The most significant varieties of plum


Multiple plum

Altai jubilee. A tree with a highly rounded crown. It begins bearing fruit in the fourth year.

Ripe fruits are yellowish-orange with a bright red blush, have a very good taste and reach a weight of 17 grams. Fruits ripen in mid-August.

The variety is very productive, fruits with a lagging stone, plants are resistant to damping.


Hungarian Moscow. The variety is self-fertile (even a plant planted in a single copy can bear fruit). It is appreciated for its fairly high and regular yield and excellent fruit quality. The tree of this variety reaches a height of three meters, has a rounded and spreading crown, drooping branches and forms quite a lot of growth. Winter hardiness in the absence of extreme winters is good. Plants obtained from coppice shoots begin to bear fruit as early as 5-7 years, giving an annual yield of up to 35 kg per tree.

The fruits of the Hungarian Moscow round-oval shape, dark red with a bluish-purple bloom, reach a weight of 22-28 g and have a pleasant taste. The stone is medium in size, separates very well from the pulp. The fruits of this variety ripen very amicably, usually in the first half of September. They ripen well in prone conditions, if removed unripe.

Hungarian Pulkovo - a variety that is well propagated both by root suckers and by grafting. The trees of this variety are quite vigorous, with a sparse and spreading crown. Seedlings obtained by grafting enter fruiting earlier than coppice plantings by 2-3 years (3-4 years of growth). The yield of the Hungarian is high, perhaps this is also due to the fact that the variety is self-fertile.

Ripe fruits are oval, red in color and weigh 20-25 g. They usually ripen in the second half of September. The pulp of the fruit is yellowish and sweet and sour. The oval-shaped bone is very easy to separate from the pulp.


Golden cornfield. This is a short shrub (no more than 2 meters) with a wide crown and branches raised upward. Bears fruit annually. For its size, this variety gives a good harvest - up to 15 kg of fruits from a bush, which differ in keeping quality, golden-yellow color and weighing up to 13 g. Ripening occurs in the second half of August.

The flesh is yellow, juicy, sweet and tastes very good.


Zarechnaya early. A medium-sized tree with a spherical and non-thickened crown. Begins fruiting in the 3-4th year. Ripe fruits are oval-round, dark purple in color with an average weight of 38.3 g.

The pulp of the fruit is amber, juicy, sour-sweet. The stone is medium in size, separates very well from the pulp.

The variety is quite disease resistant.


Spark. A medium-sized tree, at a young age having a wide-pyramidal crown, later it acquires a rounded shape. This variety reproduces very well with the help of budding or root shoots.

The variety is very early maturing, has no periodicity and is highly productive.

The fruits of the Iskra variety are dark red, reach a mass of 15-17 g, have a juicy and sweet-sour pulp. The stone is small, separates very well from the pulp.


Compote. This bush, reaching a height of three meters, has a sparse, spreading, medium-leafed crown with branches raised upwards.

The fruits reach a mass of 5-6 g, have a round shape, amber-yellow color and ripen in the second half of August. The pulp of the fruit is greenish-yellow, friable, juicy and sour-sweet in taste.

The yield is stable and annual, reaching 15-20 kg per bush.


Red-cheeked - a tree of this variety has a high-round crown. The variety is rather fast-growing, begins to bear fruit in the 4th-5th year.

The fruits begin to ripen from the second half of August, the ripe ones have a burgundy color and a light waxy coating and gain weight up to 10 g.

The variety is fruitful, winter-hardy, quite resistant to damping.


Rakitovaya. A medium-sized tree with a pyramidal crown and growing rather quickly.

The ripe fruits of this variety (in the 2-3 decade of August) are rather small, have a rounded blue color and a weight of up to 12 g. The fruit pulp is yellow, juicy, very pleasant sweet and sour taste. The stone is small, well separated from the pulp.

The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness, disease resistance and low pest attack.


Rakityanskaya - a tree reaching a height of 3 meters has a wide and spreading crown, prone to thickening.

The fruits of this variety reach a weight of 20 g, have a yellow color and a rounded shape. Fruit pulp is yellow, juicy, very good taste. Fruits ripen in the second half of August.

The yield of the variety is much higher if there are other varieties in the garden that bloom at the same time.


Record - a winter-hardy, high-yielding variety that begins to bear fruit in the third year. Differs in amicable ripening, which is usually observed at the end of August.

The fruits have an elongated oval shape, blue color, waxy bloom and a mass equal to 35-38 g. The pulp is yellowish-green, rather tender, dense and juicy, sweet and sour in taste. The fruit is of fairly good quality. The stone, although large, is very easily separated from the pulp.

Renklode Tenkovsky. The plant of this variety is a medium-sized tree with a spreading crown of medium density. The variety enters fruiting in the third year.

The first fruits ripen in the third decade of August and have an oval-rounded shape and dark red color. The pulp is tender, sweet-sour taste and amber-yellow. Its stone is medium in size, it separates very well from the pulp.

The positive qualities of the variety are high transportability of fruits and excellent winter hardiness of plants.


Selenite. A tree that reaches four meters in height and has a well-leafy crown, prone to thickening. The variety enters fruiting in the fourth year; when ripe, it forms fruits weighing up to 12 g of unequally round shape and satisfactory taste. There is a slight bitterness in the skin.

Fruits begin to ripen in the second half of August, they are distinguished by high keeping quality.

Of the advantages of the variety, regular fruiting and productivity can be noted, often exceeding 12 kg per tree.


Seligran. Plants of this variety are tall trees with a wide crown prone to thickening.

Fruits are small, rarely exceed the weight of 12 g, are ovoid, dark red in color and waxy bloom. The pulp is light orange, dense, fresh-sweet, very pleasant to the taste. The fruits begin to ripen in the second half of August, they are distinguished by keeping quality.

The yield of the variety reaches 10 kg, and with proper care it can produce up to 15 kg.


The early ripening is large. The variety is winter-hardy with an annual and high yield.

Fruits are oval-rounded, red-violet, weighing up to 34 g, usually ripen in the first half of August. The pulp is orange-yellow, rather juicy, slightly acidic, but due to its high sugar content, it has a very pleasant taste. The stone is large, but separates very well from the pulp.


Tula black. Sprawling tree with an attractive dense crown.

Fruits are round-oval, black and weighing up to 20 g. The first fruits ripen in late August - early September. Fruit pulp is yellow with a reddish tinge, rather juicy, medium density, sweet. The stone separates well from the pulp and is of medium size.

The harvest is annual and quite high - up to 60 kg per tree.


Tenkovskaya blue - a fast-growing medium-sized tree with a spreading, but not dense crown. Plants of this variety enter fruiting in the 5-6th year.

Fruits are relatively small, oval, dark blue in color, weighing up to 14 g, usually ripen late - in mid-September. Under the skin of medium density, there is a yellow, juicy, sweet and sour pulp and a well-separated medium-sized pit.

The positive quality of the variety is its high winter hardiness.


Memory of Timiryazev. Plants of this variety are vigorous trees with a rounded spreading crown.

The variety is moderately hardy, but this disadvantage is more than compensated for by the very tasty, amicably ripening fruits of an egg-shaped, yellowish color with a red blush, weighing up to 25 g.


Pioneer. A tree reaching a height of three meters with a wide and spreading crown.

The variety enters fruiting in the fourth year, gives fruits, reaching a mass of 10-12 g, oblong-oval, orange-red with a waxy bloom. The pulp of the fruit is golden yellow, juicy, freshly sweet, very good taste. The first plums ripen in early August, and the annual harvest reaches 15 kg per tree.


Chemalskaya. Plants of this variety are medium-sized trees with a spreading crown. They begin to bear fruit in the 4th-5th year.

The fruits ripen in late August - early September. Fruits are one-dimensional, dark red with a snow-white waxy bloom, weighing up to 15 g.

Of the positive qualities of this variety, it should be noted the high commercial qualities of the fruits, normal seed separation, high yield and winter hardiness.


Sherishevskaya. Medium tree with medium crown density. It starts bearing fruit in the 4th year.

The variety gives small fruits of a dark red color weighing up to 14 g, ripening in the third decade of August. The peel of the fruit is of medium density, the pulp is sweet and sour. The stone is medium, well separated from the pulp.

The variety is quite winter hardy.

Nikolay Khromov,
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,

Photo by the author

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The most significant plum varieties - garden and vegetable garden


It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that complicated. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.

So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.

To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.

They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.

Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.

Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.

Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.

Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).

Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).

Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.

Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.

Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.

Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but it is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).

Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.

The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.

The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.

When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.

The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.


Care rules

The unpretentiousness of the Zolotaya Plum variety distinguishes it very favorably from its traditional rivals. However, we must not forget about the elementary care of the plant, which implies, first of all, regular watering of the root system. In this regard, it should be remembered that water stagnation must be avoided, which can harm the health of this fruit tree.

In addition, it is important not to forget about plant feeding, which should be carried out at the very beginning of the spring season. This must be done for the plum to grow and develop properly. It will not hurt to pay attention to aesthetic splendor. To do this, it is necessary to annually cut off excess and protruding branches, which violate the formation of a perfectly rounded crown shape.

In order to prevent the most common mistakes when caring for the "Golden Plum", you should carefully read them.

Landing frequency. There are a lot of cases when, in pursuit of yield, the owners of garden plots allow too dense planting of plants. This leads to the fact that the natural development of the crown and root system is disrupted.

Fertilizers. It is important to remember that improper nutrition of a fruit tree will inevitably lead to its illness and even death. In this context, the optimal consumption rates of mineral fertilizers should be taken into account. After all, the oversaturation of the soil with them can cause the amount of salt in the soil to increase, and the plum will begin to freeze in winter. And this, in turn, will lead to poor development of tree branches, a decrease in the quantity and quality of fruits.

Pollinators. Due to the fact that the variety "Golden Plum" belongs to a self-fertile species, this plant requires special pollination. In this sense, it is necessary to monitor the required number of pollinators and their correct selection. That is, plants with similar flowering periods should grow in the garden next to the plum.


Plum Columnar

This type of plum appeared in our country several decades ago. But many gardeners liked it. Its main difference can be considered an extremely narrow crown - 80 cm. Columnar plum varieties are convenient to plant in small areas, since they do not have spreading branches. But such plants have a significant drawback - they do not tolerate low temperatures.

Colonial plum is not distinguished by a large number of varieties.

The most famous:

  • Imperial (pink fruit)
  • Mirabelle (yellow berries)
  • Blue Sweet (purple fruit)

These are small trees, about 2 m high, give up to 16 kg of fruit. They can be used both fresh and for jam, jam, etc. Fruiting begins at the 3rd year of life. The yield is growing every year.

Imperial

  • Bred by Russian breeders. It has not yet become widespread in our country. Low-growing trees do not grow higher than 2.5 m. They do not tolerate drought, but are frost-resistant.
  • The low plant height makes it easier to care for them. They practically do not need to be cut, the harvesting process does not require the use of a ladder.
  • In areas with cold winters, young seedlings need to be additionally covered.
  • Its fruits are round in shape, weighing 45-60 g. Formed one year after planting in a permanent place. The thick rind is colored in different shades of pink, purple. But there are specimens of a darker color. Inside, they are yellow, juicy, pleasant to the taste.
  • Fruiting occurs in mid-August. One plant pleases 10-12 kg of berries. They do not immediately crumble from the tree, so you can collect them gradually.
  • "Imperial" can be transported and stored unprocessed for up to 1.5 weeks. The quality of the fruits allows you to prepare compotes, preserves, jams from them.


Early renclaude

This early variety of plum was bred in Ukraine, but it is successfully cultivated in cooler regions, since the plant has good winter hardiness.

A plum tree can reach a height of 5 m. At the end of July, large fruits (weighing 40-50 g) of a round shape ripen on it. The skin is dense, yellow, covered with a waxy coating. Sometimes a golden orange blush appears on it. The pulp is greenish-yellow, juicy and sweet, with a honey flavor and aroma.

Early renclaude has long managed to fall in love with many gardeners due to its very tasty fruits and high yield. However, this variety is self-fertile, therefore, it is necessary to plant plums of one of the varieties nearby: Renklod Karbysheva, Hungarian Donetsk, Hungarian early Donetsk.


Early

All early varieties bear fruit in July and early August. The best according to the opinion of breeders and gardeners can be found in the description below.

July

The tree has an average height and medium foliage, grows well in areas with abundant sunlight on moderately moist soils. When planting, you can expect from 3 years of cultivation for a yield of 12 kg per tree.

Red fruits with sweet yellow flesh ripen at the end of July. The average weight of the fruit is about 30 g, the shape is ovoid. The fruit is best suited for making desserts and preserving.

Zarechnaya early

This kind of plum has fruits with yellow pulp and a pleasant sour taste. There is a slight waxy coating on the fruit surface. Trees bear fruit regularly, giving off an average of 15 kg of plums per year, which ripen by mid-July. Zarechnaya early is best suited for harvesting conservation.

Early

This variety of plum is distinguished by its red fruits with juicy aromatic pulp. Ripening occurs from late July to mid-August. Productivity - average, from 4 years of growth is about 10 kg per tree. This variety is a dessert one.

The trees of this early variety are distinguished by a dense crown and medium height. The fruits are purple-red, oval in shape, have a thick waxy bloom. The pulp is juicy, dense, there is a slight sour taste. This variety is favorably distinguished by such qualities as frost resistance and good immunity to various diseases, the ability to store fruits for up to 2 months in a cool room, as well as a high yield - about 20 kg from one tree.

Peach

This is a medium-sized plant with a not very dense crown and large fruits weighing about 40-50 g. But there are also fruits weighing up to 70 g. Fruits are very beautiful - yellow-green, have a purple blush, dense, juicy pulp, sweet and sour taste. An early variety of Peach plum does not withstand low temperatures too well, therefore it will be acceptable, for example, for planting in the Crimea. But it is favorably distinguished by excellent immunity to diseases.

Candy

This variety belongs to the category of ultra-early. The trees reach a height of 3 meters, but at the same time they look quite compact. The fruits are medium in size, weighing about 40 g, have a thin burgundy skin and a bluish bloom. This is the sweetest plum with a honey-yellow pulp.

An excellent variety for planting in central Russia and Ukraine, as it firmly tolerates frosts up to 20 degrees and does not succumb to diseases familiar to plums.

Ksenia

This variety is versatile in terms of the use of fruits. The trees are quite low, the fruit is oval in shape and weighs about 40 g. The color is yellow with a red blush. The taste is juicy and sweet. Fruiting irregularly, but hibernates quite well.


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