Blueberry is a common shrub in Central Europe that is rapidly gaining popularity in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other neighboring countries. Since its berries have exceptional beneficial properties - a high content of vitamin C and other minerals and vitamins, it is essential in the diet of every healthy person. However, many summer residents refuse to grow it just because they do not know how to grow blueberries correctly. Although this shrub is not at all whimsical to care for and does not require much effort, only a few nuances must be observed when growing blueberries.
Industrial cultivation of blueberries is carried out only on acidic soils. The plant grows well on sandy and sandy loam substrates, peat bogs. To significantly improve the water regime and soil fertility, rotted deciduous litter is used. In a garden plot, you can create such a soil using sour high-moor peat, sawdust, bark, foliage or other materials, increasing the acidity of the soil to 3.7-4.8 units (pH) using sulfur, citric, acetic or malic acid.
Moderate soil moisture is one of the main conditions for successful blueberry cultivation. Therefore, it is not worth planting it in areas lying in lowlands, since in such cases there is a risk of waterlogging.
In a plant that grows for a long time in places with an excess of moisture, the roots begin to quickly rot and die off, and the bush itself stops its development and ceases to bear fruit. At the dacha, you should choose the most illuminated place for planting blueberries, at the same time protected from strong winds. In partial shade, the yield will be much lower, and the quality of the berries will deteriorate. In addition, with a lack of light, the growth of shoots is lengthened in time, and before the first frost they do not always have time to lignify, as a result of which they can freeze in winter.
It is profitable to plant several varieties of blueberries in the garden. Such a mixed planting of various varieties not only allows to ensure good pollination and obtain high yields, but also significantly improve the taste of berries and reduce their ripening time. If the plot is large enough, you can start a home business by growing blueberries from seeds for sale.
Blueberry planting scheme
Low-growing blueberry varieties are planted at a distance of 70-80 cm from each other, strong and medium-sized ones - at a distance of 90-120 cm. Planting holes are prepared earlier, 40-50 cm deep and 60-70 cm in diameter. On loamy heavy soils, the pit is made at a shallower depth of 20-30 cm, but wider and an additional drainage layer of 10-15 cm is equipped or blueberries are planted on the ridge.
For planting, I use two- and three-year-old seedlings with a closed, developed root system. The pot with the plant immediately before planting is immersed for 20-25 minutes in a container of water to saturate the roots and earthy clod with moisture. After that, the seedlings are carefully removed from the pot, kneading the ball with your hands. A young bush is turned upside down, the root ball is cut to a depth of 5-7 cm crosswise or torn with hands, starting from the middle.
A small amount of high-moor peat is poured at the bottom of the pit, fertilizers are not applied, a seedling is placed there, spreading the roots in different directions and also covered with prepared acidic soil. The plant is buried 6-7 cm above the level of the coma in the pot. After that, the earth is slightly compacted, a shallow hole is made around the bush and watered abundantly. Then the near-trunk zone is mulched with sawdust in a layer of 7-9 cm.
Planting scheme for blueberries on various soils
Constant moderate watering, without swamping the soil and preventing it from drying out, is an important condition for good survival and development of bushes. Watering is carried out by fine drip irrigation or by drip irrigation of the soil around the bush directly.
In the summer period in mid-July and August, the plant should be watered twice a day - in the morning and in the evening, 2-3 times a week, at the rate of 1.5-2 buckets for each bush. During this period, abundant watering is very important, because simultaneously with fruiting, flower buds of the harvest for the next year are laid on the bushes. The lack of moisture will be reflected in its significant decrease, both this year and next.
In an especially hot, stuffy time, the bushes should be cooled by spraying them with cool water in the daytime at 12-13 hours. With such a simple manipulation of agricultural technology, the rate of photosynthesis increases and the stress from overheating of the plant is minimized. Mulching plantings with needles, rotted leaves, straw or sawdust not only slows down the germination of weed seeds, but also allows you to retain moisture in the soil and even out its temperature. The mulching layer is maintained with a height of 7-12 cm. When mulching with fresh bark or sawdust, additional nitrogen fertilizers should be added so as not to slow down the growth and development of the bushes.
Blueberries react to a lack of fertilizer, especially tall varieties like Canada. The first feeding with complex mineral fertilizers, such as Azofosk or Fertik, is carried out in early spring, when the buds swell, the second - during flowering, the third - when small berries appear, but no later than July 1. Depending on the age of the bush, a different dose of fertilizer is applied per season: for a two- and three-year-old bush - 10-20 g, for a four-year-old - 40 g, for a five-year-old dose 70-80 g, for an older plant - 150-160 g.
One of the common mistakes is the application of organic fertilizers. Blueberry variety Canada and others not only do not tolerate compost, manure and chicken droppings, but can also die after using them. Also, many gardeners ignore such an important measure as maintaining optimal soil acidity. For this, twice a month from April to September, each bush is watered with a weak solution of citric acid - 5-12 g per 3 liters of water, or vinegar. 180-200 ml for 8-10 liters of water.
High fruiting is ensured only with regular spring pruning of the bushes. At the same time, diseased branches lying on the ground and small bushy growth at the base are removed. If the bushes are older than 5-6 years, part of the branches with flowering buds should be cut out, leaving only a few shoots up to 6-8 years old, and 4-6 of the most developed ones are left from annuals. In the bushes of the spreading type, the lower drooping branches are removed, in the bushes of the upright type, the middle is thinned out.
When removing weeds around the planting, it should be borne in mind that blueberries have roots very close to the soil surface. Therefore, between row processing is carried out using herbicides or not deep weeding. Most often they are sown with stunted grasses, which are mowed several times during the season and left to rot.
How to grow blueberries, what are the nuances in caring for bushes, which is the key to high yields, this video tells.
Berry crops in all their widest variety, it seems, have already firmly and forever settled in our gardens, occupied our golden hectares of land, have grown and give harvests. Undoubtedly, the vitamin benefits of the fruits of these plants, they help to strengthen the health of gardeners, to fight diseases.
Blueberry cultivation - this is not news abroad. There, this culture has long become industrial, profitable. Its fruits can be found freely in city supermarkets. In our country, blueberries are still the property of individual enthusiastic gardeners.
Exhausted by worldly vanity, tiring hard work, a person in his garden finds solace in berries dear to the heart and so dear to the body - bright scarlet like raspberries, yellow like sea buckthorn, green like the king of gooseberries, black like currants and, of course , in sky blue, like honeysuckle and blueberry. If you won't surprise anyone with the first berries from this list, then you can still surprise many with blueberries. This culture is multivitamin, relatively easy to care for and very interesting. It is here that, when growing it, you can kill two birds with one stone - and surprise your neighbors with outlandish berries, and pamper your body with a variety in the season when its bush, like a New Year's tree, is covered with balls of berries, and in winter, when the caring master's hands get out of the cellar yes will open a jar or two of the most fragrant blueberry jam.
Tall blueberries are cultivated in culture, it differs from the familiar to many blueberries of marsh or marsh growth and even more calm, docile nature. It will not die on ordinary soil, it will humbly grow and give generally good harvests, but in all its glory it will open before you only on acidic soils... Maybe it is in this property that lies the lack of a rush demand for plant seedlings?
Although true connoisseurs and lovers of blue berries - blueberries, this does not stop. For a long time, to acidify the soil, amateur gardeners used improvised means, literally everyone could be given a Ph.D. degree for a correctly delivered experience. Someone plentifully watered the soil with acid from a battery, someone diluted citric acid powder and abundantly “flavored” with them the area sacrificed to the majestic blueberries. Both were right, but what else could they do?
Now, when the twenty-first century is outside the window, you can act less blasphemously and use it for the full production of blueberry berries sour peat... It is sold everywhere and is inexpensive, and so that the soil is neutral or, even worse, alkaline does not dissolve it in itself without a trace, the hole in which the seedling is placed and covered with acidic peat is pre-compacted with ordinary film as for sheltering greenhouses. Polyethylene dissolves in the soil for an extremely long time - it will be enough for your lifetime, thereby helping blueberries to grow actively. Well, and all you have to do is choose the variety you like and take care of the crop conscientiously, collecting stable yields.
By the way, oh blueberry varieties... To date, a fairly large number of them have already been created, there is plenty to choose from: this is both a large-fruited and a tall variety. Rankocas, an amazingly tasty variety Erliblu, romantic variety Weymouth, good old grade Blue Ray and a variety known to everyone due to its winter hardiness Jersey... All these varieties will feel good in the center of Russia, and even a little further north. If you are afraid for your harvest, then simply cover the trunk circle with sour peat in autumn, throw more snow on the plants, or, if the frost does not want to be friends with the snow, cover it with a light and reliable lutrasil.
The main thing when growing blueberries - this is not to be afraid to take risks, you will have to run around with a watering can during a drought period, fight with weeds, when the plants are still very young, and even drive birds that adore overripe fruits. But all the effort is worth these large and surprisingly tasty, juicy, nutritious and healthy berries of tender blueberries. It is worth eating a small handful of its berries during the season, and you will forget about headache, lack of appetite, nervousness and eye fatigue, and your blueberries will tighten up your immunity quite well. They say that 50g of fresh or frozen blueberries per day is the first step to perfect health.
If we talk about the harvest, then the first beads of berries ripen in sultry August, usually when the first leaves, dressed in an autumn outfit, are torn from the trees. The ripening period of each bush stretches for about a week. This will help you enjoy fresh fruits with a thin waxy bloom of rich bluish-violet color for a longer time.
When picking blueberries, take your time, do not use large containers for harvest, it is better to take those that can hold no more than a kilogram, otherwise the upper heavy berries can crush those below, in cramped conditions. Alas, such fruits will not lie at all, but whole ones, and even plucked a little ahead of time, can lie for a month in a simple household refrigerator.
Nikolay Khromov, Researcher, Candidate of Science GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin Russian Agricultural Academy, Scientific Secretary of ANIRR Photo by the author
Views: 10654 Posted: 20-09-2011, 08:59 Comments: 2 Posted by NnzxXsiemens75
To grow berries in the country that traditionally grow in forests seems to be a very tempting task for many. Blueberry agrotechnics is not difficult, but it requires taking into account the peculiarities of natural growth.
Not to ruin the plant - this is the main task of the owner of the garden and vegetable garden. The established blueberry bushes in three to four years will begin to bear fruit abundantly, delighting the owners with an ever-increasing yield (3-7 kg per bush after 6 years of age).
Blueberry bushes, also known under a dozen popular names, belong to heather. The plant is widespread in many territories of the Northern Hemisphere: forests, tundra, in the mountains, even on bog bumps. The height of the bush is usually 30 - 50 cm, although it can reach a meter. The plant is frost-resistant, the bush is a long-liver, reaching even a century old.
The stems are light, almost completely lignified, the leaves are up to 3 cm, the berries are blue with a bloom, the juice is colorless. The plant is self-pollinating, which makes it not particularly difficult to grow. Juice and jam are made from berries, they are eaten raw. The composition contains a significant content of vitamin C, antioxidants. The use is good for vision, lowering sugar, strengthening the blood vessels of the heart, digestion. Promotes the prevention of oncology.
Several rules of agricultural technology
1. The soil. Adequate, but not excessive acidity is required: pH 4.0-5.0. Above 5.5, there is a chance of chlorosis and plant death. Agronomist's advice is to pay attention to drainage, especially in clayey soils. To improve the air permeability of the soil cover of 6 acres, the addition of sand, peat, peat-sand mixture is required. You can acidify the soil with colloidal sulfur.
2. Landing. On clayey, loamy areas of the site, planting is carried out on the ridge, and not in the hole. A hole 5-8 cm deep, freed from soil, is filled with high-moor peat, sand-peat mixture with perlite, sawdust. A mound is formed, on top of which a blueberry bush is planted. The bush is surrounded by a layer of mulch, 5-8 cm high. The seedlings need 2-3 years old, with developed roots.
3.Lighting. Requires 100% illumination, no shading, protection from winds, especially from the north.
4. Top dressing. In the spring, mineral fertilizers are applied:
• ammonium sulphate (90-100 g per adult plant), and under the bushes mulched with sawdust, a double rate is required
• potassium sulfate (40 g per bush)
• superphosphate (105-110g)
• magnesium sulfate (15-20g)
• a mixture of trace elements (up to 2 g per bush).
5. Watering. Moderate, excluding moisture stagnation. Be sure to periodically mulch the site.
6. Formation... The first two years from the moment of planting in the country, it is advisable to remove flowers, on the 3-4th - to form a crown by cutting off excess shoots and dry shoots. With a large increase in shoots, pruning occurs annually, with moderate - every two or three.
7. Spraying... Produced in spring several times before fruiting, in autumn - before harvest (7-10 days interval). Applied products: fungicides (benomyl, euparen, rovral, kuprozan, topsinM, etc.) at a concentration of 2 g / l of water.
8. In winter, the bushes endure frosts down to -25 ° C. At -35-40 ° C, the part unprotected by snow can freeze in blueberries (it is restored during the growing season).You can cover the berry on 6 acres in the middle of autumn with spandbond (lutrasil) or other covering material.
Recently, more and more plants have begun to appear in gardens that were previously considered forest or marsh. Increasingly, gardeners and summer residents are planting on plots garden blueberries, especially since her seedlings are now on sale. However, this plant has its own specific requirements for growing conditions. And it's no surprise that sometimes gardeners fail.
First of all, it must be remembered that successful cultivation is possible only if the soil is properly prepared.
The first and the most important condition: for the successful cultivation of this crop, the soil must be acidic: pH 4.0-5.0 but not higher than 5.5, otherwise the blueberry will develop chlorosis and die. Most garden soils are not acidic enough to grow cultivated blueberries. And therefore, yellowish leaves soon begin to appear on the planted bushes, the bushes almost stop growing, and then completely die.
Second condition - the soil must be well water-permeable and air-permeable (i.e. it can be sand, peat, peat-sand mixture, etc.). Very often, gardeners think that since blueberries and blueberries grow in swamps, then they need to arrange something similar to a swamp on the site. But this is not the case. Heather plants do not grow in the swamp itself, but on hummocks, and stagnant moisture leads to souring of the roots and death of plants. How can such conditions be achieved?
Choosing a place for the bushes. A prerequisite is to choose the right place where you will plant blueberry bushes. It should be sunny. Protection from the wind is also desirable, especially from the north side. It is a misconception that blueberries and blueberries love the shade, since they grow in the forest. For the plant to bear fruit well, choose places that are open to the sun, but protected from the wind. Some partial shade is also possible.
Soil preparation. If the soil on your site is the most common, that is, not acidic, then 5-6 buckets of soil are taken out of the planting pit 40-50 cm deep and 1 m in diameter. The pit is insulated with boards, polyethylene or pieces of tin - only from the sides - the walls of the pit to prevent widespread roots and silting. If the soil is heavy, clayey, then the bottom of the pit is laid out with small stones, broken red brick, forming a drainage.
The soil from the pits is mixed in a 2: 1 ratio with peat chips, rotted oak leaves, crushed by kitchen cleanings, and even better - with partially rotted pine-spruce needles from the nearest forest. For heavy soils, river sand is also added. All these works must be carried out in a timely manner so that the soil in the pits has time to settle.
We plant heather crops not in a hole, but on a crest. For this, the soil is taken out to a depth of 20-40 cm. The excavated soil is scattered around the future landing site. Peat with sand is poured in the form of a mound, and a blueberry bush is planted in its center.
The soil surface around the bush is mulched (the thickness of the mulch layer is 5-8 cm). The mulch layer retains moisture in the root zone, regulates the temperature of this layer, improves the illumination of the bush, destroys weeds and prevents the development of diseases.
Watering blueberries and blueberries no more than watering beets, carrots, potatoes and other crops.
If your soil is not acidic enough, you can acidify it by adding colloidal sulfur or adding sulfuric acid to the water. The easiest way to do this is to use electrolyte for filling acid batteries. 1 ml of electrolyte per 1 liter of water changes the pH from 7 to 5 units. Watering with such water is not necessary often - 1 time in 7-10 waterings.
There is another option for acidifying the soil: a year before planting the plants, they put powdered sulfur into it (250 g per 1 m2 of land) or apply such mineral fertilizers as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, urea (no more than 20 g), potassium sulfate, nitroammofosk (add no more than 10 g for each square meter).
The main thing is not to overdo it with doses.
Fertilizers. The application of organic fertilization, especially on light, sandy soils, as well as on soils poor in humus, is an important measure for increasing yields of cultivated blueberries. Well-rotted manure, nutrient-rich compost or peat chips enriched with nutrients such as bird droppings and mineral fertilizers are all suitable for providing organic fertilizers to the bushes.
In no case should you use fresh manure (only well-rotted) or lime, as they affect plants.
You can use a complex fertilizer for rhododendrons - a handful in a pit.
Mineral fertilization, along with providing the bushes with nutrients, should also help regulate the reaction of the soil. On soils with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0, only ammonium sulfate, potassium magnesium sulfate (potassium and magnesium sulfate) and superphosphate should be used.
Of diseases on blueberries, the following are noted: stem cancer, drying of the tips of the shoots, gray rot. To protect plants from them, fungicides are used (euparen, benomyl, rovral, topsinM, cuprozan, etc.) at a concentration of 0.2% (2 g per 1 l of water). Spray several times in the spring before the fruit is formed and in the fall after harvest (interval 7-10 days).
Valery Svistunov, gardener
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
I would like to know your advice on the technique of growing blueberries, and the demand for it, is there any point in growing this tasty and healthy berry, and will it grow in Central Ukraine? in particular Vinnytsia?
Put the question more broadly - is there any point in doing anything at all?
For this culture, the darkness is the darkness of the sites. Unfortunately, your region is completely unsuitable for growing garden blueberries. Blueberries grow well on acidic soils (when there is a lot of sand or gravel in the soil). In addition, the groundwater must be close enough to the surface. This is basic. It doesn't follow from the above that blueberries won't grow in your garden. It will, but the labor costs will be huge - you will have to regularly acidify the soil (water it with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid), etc.
However, in any region, the soil is not uniform and you can find a suitable site for yourself (blueberries). In order not to go into tedious theory, I would advise you to turn your attention to indicator plants. These are the kind of plants that grow beautifully where conditions are ideal for blueberries. I don't remember all the plants, but the two main ones - horse sorrel and field horsetail, I remember well.
If you see a field overgrown with horse sorrel and horsetail - feel free to plant your blueberry garden on it .. But before that, do not forget to ask if it may already belong to someone ..
With the marketing of this culture, you will not have problems in the next ten years. The Germans take everything under the net.
It is better to buy seedlings in Poland.
Blueberries are quite resistant to garden pests and are rarely affected by insects. However, in the spring, May beetles and beetles eating leaves and flowers can be dangerous for her. Sometimes scabies, aphids, leafworms and caterpillars of pine silkworm settle on the leaves of the bush.
To get rid of pests, it is recommended to use insecticidal agents, such as Actellik or Karbofos. It is best not to wait for insect damage, but to treat the plants prophylactically - spraying should be carried out in early spring and after fruiting.
As for fungal ailments, most often garden blueberries suffer from the following diseases:
Almost always, diseases appear due to waterlogging of the soil, so it is necessary to carefully monitor the frequency of watering the plant. If ailments do appear, the plant must be treated with fungicidal preparations, for example, Fundazol or Topaz. It is recommended to carry out annual spring and autumn treatments with Bordeaux liquid for prevention purposes - in the fall, garden blueberries should be sprayed after harvest.
The main enemies of alstroemeria are:
Insecticides will cope with them. Under favorable conditions, alstroemeria rarely gets sick, but with high humidity there is a risk of developing such a fungal disease as gray rot.
Thanks to crossing, it was possible to obtain unique varieties of alstroemeria with impressive flowers, successfully grown not only as decoration for flower beds, but also for strong cut flowers. They retain their freshness for a long time, and due to the fact that the culture blooms before the onset of cold weather, it was able to find many fans.
All plant varieties are beautiful, and the advantage of culture is the lack of smell, so they can be safely used to create flower arrangements, to decorate mixed plantings, window sills and loggias.