construction (plastic and aluminum profiles, various types of modern roofing, etc.). Therefore, in the gardens and manor parks of our contemporaries, you can find buildings of a wide variety of shapes and styles. But they all pursue one goal - to create a cozy recreation area in the bosom of nature.

2 Zlaws and techniques of landscape design

For many centuries, the masters who created the gardens and parks adhered to the laws and rules prompted by nature and common to other arts. In the gardens, architecture and painting, poetry and music were concentrated, merged together, but the laws of landscape construction turned out to be closest to the laws of building space, that is, to the laws of architecture. Therefore, we are talking about the art of organizing the surrounding space by means of a natural landscape as about the landscape architecture of a garden.

The natural landscape is formed by five main components, closely interconnected with each other: land, water, air masses, vegetation and fauna. We know that there are very few corners left on earth where the landscape has been preserved in its original form - most of the landscapes are artificially created by man. Modern country estates are also man-made landscapes. Therefore, when landscaping a garden plot, it is important to use the techniques and laws of landscape architecture - after all, these are the laws of harmony and beauty, the laws of nature itself.

The image of nature on the canvas of a painting or on the plane of the wall in the interior is an illusion of real space. Many paintings have come down to us, depicting individual landscapes or once existing gardens and parks. It is known from history that there were also “trick” paintings that were used in ancient gardens in order to visually expand the space of the garden. Decorators painted walls and fences. Such are the wall paintings of the "Horse Garden" in the Kremlin, the painting of the Gonzago Gallery in Pavlovsky Park. And, on the contrary, on the basis of landscapes invented by living scribes, even fantastic ones, nicky gardens created real landscapes in parks and gardens. This did not limit the interaction of landscape gardening art with painting: in both arts, the laws of perspective and color, the laws of composition of space - the illusory and the real - operate.

Composition generally refers to the arrangement of various forms in space in combinations that create a harmonious unity. In other words, placing plants and structures in the garden, we must achieve such a ratio that would be pleasing to the eye, would cause a feeling of harmony. The interrelation of space, plane and volumes is expressed by the volumetric-spatial composition and is based on the general laws of building the landscape of a small garden.

When solving compositional problems, it is necessary to take into account a number of properties that spatial forms have. They are analogous to the properties identified in architecture, which also operates with spatial forms. This includes: the geometric appearance of the form, its size, mass, texture, position in space, color and illumination (chiaroscuro).

The proportions of forms according to their properties are the means of composition. The most important of them are: unity and subordination, proportions, laws of linear and aerial perspective. They determine the ratio of spatial forms by position in space, size, color, illumination, etc. This also includes such techniques as symmetry, asymmetry, balance, rhythm, contrast, nuance, scale etc.

All these properties and their relationships are closely related to each other, and it is almost impossible to distinguish between the main and secondary ones, and even more so to separate them. They are non-discontinuously linked. The meaning of these properties and their ratios in the composition is determined in each specific case.

2.2 Pperspective

Perspective is the visual change of objects as they move away from the observer.

The laws of perspective were discovered by the masters of the Renaissance, who developed a mathematically accurate system for constructing space. Leonardo da Vinci wrote that the theory of linear perspective explains the phenomena of visible forms, sizes and colors, depending on their position in space.

Distinguish between linear and aerial perspective.

Both in nature and in the picture, we notice how parallel lines receding from us converge on the horizon. In this case, all vertical lines remain vertical, decreasing in size - the farther they are from the observer, the smaller. You may also notice that the shorter plants in the foreground may appear taller than the taller ones in the distance. This effect is called linear perspective.

Aerial perspective is the change in the brightness and clarity of objects, as well as their color, as they move away from the point of view.

Spatial color changes are also referred to as color (vivid) perspective.

Unlike painting with its conventional image of nature in landscape art, the depth of space is reality, and the use of the laws of perspective (reducing the size of objects with their distance, softening the contrast of light and shadow, changing the saturation of color and the appearance of a blue haze enveloping the background of the landscape) helps to create the necessary illusion of deepening or, conversely, a reduction in space.

The perspective includes the point of view, the object or objects that are subject to observation, and the intermediate field. All three of these components must create unity and are usually thought of as one whole. If some components already exist and are proposed to be retained, others must be resolved accordingly. The perspective and associated functional areas of the garden should be similar. If the perspective is designed as an extension of a space or functional area, care should be taken to interconnect their character and scale. For example, a perspective emerging from the terrace of a country house can hardly have a worthy completion in the form of an element of an industrial landscape. For perspective, the basic principle is that its completion justifies its beginning, and the beginning justifies the end.

Perspective is a persistent guiding magnet for the eye. Perspective can cause feelings of movement or calmness. Some prospects are deliberately static. They are intended to be viewed from one specific position and are visible in their entirety only from that point. Others open from several points when moving around the garden.

The perspective is framed by three planes - top, horizontal and vertical. Vertical planes - the "walls" of the garden - can be created by clipped foliage of a bush, rows of trees or a fence. The plane or planes of the base - "garden floor" - can have a slope, can be flat or built in the form of terraces with grass, water, paved or other surface. The upper plane - the "ceiling" - is the sky or the canopy of the foliage of spreading trees in the garden.

In order to visually increase the depth of space, when the size of the garden is limited, you can consciously create a system of intermediate plans from plants (they are called curtains) that direct the gaze to the horizon.

In nature, the color of plants is endlessly and constantly changing, the color of the earth's surface also participates in the general color of the garden: black steam or lawn, paving paths and playgrounds, the color of the sky, including that reflected in the water, and, of course, the color of the house, barn, garden furniture.

It is very important that the impression of excessive variegation, chaos of colors is not created in the garden.

When choosing a color for any architectural structure, the base plane should be kept in earth tones - in shades of clay, stones, gravel, sand, forest humus and moss. Blue and blue-green tones of water, reminiscent of its changeable surface, are used on the plane of the base or paths rarely and only in those places where passage is undesirable. The colors of the trunk and branches of the tree are communicated to the structural elements of the walls and roof - black, brown, dark gray, red and ocher. The surface of the walls in the depths borrows its shade from the thicket of bamboo, hanging lashes of wisteria, streaming sunlight, pine twigs and intertwining branches of maple. The colors of the ceiling should resemble the airiness of the sky and change from deep azure blue or watery green to hazy cloudy whitish or soft gray tones.

There is a system that sets one primary color for any structure. All other colors in relation to the main one will be its "twigs, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits." With this scheme, you can feel a coherent organic system of color, like the one possessed by a tree, a mountainous area, a river valley, or any element or object of nature.

In the practice of modern landscape design, three basic rules of color harmony are used to help you compose compositions from plants:

any color against a contrasting background is perceived more saturated, a combination of contrasting colors can increase the overall saturation of drawings

when some colors are combined, the feeling of their saturation decreases, and the more, the closer the colors are located in the color wheel

the contrast is the stronger, the greater the difference in lightness and saturation.

Contrasts can be color (a combination of different tones with equal brightness) and luminance (a combination of different brightness, equal in color).

Colors lying at diametrically opposite ends of the color wheel are contrasting (blue - orange, yellow - violet, cyan - red, green - magenta).

2.4 Basic concepts of site planning

The correct layout is one of the most important tasks facing the owner of the site. Its solution should be approached with great care and should never be solved hastily. And regardless of whether it is a garden plot or a backyard, the decision on the formation of the landscape and its design should be approached comprehensively.

So what is site planning? First of all, this is the correct placement of buildings and structures on it, the division of the site into separate zones, taking into account the interests of each family member. They begin planning on a blank sheet of paper, on which the direction of the cardinal points and the conditional boundaries of the site should be indicated. This will help determine the direction of sunlight, dominant winds and other natural phenomena. Why is it so important to consider the direction of the heavenly bodies? The fact is that during the day the direction of the sun's rays changes, and shadows from buildings and trees move along with them. This circumstance should be taken into account when locating recreation sites, choosing a planting site for plants with different susceptibility to solar energy. After all, some plants love sunlight, while others feel great in the shade, and their flowering and fruiting capabilities depend on this. With the right layout, all of them can choose a place for favorable flowering and reproduction. Before depicting anything on a blank sheet of paper, you need to mentally imagine the future site, with all its buildings and plants. This will save you from possible finishing touches and alterations, which can sometimes cost a lot of material and physical costs. It is better to make several sketches, choosing the most suitable one.Some people prefer to make the garden in such a way that, looking at it, one cannot say that it was created by human hands. Others like the strict layout of the garden and landscaping with straight paths covered with natural or artificial stones, i.e. the so-called regular layout. It's a matter of taste. The main thing is that the layout of the site should take into account the methods of convenient management of the economy, the correct organization of recreation for all family members, fire-prevention measures and the unhindered access of transport. And all this should be done with minimal physical and material costs. When developing a layout, you need to not only take care of individual cozy corners. It is important that they are combined into a single style, turning the site into a real oasis, creating one harmonious whole.

Places to rest in the garden are chosen so that they meet their purpose and can be used in any weather. On cooler days, the best place to relax is one that is located on the sunny side and protected from the wind. In the heat, they usually try to rest in the shade, and when it rains, they hide from it on a covered terrace or in a gazebo. At the same time, they also strive to ensure that everything around the resting place meets the requirements of aesthetics, so that there is always a beautiful view before your eyes. In a quiet area of ​​a garden or a manor park, among greenery and flowers, gazebos are usually installed. It is good when the gazebo is closed from the prevailing winds by the slope of the hill or the backgrounds of trees, and there is a playground or a small pond nearby. A coniferous or rocky garden, a rose garden or a mono garden, wild and fruit shrubs can surround the gazebo. For this, gardeners grow special green areas, flower beds of continuous flowering, and even Japanese and Chinese gardens, which have begun to come into fashion in recent years. In this case, the gazebo is placed in such a way that there is an open space on the side of the entrance. It is important that extraneous noise, dust and exhaust gases from passing cars do not enter the recreation area. Therefore, the gazebo is fenced off from public roads with a hedge, supplemented by a pergola with climbing plants.

The placement of recreation places, of course, depends on the location of the house itself on the site. The resting place, located on the same level as the house, provides the best connection between the home and the garden. On a hilly site, there are two possibilities: either build a gazebo at the level of the lower floors of the house, or build a ladder along which it will be possible to go down or ascend to a resting place located at the level of the garden.

If the site has a park area or its borders are adjacent to a forest, then the gazebo should be placed exactly in this place. There are many options for the location of gazebos and other design elements of the site in the garden landscape. Therefore, the layout of a small garden as a whole should be distinguished by laconicism - simplicity of techniques, naturalness, but even with the smallest size of the site, it is important to ensure the convenience of using the territory. To this end, you need to think over the zoning of the garden area, highlighting several functional areas. They are conventionally called so: entrance, production, economic and recreation area.

3 Egarden decoration elements

3.1 Gates and wickets

Gates and wickets are an integral part of all fences. It is necessary to try to maintain them in the same style as the fence; according to their composition, the gates and wickets should be in harmony with the house and the fence.

The width of the wicket is equal to the width of the walkway facing the house. The width of the gate should not exceed more than 3 m. Sometimes, instead of a wicket and a gate, one common gate is made. The gate must not open to the outside.

Metal and wooden gates are more suitable for a hedge fence, and only wooden gates for a wooden fence. With a mesh fence, the gate is placed from a mesh, for which a frame is made of corner iron or wooden slats.Gate posts can be wooden, natural stone or brick. A reinforced concrete core is made at the stone pillars. To make the gate stand out a little, the pillars for them are chosen larger than for the fence. In large gardens, where the house is far from the street, the gate posts may be higher than the fence line. It is advisable to place cover slabs hewn from stone on the pillars.

The gates and wickets can be located next to or at some distance from each other, depending on the location of the paths and the area for entering the site. Their sizes can be any, but it is better if the width of the gate is 2.7-3 m., Wickets - 1-1.2 m.

If, according to the project, the entrance and the entrance are in one place, then the wicket can be built inside the gate, this will slightly reduce the cost of material. And one more thing: the gate is the front door, so it must be equipped with a bell button, and the bell must be routed to the house.

3.2 Gazebos and gazebos

A gazebo is a decorative building with glazed windows and a door that has an attractive appearance. Gazebos serve as a decoration of the garden, a quiet place for secluded relaxation and admiring nature. Convenient location, beautiful design and decoration are equally important for the gazebo. Belvederes are similar in purpose to saddles, but they either have lattice walls, or there are no walls at all.

For the construction of tree arbors, pine, spruce or wood are used. The shape and size of the gazebo depends on tastes and preferences, the composition of the family and the purposes for which this structure is intended. There are two main types of flat-sitters - a resting gazebo and a flat-bed room. The latter is distinguished by fewer windows and an open veranda. These "garden rooms" are used as a summer reading room or as a habitat for an unpopulated or overly busy family member who needs to concentrate and work alone. The gazebo is smaller and smaller. almost completely glazed. Leisure gazebos can be made in the form of a rural house, chalet, Chinese beggar, and, if the area of ​​the site allows, make a small patio in front of the entrance. The most popular and practical type of gazebo is with a two-pitched roof and glazed windows, you really want to make it with furniture.

Belvedere is a mysterious and unusual word, which is explained by the history of this elegant, but somewhat specific structure. A hundred years ago, the belvederes were very popular: only from the belvedere landowners had the right to admire their estates, by the way, the word gazebo so it is translated from Italian - a beautiful view. But time passed, tastes and fashions changed, and belvederes, as well as beautiful views, were forgotten. But now the delicate belvederes, as if hovering above the ground, are returning to our gardens. The appearance of the belvedere has also changed - now it is a structure without walls, with lattice support posts and a solid roof. Belvederes are built from wood, aluminum and even plastic. Bel-bucket can be used for its intended purpose - for admiring the landscape or as a place for secluded relaxation. A belvedere entwined with clematis and climbing roses - a dream of romantics and poets - will decorate any garden. The aluminum openwork construction will appeal to modern people.

3.3 Ddecorative garden structures for vertical landscaping

Vertical gardening of the garden area gives it a unique charm. With the help of this simple technique, they decorate the approaches to the house and other buildings, create shadow zones that save from the scorching rays of the sun, give the site a unique, only inherent look. Vertical garden structures include pergolas, trellises, trellises, various arched structures, the construction of which does not require capital expenditures.The number of combinations here can be quite significant, and it is almost impossible to describe them all.Therefore, let us dwell on some examples of the construction of these light garden structures.

Arch you can put it against the wall and place a bench in the resulting niche, or arrange the entrance to the garden or to one of its zones in the form of an arch. Arches are flat, with a semicircular vault, with a two-pitched vault, lancet or Gothic, from hedges and round-shaped from bricks.

Pergolas - lattice arched structures, which, in most cases, serve as a support for climbing plants. In a modern garden, a pergola can play a different role. She not only creates shade, but also promotes privacy in the cozy parts of the garden. The pergola is also used as an element of spatial division (for example, it can separate the decorative part of the plot from the garden). As a unifying link, a pergola can connect, say, a garage, a resting place and other buildings with a residential building into one organic whole. Pergolas are often installed along the avenues of the garden, creating cozy shaded areas for walking. Such an alley can lead from the gate to the house or from the house to the garden structures. Pergolas are installed over patios or children's playgrounds, while creating protection from the sun's rays. Green plants provide shade and coolness on a hot day, oxygenate the air, making it more useful and pleasant. With the help of a pergola, you can effectively demonstrate the natural beauty of rare climbing plants, which, when raised, appear in a more favorable light. A pergola optically enlarges a small garden.

Most often, a pergola is associated with a resting place. During the construction of pergolas, their architectural form is of great importance, since the table is not completely covered with plants. It is advisable to fix the supporting pillars of pergolas and gratings on a suitable concrete base.

If its construction was conceived during the construction of a house, then it becomes possible to directly connect these two objects by laying roof or ceiling beams over the resting place. If the pergola is located in the opposite part of the site, it should be connected to the house with at least a beautifully laid connecting path.

Traditionally, wood, steel rods, metal profiles, or even simple wire are used for the construction of pergolas.

Tapestry - lattice structures that serve as a vertical support for plants are made of wood or metal. Completed in exquisite decorative forms, these garden structures are in themselves a decoration of the garden. Trellis are attached to vertical posts of pergolas, walls of buildings and structures, or installed independently, as independent structures. The simplest design of a trellis, attached to the wall of the house, in combination with a wooden trough, which serves to nourish the climbing plants, can serve as a decoration for the entrance to the house. Trellis lattices, in the form of straight or diagonal squares, create a whimsical play of light and shadow. It can be a very small structure designed for one type of plant, or a fairly extended structure that separates separate semantic zones of a garden or park.

The trellis lattices are made of thin wooden slats and framed with a decorative frame made of thicker bars.

Trellis in the garden landscape - a fairly common phenomenon. They can be stationary or portable, made of timber or metal structures. The simplest trellis is a series of vertical posts connected by a strong synthetic rope or wire. The height of the trellis and the dimensions between the bearing racks depend on the type of plants for which they are intended, and can vary from 0.5 to 2 5 m. Horizontal ties are often attached between the vertical racks, thereby giving the structure rigidity and the required shape

Trellis in themselves are already a decoration of the garden, which is complemented by green plants and flowers. Trellis shapes can be very different, without any restrictions.The imagination of the manufacturer, together with his craftsmanship, give these designs the most intricate look.

Steel pipes of various diameters, reinforcing steel, various profiles, or just thick wire are suitable for their manufacture.

The role of pergolas, trellises and trellises in garden design is not limited to supporting climbing plants. They themselves often decorate the site, playing the role of lattice walls separating individual zones. Such lattice walls have become very fashionable in recent years. They can be installed directly on the ground or concrete foundations, decorated with various wood carved or metal bent elements.

Internal fencing, used to separate the individual semantic and functional areas of the site, can be performed using other methods. In addition to pergolas, trellises and lattice walls, special fences and retaining walls can be built for this purpose (if the semantic zones are located at different altitude levels) or ornamental shrubs can be planted. For example, to protect a flower garden from naughty children or a beloved dog, it is enough to protect it with a decorative fence.

For many centuries, the masters who created the gardens and parks adhered to the laws and rules prompted by nature and common to other arts. In the gardens, architecture and painting, poetry and music were concentrated, merged together, but the laws of landscape construction turned out to be closest to the laws of building space, that is, to the laws of architecture. Therefore, we are talking about the art of organizing the surrounding space by means of a natural landscape as about the landscape architecture of a garden.

What rules must be followed so that the garden plot does not turn into a chaotic set of unrelated or unsuccessfully connected parts-elements? What are the laws, techniques, secrets of craftsmanship that a landscape designer uses when operating with natural materials?

The garden will not be a garden and the site will not acquire its individual and complete appearance if proper attention is not paid to the design elements. As a room without cute, close to heart and creating a mood and coziness of trinkets, so a garden devoid of decorative ornaments will remain "uninhabited" and lifeless areas for living and rest, but not pieces of your soul, a place where you want to live and rest. After all, love for the place where we live is made up of little things that are dear to us, and if we think about the design - one of the last touches of the final decoration, it means that we put our heart into a previously faceless piece of family, going to make it their second home. Therefore, when landscaping a garden plot, it is important to use the techniques and laws of landscape architecture - after all, these are the laws of harmony and beauty, the laws of nature itself.

Due to the small amount of work we have covered only a few of the landscape design issues. We have not touched upon such topics as landscaping the site, which plants are better to use for landscaping, how to arrange a reservoir on the site, how to equip flower gardens and a rock garden, etc.

List of used literature

1. Avadyaeva E.N. Encyclopedia of the Russian estate. - M .: Olma-Press, 2000 .-- 383 p.

2. Batalin B.S., Makovetskiy A.I. We build ourselves: buildings in the garden. - Perm: Book. publishing house, 1989 .-- 221 p.

3. Mishin S.A. Modern planning and design of the suburban area. - SPb .: Regatta, 2000 .-- 384 p.

4. Saybel E.Ya. We plan and equip the garden plot with our own hands. - M .: Nedra, 1991 .-- 174 p.

An example of a site layout:

1 - house 2 - garage 3 - barn (sauna) 4 - pond (pool) 5 - pergola 6 - terrace 7 - gazebo 8 - greenhouses 9 - vegetable garden 10 - garden 11 - raspberries (berry bushes) 12 - playground 13 - decorative fence

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