Diseases of beet, sugar and fodder beets, as well as common pests


The trouble is that not every disease can be immediately identified by the appearance of beets when storing them - sometimes the core of root crops imperceptibly rots or internal voids are formed. You will find an unpleasant surprise after you cut the beets, and in the meantime, the infection has time to move to healthy roots.

The main diseases of beet, sugar and fodder

In order for the beet crop to be safely stored in the cellar or on the balcony until spring, it is necessary to select only high-quality, healthy roots, because beet diseases can quickly spread and leave you without vegetables for the winter.

That is why it is so important to pay attention to preventive measures and timely control of various diseases and pests of beets.

Video about sugar beet disease

Prevention measures for beet diseases:

  • planting disease-tolerant varieties,
  • fertilizing beets with fertilizers,
  • correct agricultural technology,
  • timely harvesting,
  • careful examination of plants during the growing season and root crops before sending them for storage.

Weakened plants get sick much more often, therefore, it is imperative to periodically apply additional fertilizing with phosphorus and potassium, complex fertilizers with various microelements and add rotted organic matter to the beds.

In the photo beets

Fomoz

The lack of boron in the soil contributes to the defeat of beets by fomoz (zonal spotting). A fungal disease manifests itself in the form of brownish or yellowish concentric spots on the surface of the lower leaves, later black dots also appear. With fomoz, the affected leaves and shoots of the testes die off, dry rot of the beet heart develops - after cutting the root crop, you will see dark brown tissues.

Phomosis develops most rapidly with frequent drizzling rains, fogs, high air humidity and abundant dew at moderate temperatures. Spores spread in rainy, windy weather. The causative agent of phomosis is preserved in the testes, on the seeds and on the affected plant debris.

The introduction of borax into the soil, as well as the processing of root crops before storage with solutions of Fundazol, Benazol, Rovral, TMTD, helps to protect beets from fomoz.

In the photo fomoz in beets

Cercosporosis

Up to 70% of the root crop can be lost due to a common disease such as beetroot cercosporosis or spotting. The defeat of the leaves by the causative agent of the disease leads to their death and to a deterioration in the keeping quality of root crops. The disease can be identified by the small light spots that appear on the leaves, bordered with a reddish stripe, and by a light gray bloom on the underside of the leaves.

Young leaves are not affected by the disease, but the old ones gradually turn black and begin to die off. Instead, beets grow new leaves, expending nutrients that should have gone into the formation of root crops.

The causative agent of the disease hibernates in plant debris and perennial weeds. Beet cercosporosis develops at + 16 + 20 degrees and with excessive soil moisture.

Measures to combat cercosporosis: growing beets after predecessors resistant to this disease, choosing tolerant varieties of beets, controlling weeds and destroying plant residues, treating seeds with Agat-25 and spraying plantings with the fungicide Rovral.

Photo of cercospora on beet leaves

Peronosporosis

Downy mildew, also known as downy mildew, is common in beets in cold, humid weather. With this disease, a grayish-purple bloom appears on the underside of the leaves, the leaf blades curl down the edges, turn pale, crumble and dry out in hot weather, or rot from dampness. Also, the affected shoots of the testes become covered with bloom, deformed and die off. The harvested root vegetables quickly begin to rot during storage.

To protect beets from peronosporosis, you need to pay attention to crop rotation, harvesting plant residues, dressing the seeds before sowing with Apron and spray the plants with fungicides during the growing season.

Corneed

In the photo beets

By the name, you might think that we are talking about a pest, but the root-eater is an infectious disease that causes damage to young seedlings of beets. At first, the stems at the seedlings turn black and become thin, and then die. Seedlings affected by the infection also die, not even reaching the soil surface.

Usually, the root-eater spreads on heavy soils, in lowlands, in spots over the site. Lack of aeration, crust on the surface of the soil and increased acidity of the soil contributes to the spread of infection.

For prophylaxis in the fall, it is recommended to liming the soil, in the spring, before sowing, add a solution of borax to the soil, and mulch the sown seeds with peat or humus. And do not forget to loosen the aisles to prevent crust formation.

Rot

In the photo, beets affected by rot

At the beginning of summer, there is a high risk of damage to beets. fusarium rot, especially if the plants were damaged during loosening or weakened by drought. With fusarium, the lower leaves of young beets wither, the petioles turn black at the very base, and side roots form at the root. If you dig up a root vegetable, you can see cracks on it, filled with white bloom.

In the middle of summer, the tail of the beet root affects brown rot... It spreads with excessive moisture or with an excess of nitrogen in the soil. With severe damage, a brown felt bloom appears on the petioles of the beet and begins to creep along the soil surface.

To protect beets from fusarium and brown rot, you need to feed the plantings with organic and mineral fertilizers containing boron, lime acidic soils, deeply loosen the aisles on highly moist soils, alternate crops and fight pests. Affected plants must be immediately removed from the garden and burned.

Video about the problem of diseases on sugar beet

Common beet pests

Improper agricultural practices, especially untimely destruction of weeds in beet beds and non-observance of crop rotation leads to the defeat of beets by various pests. The most common are the following:

  • beet fly - yellow larvae cause harm, eating up wide passages in beet leaves;
  • miner fly - in the same way "perforates" leaves, but its larvae are white;
  • beet aphid - is located on the lower part of the beet leaves and sucks the juice out of them, preventing the development of the entire plant;
  • beet flea - its white half-centimeter larvae feed on beet roots;
  • beetroot beet - a bug resembling a bug damages young shoots of beets and eats holes in the leaves of adult plants.

In the photo beet aphid

You can eliminate most of these pests from planting beets by regularly killing weeds and preventing them from growing nearby. From beet aphids, beets can be sprayed with onion peel infusion and spread on ladybird plantings; it helps against aphids and spraying plants with Iskra Bio.

The common beet and miner flies can be dealt with by treating the beets with Iskra or Iskra Zolotaya, as well as karbofos. Against a flea, an effective remedy is considered to be the treatment of beet beds with an infusion of ash or dusting with tobacco dust. You can also deal with beet pests with the help of deep autumn digging of the beds.


Growing beetroot

It should be noted that beets are not only nutritional elements, vitamins and minerals. For the gardener, this crop is a valuable essential component of a correct crop rotation, since beets are an excellent precursor for many vegetable plants.

Beets are very fruitful. Experienced gardeners in years with favorable weather and with the correct selection of varieties, get 4-6 kg of root crops per square meter.

It has been found that beetroot grows well on soils with a slightly acidic reaction. Therefore, if there are acidic soils on the site, liming should be carried out.

Also, beetroot does not tolerate waterlogged areas. If, nevertheless, such soils are present, then it is necessary to make artificial drainage, otherwise the root crops will form very poorly.

When growing table beets, special attention should be paid to timely thinning of seedlings. This is due to the fact that most often beet varieties are polyspermous and a nest containing 2-4 shoots is formed from one seed. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out two-fold thinning of beet crops.

The most common diseases of beets

Corneed Is a disease of beet seedlings. This is not a pest, but a disease. The disease is manifested by rotting of the hypocotyl knee and root. Diseased plants soon die, seedlings become rare. Most often, the disease develops on waterlogged soils of a heavy composition with a small amount of humus.

Also, the development of the disease is facilitated by various unfavorable weather factors (frost during germination, sudden changes in day and night temperatures), the action of which leads to the development of pathogens on beets, most often fungi, for example, the genus Fusarium. When re-cultivating beets in one place, the root-eater pathogen can accumulate in the soil, so it is imperative to alternate crops.

Cercosporosis beets are most strongly affected by well-developed beet leaves. The disease manifests itself in the form of light rounded spots with a brown-red border, ranging in size from 2 to 6 millimeters. In wet weather, a gray coating forms on the surface of the spots.

The same spots can appear in some diseases of bacterial origin, but the latter do not have this gray plaque, therefore this is an important distinguishing feature of cercosporosis.

Fomoz beets. The first signs of the disease are the appearance of concentric yellowish spots on old leaves, in the center of which there are black dots.

Since phomosis usually manifests itself at the end of the growing season, it does not bring much harm to the beet plants themselves, but root crops suffer greatly from phomosis, especially during storage.

The causative agent, penetrating inside the root crop, causes rotting of the core, which is clearly visible when cutting the beets. The disease affects mainly those root crops that grew with a lack of boron in the soil.

The causative agent of phomosis is preserved on plant debris, as well as on infected beet seeds. Phomosis with diseased roots is transferred.

It is possible to combat beet phomaosis by dressing the seeds before sowing with 75-80% wetting polycarbacin powder at a dosage of 0.5 g per 100 g of seeds.

It is also advisable to add 3 g of borax per 1 m2 to boron-depleted soils.

Rope rot... During storage, succulent and fleshy beetroots can become sick with so-called kagat rot. The causative agents of these rot can be of both bacterial and fungal origin. If you cut the affected roots in the longitudinal direction, you can see dead and brown vascular fibrous bundles, as well as dark stripes. These signs indicate that an infectious process is taking place inside the root crop. This process, with a strong flow, comes out of the root crop in the form of a gray or white bloom. The causes of infection with kagatny rot are the withering and freezing of root crops, their mechanical damage, as well as improperly created storage conditions. All this must be monitored very carefully. It is imperative to remove the root crops before the onset of frost, immediately you need to cut off the leaves from the dug plants, leaving the petioles about 1 cm long.

Boxes for storing beets should not be large, with a capacity of no more than 15-20 kg. Before laying in boxes, you must first sprinkle the beets with a mixture of sand and fluff lime.

Beetroot is also well stored in loosely closed plastic bags. Winter storage temperature is about 2 ° C, and the relative humidity should be 90 - 95%.

Well, in conclusion, some generalized recommendations on agricultural technology:

  • it is necessary to place the beets in the crop rotation so that they return to their original place no earlier than after 2-3 years
  • the most essential trace element for table beets is boron, so do not forget to enrich the soil with it
  • sowing should be started when the soil warms up to 7 ° С
  • Immediately after emergence, be sure to loosen the soil crust.


Diseases and their treatment

Different beet diseases manifest themselves in different ways. Due to some ailments, the leaves turn yellow, from others the foliage becomes covered with noticeable spots, the fruits deteriorate. Consider the most common diseases that can affect this popular culture.

Fomoz

Serious fungal disease. Phomosis can strongly affect only the leaves of a plant, but also its fruits. If you do not start to treat the damaged culture in time, then an even more serious problem associated with lagging rot may arise.

Most often, the main symptoms of phomosis are several signs.

  • Well-visible light brown spots are formed on the leaf plates of the plant. Stems and peduncles are distinguished by noticeable zoning.
  • Root crops have characteristic patches that are very similar to lesions resulting from dry rot. However, in the case of phomosis, these areas do not have a formed superficial mycelium.
  • In the cut, the tissue of the fruit turns dark brown.
  • The affected tissue will certainly begin to rot. The formation of pycnidia begins on their surface.

The main reason for the occurrence of this ailment is associated with the use of initially infected crop seeds. In addition, phomosis can appear if you neglect the removal of infected plant debris from the site. Acid and dry soil types are suitable environments for the active development of the disease.

The disease in question can and should be treated. It will be possible to fight phomaosis by using special fungicidal agents. For these purposes, the best suited drugs "Altazol", "Alpari", "Benazol". The popular Bordeaux liquid can also demonstrate high efficiency.

It makes sense to turn to the unscheduled introduction of appropriate dressings.

Cercosporosis

This disease is also fungal. Its main source is contaminated seed or diseased areas on surrounding plants. Once on the beetroot foliage, the fungus begins to multiply very quickly. After a short time, clear signs of its activity on the plant can be noticed.

  • The characteristic spots of a gray hue usually appear on the beet leaves. They have reddish-brown edges, which are also clearly visible. Over a short period of time, these spots begin to decrease in size, which is why they become more like ordinary dark spots.
  • First, the dying off of large and mature rosette leaves begins. Following them, the small foliage of the plant also dies off.
  • There is a noticeable change in the sheet plates - they twist downward.
  • The tops of the plant begin to wither quickly. Because of this, the summer resident can immediately notice the opening of the row spacings. Usually it catches the eye immediately, so it is difficult not to notice it.
  • Under the influence of the disease, the development of root crops slows down sharply.
  • Beets are no longer "sugar". The sugar level in fruits drops by 20-50%.

The active development of this serious fungal disease on beets occurs due to a sharp change in humidity levels during the growing season. Usually such events are directly related to changes in weather conditions.

Cercosporosis is a serious condition, but it can be treated. The highest efficiency is demonstrated by such drugs as "Gamair", "Pseudobacterin", "Benomil", "Alirin-B". You can also use various kinds of folk remedies. For example, it can be a soapy solution, which is often supplemented with ash.

Of course, such homemade formulations help in the fight against fungal diseases, but they do not demonstrate as high efficiency as the above drugs.

Powdery mildew

A very serious disease that can cause great harm to plants. Many summer residents are well aware of this ailment, because its symptoms make themselves felt when growing a huge number of various crops. The main causative agent of powdery mildew is a fungus belonging to the ascomycete class. It spreads rapidly throughout the site if the weather is dry and hot.

Let's find out what are the main symptoms of powdery mildew on beets.

  • Due to this disease, a white powdery coating forms on the lower and middle leaf plates. At first, it looks like small spots, which after a while begin to grow to the size of the foliage itself.
  • Brown, and then black dots may form on a white coating. They are also called clestothecia.
  • There is a sharp disruption in the synthesis of sugars in the leaves, and the outflow of plastic substances to the roots is also disrupted. Due to such events, the leaves age much faster.

To overcome this dangerous ailment, you can use such highly effective drugs:

  • "Alto Super"
  • "Abacus"
  • Rex Duo.

It is worth noting that treatment with folk remedies against powdery mildew, as a rule, does not bring the desired results. Such measures can only be used as ancillary measures. It makes no sense to expect a greater effect from them.

Rhizomania

And this ailment is viral in nature. It is caused by a virus of necrotic yellowing of veins. The main carrier of this disease is a unicellular parasite belonging to the order of plasmodiophores. Its activity level rises sharply against the background of high temperatures as well as high levels of humidity. When growing beets in areas in dry regions, the likelihood of rhizomania is significantly reduced.

However, the summer resident still knows better how this serious disease manifests itself.

  • The original shine and elasticity of the beet foliage is immediately lost.
  • The growth of culture is markedly reduced.
  • There is an indispensable crushing of the size of the fruit. Their lower part is noticeably shortened. The inside of the fruit becomes much harder.

The course of this disease may well be completely asymptomatic. In this case, it will be possible to notice the fact that beets suffer from rhizomania only by a sharp decline in yield, a decrease in the quality of fruits.

Those plants that have managed to become infected with rhizomania should be treated with special fungicidal preparations. For instance, effective is "Fundazol" or "Benazol". But the greatest results are brought by direct spraying of uterine fruits with the composition "Rovral".

Ramulariasis

Summer residents often confuse this disease with the ailment discussed above. Ramulariasis manifests itself in much the same way. The main difference between these whitenings is that the color of the spots with ramulariasis is much lighter, closer to white. In addition, with these diseases, spots of different sizes are formed.

If we consider the general symptoms of ramulariasis, then it is worth noting certain signs.

  • On the foliage, gray-green spots are formed, which are distinguished by an irregular shape. Over time, these spots become brown, covered with a snow-white bloom.
  • The tissues in the interior of the stains begin to crack. Some time after this, the leaf plates themselves begin to fall off the plants.
  • The characteristic spots extend down to the petioles.
  • Beetroot fruits begin to shrink.

These symptoms are hard to miss. So that a serious illness does not continue to develop further, all plants that have managed to become infected need to be thoroughly treated with special preparations. These include the Rex Duo fungicide. If there are damage in small areas, then all diseased specimens can be simply removed, and then be sure to process the soil.

Peronosporosis

This name is a disease that very often affects garden crops, including beets. Otherwise, downy mildew is also called downy mildew. This disease affects beets most often. This is especially true of those plants that grow in a humid climate.

Downy mildew is a fungal disease. As a rule, it has a particularly strong negative effect on beet tops. Because of this, a whitish bloom first forms on it, and after a while yellow spots break through. The latter begin to grow rapidly, spreading over the entire leaf plate of the plant. The main signs of the appearance of peronosporosis are other events:

  • foliage deformation occurs
  • leaf tissues become much denser and thicker, there is a rapid dying off
  • peduncles are also deformed, their development is noticeably inhibited.

To effectively combat this disease, it makes sense to use the following popular drugs:

  • Apron
  • "Amistar"
  • "Acrobat".

The same funds are allowed to be used as preventive measures. You can also refer to certain preventive procedures, which provide for the timely removal of affected plants, a more careful selection of planting materials.

Fusarium

This disease often affects beets planted outdoors. The disease is fungal. Pathogenic fungi can penetrate into the body of a root crop through rhizomes. Gradually, Fusarium will move from roots to foliage, changing their appearance.

The main symptoms of the onset of the disease will be as follows:

  • the leaves turn yellow, first the older ones change, and then the young leaf plates
  • petioles begin to darken and rot
  • there is a blackening of the vascular bundles of the roots, auxiliary roots appear in large quantities.

If beets are severely affected by Fusarium, they die even in the first stages of their development. Sometimes dry rot can persist in the flesh until harvest. There are no highly effective means aimed at combating fusarium. The summer resident can only resort to certain preventive measures:

  • it is necessary to clean the area of ​​all plant residues, dig up the ground
  • for planting, it is best to choose beet varieties that are resistant to fusarium
  • plants should not be planted in the same places for 2-3 years
  • make sure that the roots do not receive mechanical damage
  • planting must be processed during the growing season, the preparation "Kagatnik" will do.

Rust

Rust can be safely called an agricultural pest. Its pathogen settles precisely on beets. The fungus is actively developing in spring and summer. Its appearance is immediately reflected in the state of the sheet plates. A variety of preparations can be used to effectively combat rust. The most effective are usually shown by "Abacus", "Alto Super", "Amistar Extra".

Jaundice

Viral disease. Most often it affects beets in the first year of its life. We will learn about the characteristic symptoms of this disease.

  • The lower and middle leaves turn yellow. First, they turn yellow in the upper part, and then along the extreme zones between the main veins.
  • A noticeable necrotization of the veins appears on young leaves.
  • Diseased leaves change their shape, looking shorter than healthy foliage. Their surface becomes less smooth. Brittleness increases.

To fight a dangerous virus, it is advisable to resort to competent preventive measures. First of all, it is necessary to process plants from aphids. If the plants have already been affected, they will need to be burned.

Good results are also shown by the treatment of beets with insecticidal preparations. For example, you can use "Phosphamide".

Mosaic

Viral disease. It often affects not only beets, but also broad beans, spinach and cabbage. It manifests itself in a noticeable mosaic type pattern on the foliage. After some time, the foliage deforms and dies off. Leafhoppers and bedbugs can carry the disease, so you always need to get rid of them on the site.

Beets affected by the mosaic lose their former sweetness and produce much fewer seeds. Effective methods of treating this ailment have not yet been developed.

Gray rot

Disease of a fungal nature. It can affect not only beets, but also completely different crops on the site. Often, gray rot begins to actively develop precisely at the time of planting vegetation or during storage of root crops. In particular, such problems often arise if the storage is kept at an elevated temperature along with high air humidity. Symptoms of gray rot are as follows:

  • root crops are covered with round brownish spots
  • gray-green mold forms on the affected areas
  • the fruits soften, the green mass fades.

To prevent the development of this disease, use the fungicide "Glyocladin". In addition, the site is scrupulously cleaned of all plant residues.

White rot

Another name for this disease is sclerotinosis. The disease is fungal, spoils not only beets, but also carrots and other vegetable crops.

It can be recognized by its specific symptoms.

  • The affected areas soften, become covered with abundant mycelium, become like cotton wool to the touch.
  • The affected areas are denser. Initially, white, and a little later, black hard bumps are formed on them.
  • Then there is an absolute softening of the root crop.

In the fight against the problem, the following means are often used:

  • "Acanto Plus"
  • "Absolute"
  • "Alpha standard"
  • "Amur".

Red rot

It is also called the felt disease.

Consider the main signs of the development of this ailment.

  • On root crops, subcutaneous spots of a lead-gray shade are formed. Above them you can see the mycelium.
  • In the future, many black sclerotia are formed on the harvested fruits.
  • Affected tissues are both soft and hard.
  • Leaves wither soon with profuse lesions.

In order not to lose the beet crop, it should be treated with fungicides, for example, "Alirin-B" or "Gamair". Folk remedies in this case will be useless.

Blackleg

This ailment is also called root-eater. It affects many cultures.

Because of it, the roots darken and rot, the seedlings grow very slowly, the leaves wither. Rapid growth of seedlings with such a disease can not be expected.

You can treat a black leg with fungicidal preparations or dusting with ash. Seedlings are often watered with soda solution.

Common scab

Fungal disease. It leads to the appearance of rough areas on root crops, forms a dark brown crust.

Beet growth slows down due to scab. The following remedies can be used against this disease:

  • "Discor"
  • "Pure color"
  • "Speed".

Bacterial cancer

A very serious bacterial disease. Not so common on table beets, but can have a significant impact on the condition of the crop. Forms smooth neoplasms, leads to the appearance of growths on the beet neck, to thinning of seedlings. Tumors can even appear on the leaves.

To fight bacterial cancer, you must follow the appropriate rules of agricultural technology. Of the chemicals, Fitolavin and Fitoverm are ideal.


Diseases and pests of beets: signs of the most harmful and common, countermeasures

Like any other crops, beets can also hit diseases and pests... Moreover, some of them are able not only to reduce the yield, but also to destroy the completely healthy-looking root vegetables of vegetables stored in storage. In order to fight you need to know the enemy by sight. Of the many beet pests and diseases the most harmful and common ones can be identified.

Symptoms of possible beet diseases and measures to combat them

The most common mushroom beet diseases:

  • root-eater,
  • phomosis,
  • downy mildew
  • and cercosporosis.

The root-eater affects only beet seedlings, other diseases - root crops and seed plants.

Beet root

The most active causative agent of the beet root-eater is Pythium debarianum. Only young plants are affected during the period from seed germination to the formation of a second pair of true leaves, after which the plants are already resistant to the pathogen.

Beet root affects seedlings and seedlings of beets.

This manifests itself in the browning and decay of the roots and root collar. In the affected seedlings, the stalk turns black, becomes thinner, the plants die, and the affected seedlings die. The disease develops most often on heavy floating soils, first of all, it appears in low places.

With a strong spread illness crops beets thinned out. Improper soil cultivation, leading to crust formation, lack of aeration, increased soil acidity contribute to the development of the root-eater. The infection can be transmitted by seeds, persists in the soil, and accumulates on plant debris.

Bordeaux 237 is relatively resistant to this disease.

Measures to combat the rootworm:

  • In the fall, liming of acidic soils is carried out.
  • On sandy loam soils, 0.2-0.4 is applied, and on loamy soils 0.3-0.6 kg / m2 of ground limestone. Doses of freshly slaked lime should be halved. Before sowing, it is advisable to add boron to the soil (3 g of borax per 1 square meter), preferably in solution.
  • Use only treated seeds, for example, with TMTD.
  • Observe the crop rotation.
  • The sown rows of beet seeds are mulched with a small layer of humus or peat.
  • Timely thin out seedlings, remove weeds.
  • The soil is loosened after each watering and rain, providing air access to the roots.
  • After harvesting from the site, all plant residues must be removed.

Fomoz

Fomoz, or beet root rot. The causative agent is Phoma betae Frank (Pleospora betae), belonging to the class of imperfect

Fomoz, or pith rot, affects the beets of the first year and the testes, and both the aerial parts of plants and root crops. Light brown rounded spots with black dots appear on the leaves - sporulation of the fungus. The disease often begins with the lower senescent leaves.

On the leaf petioles and stems of the testes, the affected areas brighten and black dots are also visible on them. The infection from the petioles enters the root crop. On root crops, the disease develops in the form of dry rot.

The affected inner parts of the root crop acquire an intense black color. On the cut, the affected tissue is black, juicy and hard. During storage, voids can form in it, sometimes lined with white mycelium.

Core rot develops and appears mainly during winter storage. Planting affected root crops leads to the loss of the testes. The causative agent of the disease can also develop on the glomeruli of seeds. The source of infection is diseased seeds, roots and post-harvest residues.

Bordeaux 237, Odnorostkovaya varieties are relatively resistant to fomoz.

Sometimes beet heart rot may not be a parasitic disease, but is caused by a lack of boron in the soil.

In this case, the growth and development of plants slows down, young leaves and the growth point die off. Later, the disease spreads to the inner parts of the root crop and manifests itself as black rot during storage.

Heart rot is more common on alkaline soils. The disease becomes noticeable in the second half of the growing season, especially in dry, hot weather.

Measures to combat beet phomosis:

  • The alternation of crops and the observance of agrotechnical measures, the same as in the case of the rootworm.
  • If boric fertilizers were not applied during soil preparation, then the seeds before sowing can be soaked for 10-12 hours in a 1% solution (1 g per 100 ml of water) of boric acid or during the growing season, a month and a half before harvesting, spray the plants with boric acid (10 g per 10 l of water).
  • Plant only healthy roots to obtain seeds.
  • It is especially convenient to check the quality of root crops by planting them in halves.

Downy mildew (downy mildew)

Beetroot disease downy mildew or downy mildew. During this disease, curling, thickening of the leaves occurs, yellow spots appear on the leaves

Downy mildew (downy mildew) affects many vegetable crops, for example, cucumbers, onions. In beets, downy mildew affects both the plants of the first year of planting and the testes.

The disease manifests itself mainly on young leaves and tops of flower-bearing beetroot shoots. Diseased leaves turn pale, curl upside down, thicken, become brittle. On the underside of the leaves, a grayish-purple bloom is formed, consisting of sporulation of the fungus.

In the future, the leaves turn black and die off.

On the testes, at the beginning of the growing season, the youngest leaves are affected, and then the tops of flowering shoots, flowers, seed glomeruli. Flowering shoots develop poorly, bend, stunted and then die off.

The disease contributes significantly to root decay during storage.

The disease progresses in wet, damp weather.

First of all, the disease manifests itself in the area with testicles, and from them it spreads to the beets of the first year.

The causative agent of the disease persists in seeds, uterine roots, and post-harvest residues.

Measures to combat downy mildew (downy mildew) on beets:

  • Grow healthy uterine roots.
  • Remove diseased seed plants, then treat the rest with 1% Bordeaux liquid.

Cercospora (leaf spot)

Beet cercosporosis is a leaf spot caused by a pathogenic fungus.

Cercospora (leaf spot) affects the leaves, petioles of beets, and on seed plants, in addition, the stems and pericarp of seed glomeruli.

Numerous small (2-3 mm in diameter) rounded light spots with a red-brown border appear on the leaves.

In humid warm weather or after abundant dew on the spots, mainly on the lower side, a grayish-white bloom forms - sporulation of the pathogen. On old leaves, spots can be large, with an indistinct blurry border. With a strong defeat of the leaves, they turn black and die off.

Dying off begins with the largest peripheral leaves. Young leaves are usually not affected. On the petioles and stems, oblong, slightly depressed spots are formed.

The most favorable conditions for cercosporosis are created at high soil moisture and an air temperature of 15-20 °.

The disease manifests itself more strongly in the second half of the summer.

The main source of infection is plant debris, but there may be weeds - quinoa, squid, which are also affected by cercospora.

Beet varieties are relatively resistant to cercosporosis: Bravo, Siberian flat 167/367, Kuban borscht 43.

Measures to combat beet cercosporosis:

  • Indispensable observance of crop rotation, removal of weeds affected by cercosporosis.
  • A good harvest and healthy roots are obtained by growing beets in fertile light soils. Heavy clay soils should be limed in autumn and filled with organic fertilizers. Sow the beet seeds into loose, fine crumbly soil.
  • Seed treatment Agatom-25.
  • Pre-soaking the seeds accelerates the emergence of seedlings. Fast and friendly shoots avoid being hit by the rootworm.
  • Copper spraying weekly. Can be applied HOM, Fundazole, Copper oxychloride, Carbendazim, Propiconazole.
  • Harvest beets before frost, as frozen roots are poorly stored and most of them rot in winter.
  • The most favorable temperature for storing beets is + 1 ° C.
  • In all cases, a high culture of gardening is the basis for the prevention of any disease.

Beet rope rot

Rope rot is a disease that occurs in places where sugar beets accumulate during storage (in piles, trenches, storage facilities)

Diseases develop during winter storage, they are caused by fungi and bacteria. Molds of different colors, wet or dry rot are observed on root crops. The manifestation of the disease depends on the type and nature of the microorganism, storage conditions.

Affected fruits should not be used as food or fed to livestock.

Measures to combat beet stump rot:

  • Pest control during the growing season
  • Provide optimal soil moisture and balanced mineral fertilization
  • Try to minimize injury to root crops during harvesting, bookmarks for storage.

Read also:

  • Planting and growing table beets in the open field ... →
  • The best varieties of table beets with photos and descriptions ... →

Signs and measures for beet pest control

Among the most dangerous pests of beet seedlings are beet fleas, beet weevils. Throughout the summer, beet leaves are severely damaged by the caterpillars of the moth (cabbage, gamma scoop), meadow moth, beet shchitonoska, beet bug, aphids, beet fly larvae and beet mining moth. Beet roots damage the larvae of beet weevils, caterpillars of gnawing scoops, root aphids.

Beet fleas

Among the most dangerous pests of beet seedlings are beet fleas

Beet seedlings are mainly damaged by two types of flea beet: the common beet flea and the southern beet flea... In both species, beetles are similar. Flea beetles appear in early spring, first on weeds from the Marevye and Buckwheat families, then they switch to beets.

Beetles damage the leaves by gnawing the flesh and leaving the lower skin intact, resulting in "little holes" and then small holes. Damaged seedlings may die. Female beetles lay their eggs on the ground near plants. Eggs are light yellow, oval.

The egg stage lasts two to three weeks. The larvae that hatch from the eggs are white. Beetles of the new generation first feed on plants and then hibernate under plant debris, in the upper soil layer.

Beet flea control measures:

  • These are all agrotechnical measures that give quick and friendly shoots (early sowing, fertilizing, proper soil cultivation).
  • Destruction of weeds from the families Marevye and buckwheat (quinoa, various types of buckwheat, etc.), which are additional food for beetles in the spring.
  • Before sowing, beet seeds are treated with 60% fentiuram at the rate of 4-6 kg per 1 ton.
  • With the massive appearance of beetles, the crops are sprayed with 25% to 50% EC. metathione or 40% efficiency. phosphamide.
  • Spraying is repeated after 7-10 days.
  • In individual gardens, spraying is carried out with the same infusions that are recommended against the cruciferous flea.

Beet aphid

Beet leaf aphid is a very serious pest of sugar beets and their testes

Beet aphid, also known as the bean, or euonymus, aphid.

From vegetable crops, it damages beets, beans, spinach, less often carrots and potatoes. It is widespread everywhere, it is especially numerous in Ukraine, in the Krasnodar Territory, in Altai.

Beet aphids reproduce by parthenogenetic means (viviparous aphids) and sexually.

Parthenogenetic females (winged and wingless) are black, shiny and dull. Sexual females are black or green, much smaller than parthenogenetic females. Sexual females lay black shiny eggs in autumn on euonymus, viburnum or jasmine.

In spring, larvae hatch from overwintered eggs, from which wingless viviparous females hatch. The larvae develop rapidly and begin to hatch cubs. Aphids reproduce very quickly, the development of one generation in the summer occurs in 9-14 days.

During the summer, aphids give 12-15 generations. Two or four generations of aphids develop in the spring on the underside of euonymus, viburnum or jasmine leaves. When the leaves of the shrubs become coarse, it flies over to the beets.

Aphids live on the underside of beet leaves, on the testes - on the stems and inflorescences. From damage to aphids, the leaves curl, the plants lag behind in growth and, as a result, the weight of the roots decreases. On the seed plants, the seed yield decreases.

Beet aphid control measures:

To destroy aphids, beet crops and seed plants are sprayed:

  • 25% efficiency aitio,
  • 50% efficiency karbofos,
  • 50% singing efficiency metathione or 40% efficiency. phosphamide.

Solution consumption for spraying 800-1000 l / ha.

Beet fly

Beet fly - Pegomyia hyoscyami. It is one of the most common beetroot pests.

Beet fly affects both crops and beet seed plants.

It inflicts great damage to the crops of this culture in the central non-chernozem zone, in the Urals in Belarus, the Baltic States, Western Siberia and the Far East.

The newly emerged larva is almost transparent, legless.

The false cocoon is brown, shiny, oval in shape.

Flies of the second generation appear in mid or late July, the second generation larvae damage beet plants in July - August.

In September, third generation larvae hatch.

In total, two or three generations develop in the middle lane over the summer.

Beet fly control measures:

  • One of the main measures to control the beet fly is to eliminate the weeds on which the fly grows.
  • When weeding crops, the affected leaves should also be removed.
  • In the fall, it is imperative to carry out deep autumn plowing.

During the hatching period of the larvae, when the first mines appear, the crops and testes of beets should be sprayed:

  • 25% efficiency antio,
  • 50% efficiency karbofos,
  • 50% efficiency metathione or 40% efficiency. phosphamide.

Liquid consumption 600 liters per hectare. At least two treatments are carried out in June and one or two treatments are carried out in July and August.

Beet shields

Beet shield beet - Cassida nebulosa L. (order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae). The insect develops on sugar and table beets.

Beet shields found in Russia almost everywhere.

Beetles with thyroid spread elytra and pronotum are brownish-brown in color, 6-7 mm long.

The female beetles lay their eggs in small heaps on the leaves of the quinoa, mari.

The larvae are flat, greenish, with long spines and setae on the sides.

The larvae live for 12-14 days, then pupate here on the leaves.

Larvae and beetles eat the pulp of leaves, severely damaged plants die.

During the growing season, two generations of pests develop. P

The first generation of beetles appears in June, the second in August.

Measures to combat beet shchitonoska:

  • Control measures consist in the destruction of weeds in the crops of beets and spraying with the same drugs that are used against the beet flea.

Beet bug

Beet bug - Poeciloscytus cognatus Fieb. (order Hemiptera, family Miridae). Damages beets, alfalfa, soybeans, sunflower peas, poppy seeds and other plants.

Beet bug widespread, but especially harmful in the Krasnodar, Stavropol and Altai regions.

The bug hibernates in the stage of an egg or an adult insect on various weeds (quinoa, sow thistle, plantain). At the end of April, bugs leave their wintering places.

Soon, the females begin to lay eggs. They lay eggs in the tissue of the stems, arranging them in heaps of 5-8 pcs. The eggs are shiny, orange-yellow in color.

In late May - early June, bugs emerge from overwintered eggs.

Bedbugs and larvae suck the sap from the leaves, the leaves shrivel and wither, the plants slow down and often die.

On the testes, the tops of the shoots are bent and dry out, which is why the seed yield decreases.

Beet bug control measures:

  • To reduce the damage to plants by bedbugs, it is necessary to destroy weeds in and around the plantings, since bedbugs lay eggs on them in the fall.

Bedbugs and larvae are destroyed by spraying beet plants with the following preparations:

  • 25% efficiency antio,
  • 50% efficiency karbofos,
  • 50% efficiency metathione or 40% efficiency. phosphamide.

Beet miner moth

Beet miner moth, has a light brown color, with a dull yellow pattern on the wings, the hind wings are decorated with fringes.

Butterflies appear in the spring.

Eggs are pearl-white, oblong, about 0.3 mm long.

The egg develops in 4 to 7 days.

Caterpillars are gray-green, 10-12 mm long.

The hatched caterpillars feed on undeveloped leaves and grind through the stalks.

Such damage can cause leaf death and plant death.

With increasing drought, the caterpillars drill into the roots and grind holes in them.

Caterpillars pupate in the soil in a spider cocoon. Pupa of light brown color, 5-6 mm long.

It takes one to two weeks for the pupa to develop.

The beet moth gives four to five generations during the growing season.

Control measures for beet miner:

  • Thorough harvesting of crops, as well as cut leaves, on which the caterpillars can finish their development.
  • Early deep autumn plowing is also required.
  • To destroy butterflies and young caterpillars, beet crops and testes are sprayed with the same preparations that are used in the fight against the beet bug.
  • On the testes, spraying is carried out in the rosette phase and during the growth of peduncles.

During the summer, two or three sprays are carried out. Liquid consumption 500 liters per hectare.

Root aphid

Root beet aphid is a very harmful species of the suborder Aphids. It feeds on the fibrous beet roots, which leads to the death of the plant.

Root aphid differs from ordinary beet aphid in yellowish-white color.

It feeds on aphids on root crops, sticking to the lateral roots, as a result, the flow of water and nutrients into the plants is disrupted. Plants stunted, leaves wither and dry out.

Various diseases develop on weakened root crops in the field and during storage.

The defeat of beets by root aphids can be judged by the condition of the plants; beet leaves are underdeveloped and pale in color.

Foci of damage appear on plants in late July - early August.

Under optimal conditions for the development of aphids, the size of the foci rapidly increases, and by the time of harvesting, almost all plants are affected.

Root aphids, like other aphids, reproduce parthenogenetically; in July - September, females give birth to live larvae.

In the first decade of September, winged individuals appear, sexual females that lay eggs.

Larvae of various ages and wingless females overwinter in the soil.

Together with the beet roots, aphids can be brought into storage, where they will continue to develop.

On the roots of root crops, in most cases, it is under a white, fluffy waxy coating.

Root aphid control measures:

  • To prevent the spread of root aphids, it is necessary to identify its foci.
  • Sow the beets away from the affected beets.
  • Everywhere to destroy white moth, since in spring the pest feeds and multiplies on its roots.
  • In the lesion focus, root crops should be immediately removed and used for livestock feed.
  • Before sowing, seeds are treated with fentiuram or fentiuram-molybdate at the rate of 4-6 g per 1 kg of seeds.

Beet weevil

The common beet weevil greatly harms the plantings and testes of various types of beets.

The beetle is grayish-brown in color, 12-16 mm long; the elytra have a white spot at the end.

Beetles leave their wintering sites as soon as the soil warms up to 10 ° C, first they feed on weeds from the Marevye family (quinoa, Mary, bird buckwheat), and then move on to sowing beets.

Beetles nibble on beet seedlings, and if they appear massively, the crops may die completely.

In May - June, female beetles lay their eggs in the topsoil near beet plants and weeds. After 10-11 days, white, arched-bent, brown-headed larvae, up to 30 mm long, hatch from the eggs, which feed on beet roots.

As a result of damage, the leaves of the beet stick, the roots become ugly, and the yield decreases. The larvae develop within 45-90 days.

Beet weevil control measures

In the fight against the beet weevil, the following are important:

  • sowing dates for beets,
  • plant feeding and careful processing of row spacings,
  • seed dressing with 65% p. fentiuram at the rate of 4-6 kg per 1 ton of seeds.

For better adhesion of the powder, the seeds should be moistened with water — 15 liters per 1 ton of seeds.

The last spraying is carried out 20 days before, and phosphamide - 30 days before harvesting.

Dead eaters

This group of pests, extremely dangerous for beets, includes dark, notched, smooth and naked dead eaters. The most dangerous for vegetable crops is the smooth dead eater.

Dead eaters - beetles, very widespread, but they are especially harmful in the Leningrad, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk regions and in the Far East.

There are several types of dead eaters: naked, smooth, dark and notched.

Vegetable crops are most damaged by the smooth dead eater.

Smooth Dead Eater - the beetle is 9-12 mm long, black, rather densely covered with reddish hairs from above, therefore it seems yellow-brown. Beetles hibernate in the ground under stones and leaves.

In the spring they leave their wintering places and first feed on wild plants, then on cultivated plants of beets, potatoes and all cabbage crops. They are especially dangerous for beet seedlings.

Female beetles lay whitish oval eggs in the soil.

The larvae develop for 14-20 days, then pupate in the soil.

At the end of June and in July (in the middle lane) beetles of the second generation emerge.

Measures to combat the dead eater:

In the fight against the dead eater, loosening the row spacings during the egg-laying period of beetles and the destruction of weeds is of great importance.

Spraying is effective against beetles and larvae:

  • 50% efficiency actellika,
  • 25% efficiency antio,
  • 40% efficiency phosphamide.

The last spraying is carried out 20 days before, and phosphamide - 30 days before harvesting.

We hope that our recommendations will help you grow and keep a rich harvest of juicy, sweet and healthy root crops in your summer cottage.

Read also:

  • Planting and growing table beets in the open field ... →
  • The best varieties of table beets with photos and descriptions ... →

Care after landing

After planting in open ground, the vegetable needs care. But for gardeners, it will not be a burden, since the plants are quite unpretentious.

Watering

This crop loves moisture, so watering should be done regularly. For 1 sq. m should be poured 12-15 liters of water.

How often should the garden be watered? There is no definite answer to this question. Gardeners are advised to check soil moisture to determine if watering is required. To do this, you need to stick your finger in the ground. If the top layer is dry, but moisture is felt at the lower levels, then there is no need to water the beets.

Soil moisture can be determined differently if you don't want to mess around in the mud. The garden shovel is stuck into the ground: if soil sticks to it in clods, then watering can be postponed for several days.

When the watering can is carried over the beet plants, the pressure of the water must remain uniform so that the soil receives the same amount of moisture.

Thinning and loosening

Beets are thinned out twice a season. The first time you need to thin out the plantings, when the plants have two leaves. The second thinning is carried out during the period when four true leaves appear. The distance between medium-fruited plants should be about 15 cm, for large-fruited varieties it is increased to 20-25 cm.

In order for the plants to receive the required amount of oxygen, the soil is periodically loosened. It is not necessary to significantly deepen the tool when loosening, otherwise the root crops can be damaged.

Loosening beets after watering and rains throughout the season will have a beneficial effect on the formation of the crop.

Hilling beets in the event that the roots protrude above the surface of the soil.

Top dressing

Even fertile land begins to gradually deplete when cultivated plants grow, and then fruit begins to form. Beets more intensively than other plants pick up useful microelements from the soil, so they need more feeding. Basically, the procedure is done three times:

  • After the beets are thinned for the first time, they need to be fed. During this period, the plant needs nitrogen. Fertilizers containing this element, ammonium nitrate, azofoska, urea or ammonium sulfate, are applied according to the instructions.
  • The second feeding comes after the next thinning. Ammonium nitrate is added to the soil, it is easily absorbed by plants.
  • During the formation of root crops, the soil is fertilized with potassium chloride or superphosphate: per 1 sq. m is taken from 10 to 15 g of fertilizer.

If the fruits form local lignification, the beets can be fed with boron (2 g per bucket of water)

Periodically, beets can be fed with weed infusion. This is one of the safest, yet useful organic fertilizers.


Storage of fodder beets

Many people know how difficult it is sometimes to store fodder beets. In too warm rooms, root crops become sluggish, and in insufficiently ventilated rooms, they are affected by various fungal diseases. The optimal temperature for their content is + 5˚С. Such conditions are often found in cellars, basements or earthen pits. If these rooms are too warm, then specially equipped storage facilities are built. Good ventilation and temperature conditions (1-2 ° C) guarantee excellent keeping quality of fruits.

Some farmers use heaps for storage, which are installed in elevated areas with deep groundwater.

When building them, they adhere to the following parameters:

  • maximum length - 30 m
  • width - up to 3 m
  • height - about 1.7 m.

A mound 170 cm high is made of vegetables. This mountain is densely covered with straw and then earth. The thickness of such a layer can be up to 60 cm.

At the same time, along the entire storage, an exhaust pipe is placed at the top, and at the base - 2 supply air ducts, the distance between which should be about 150 cm.

A control tube and a thermometer are installed inside such a shoulder. These devices will help monitor the state of the microclimate inside the structure.

In the southern regions of the country, where the soil freezes later than usual and not very deeply, ground piles with pits (about 20 cm) are relevant. At this stage, the stage of growing and caring for fodder beets ends. Now the farmer only has to correctly calculate the harvest so that it will be enough for all the winter months.

Preservation of fodder beets until the new harvest - video


Processing beets and carrots before storage

Before storing root crops, disinfect the basement or cellar. Treat the walls and floor with a solution of bleach (400 g of substance per 10 liters of water) or fumigate the room with a sulfur stick.

To prevent damage to root crops by phomosis during storage, 20 days before harvesting, treat the plants with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.

For storage, lay only healthy and undamaged vegetables, after sprinkling them with Fitosporin-M (15 ml per 10 l of water) or infusion of onion peels (400 g per 10 l of water to insist for 5 days). Before laying in the cellar, pickle the mother roots in a solution of Fitosporin-M (30 ml per 10 l of water).

Periodically check root crops and remove damaged by rot, and sprinkle healthy ones next to them with chalk.

To save beets and carrots from diseases and pests will help not only their timely processing, but also compliance with crop rotation, plant care rules, weed control and harvesting plant residues.


Watch the video: Sugar beet diseases


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